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Chem-News June 1989

                                                 June 8, 1989
TO:  Contributors to the New York State Pesticide Recommendations
     (Redbook), the Cornell Recommends Series and Others Interested
     in Pesticide Information
FROM:   William G. Smith, Extension Associate
2(ee) Pesticide Recommendations
Section 18, Emergency Exemption Requests
USDA Charged With Minor Use Problem
Daminozide (Alar) Stop Sale
Mesurol Status
   Pesticide Tolerances
   Sulfur dioxide
   Hexythiazox (Savey)
   Triasulfuron (Amber)
   Iprodione (Rovral)
   Bromoxynil Relabeled
USDA Pesticide Benefits and EPA
New York Food Laboratory Report
2(ee) Pesticide Recommendations
For Cornell specialists making 2(ee) pesticide recommendations in the 
future, you must submit quantitative efficacy data or other reports that 
demonstrate the efficacy of your recommendations. The Department of 
Environmental Conservation (DEC) will no longer approve 2(ee)'s based on 
efficacy statements alone. If you are planning on making any new 2(ee) 
recommendations, send a letter of request and your data/reports to me 
and I will forward your request on to DEC. Allow a minimum of 60 days 
for DEC review/approval of your request.
Don Rutz, Chemicals-Pesticides Program
Cornell specialists who have submitted Section 18, emergency exemption 
requests in the past and are planning to do so for the 1990 growing 
season, please submit these requests prior to December 1, 1989.  The 
review process averages approximately four months by the DEC and EPA and 
requests submitted later than the above date may not be processed in 
time for the appropriate use.
William G. Smith, Chemicals-Pesticides Program
USDA Secretary Clayton Yeutter has been charged with solving the minor 
use problem by two Congressmen who provided directions on how it should 
be done. 
Reps. Brown (D-Calif. ) and Stallings (D-Idaho), in a May 10 letter to 
Yeutter, with a copy to EPA Administrator Reilly, directed that the 
department's first priority should be to develop a "crop/ pest/ disease/ 
region matrix to highlight problem areas as information about chemicals 
and registration decisions are obtained   Such a matrix would enable us 
to tell when a cancellation decision has left a given crop exposed to 
pest or disease damage." they noted:
"Using this matrix as an 'early warning system,' USDA and the states 
could search their research and extension programs to see if a viable 
alternative control methodology was available to control a pest or 
disease on a certain crop. It could also serve as a flag to the IR-4 
program to move any pending registration applications in problem areas 
to the front of the line. It would point out broader problem areas in 
pest and disease control by crop or region, which could serve as a 
priority-setting process for longer-term research and extension efforts. 
Finally, such an orderly review would function to give grower groups 
notice about upcoming problems."
The Congressmen further advised that USDA should be responsible for 
keeping all interested parties, especially growers, informed about 
pesticide regulatory decisions.
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/17/89
The Uniroyal Chemical Company has announced that it is temporarily 
halting all sales in the U.S. of their growth regulator, daminozide 
(Alar), until all the chemical data required for reregistration has been 
generated and reviewed by the EPA.  Sales of the pesticide will continue 
to other countries.
Also, the EPA has issued a preliminary determination ( 5/24/89 Federal 
Register ) to cancel all registrations of daminozide products that are 
used on food crops and to retain the daminozide non-food uses on 
ornamentals and bedding plants.
Federal Register, 5/24/89
The registration status of Mesurol 75 WP has recently been clarified by 
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  The EPA has conditionally 
approved an amendment for the use of Mesurol 75 WP, EPA Reg. No. 3125-
288, for use on cherries.  This conditional amendment expires on 
9/15/89. Mesurol 75 WP will not be sold, distributed or allowed to be 
used after 9/15/89.  The EPA did not approve an amendment for the use of 
Mesurol on blueberries.
Mobay Corporation, 5/1/89
Sulfur Dioxide Tolerance Established in or on Grapes 
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a tolerance of 
10.0 p.p.m. for sulfite residues in or on grapes resulting from use of 
the fungicide sulfur dioxide.  The EPA proposal had been based on a 
petition submitted by Uvas Quality Packaging.
The agency said 57 comments, "representing the California grape growing, 
shipping and packing industry as well as Chilean grape importers and 
sodium metabisulfite pad manufacturers, supported the establishment" of 
a tolerance for grapes.
Federal Register, 5/10/89
First Tolerance Established for Residues of Hexythiazox (Savey)
The first permanent tolerance was set for residues of hexythiazox 
(Savey) at 0.30 p.p.m. in or on pears, as had been petitioned by duPont. 
The acaricide is trans-5- ( 4-chlorophenyl) -N-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-2-
oxothiazolidine-3-carboxamide and its metabolites containing the (4-
chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-thiazolidine moiety .
Stating that it has classified hexythiazox as a Class C (possible human) 
oncogen, EPA noted that there was a significantly increased incidence of 
hepatocellular carcinomas and adenomas/carcinomas combined in female 
mice at 1,500 p.p.m., and that there was a significantly increased 
incidence of pre-neoplastic hepatic nodules in both males and females at 
1,500 p.p.m., the highest dose tested.
Classification as Category C rather than Category B, the agency said, 
"was based primarily on the fact that only one species was affected 
(mouse), mutagenicity assays did not support upgrading to a B 
classification, and the structure activity relationship of hexythiazox 
to other compounds supported a C classification. "
"Stating that risks from use of the acaricide on pears would be 
"extremely small," EPA stated that, "based on the highly conservative 
assumption that all pears are treated with hexythiazox and would bear 
residues at the proposed tolerance level,"  the oncogenic risk would be 
10-8. This, the agency said, is a "worst case" estimate. It added that 
it expects the percent of crop treated with hexythiazox in a typical 
year would be about 30%, with residue levels in pear juice and nectar 
not exceeding the 0.30 p.p.m. tolerance.  The agency concluded that "the 
proposed use of hexythiazox on pears will pose an extremely small risk 
to humans.... "
Also, EPA noted that duPont included the label restriction, "Do not 
graze or feed livestock on cover crops growing in treated areas."
EPA established an ADI for hexythiazox of 0.025 mg/kg/day based on a no 
observed effect level of 2.5 mg/kg/day in a l-year dog feeding study, 
and using a safety factor of 100. The agency said the theoretical 
maximum residue contribution from the tolerance is 0.000037 mg/kg/day or 
about 7.4% of the ADI.
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/3/89
Triasulfuron (Amber) Temporary Tolerances Granted
The EPA has granted Ciba-Geigy temporary tolerances for residues of 
triasulfuron (Amber) at 0.05 p.p.m. in meat, fat, and meat byproducts 
(excluding liver and kidney) of cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep; 
0.1 p.p.m. in or on wheat and barley grain, and in milk and liver of 
cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep; 0.5 p.p.m. in or on wheat and 
barley straw, and in kidney of cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep; 
5.0 p.p.m. in or on wheat and barley forage; and 15 p.p.m. in or on 
wheat and barley hay (dry forage).
The temporary tolerances for residues of the herbicide -- 2-(2-
amino)carbonyl]benzenesulfonamide expire Dec . 31, 1990 .
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/3/89
Proposed Extension of Iprodione (Rovral) Tolerances
EPA proposed extending some of the current tolerances for residues of 
the fungicide iprodione (Rovral) resulting from preharvest use to also 
cover residues from postharvest use. The inclusion of the phrase "pre- 
and postharvest" would apply to the tolerances of 20.0 p.p.m. in or on 
cherries (sweet), nectarines, peaches, and plums. The agency proposal, 
which is open for comments and/or advisory committee requests until May 
26, was based on a petition submitted by IR-4. 
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/3/89
Bromoxynil relabeling has been agreed to by EPA and the registrant, 
Rhone Poulenc, which will also: voluntarily cancel and recall the 
butyrate formulation because of a high skin absorbant rate, provide EPA 
with additional requested toxicity and exposure data, move toward 
packaging which would minimize mixer/loader exposure, and offer training 
programs for dealers and growers for the 1990 use season on handling the 
New labeling will be stickered on all bromoxynil containers within three 
weeks, EPA said. This new labeling includes a birth defects warning, 
restricted-use classification and protective clothing requirements. The 
birth defects warning is directed at pregnant women and concerns 
supernumerary ribs observed in dermal rat and rabbit studies.
EPA calculated a developmental no-observed effect level (NOEL) of 3.5 
mg/kg for bromoxynil octanoate.  On the label changes, EPA said the 
"Changes have been made on the labels to minimize exposure to both 
mixer/loaders and applicators of bromoxynil. Included in these measures 
are the classification of bromoxynil as a restricted use pesticide, a 
warning that pregnant women should avoid contact with the product due to 
birth defects observed in laboratory animals exposed to bromoxynil, and 
requirements to wear coveralls over a long sleeve shirt and long pants, 
clean gloves and chemical resistant shoes. Mixer/loaders are required to 
wear a chemical resistant apron if using an open pour system. Ground 
boom application on more than 180 acres per day is required to be with 
an enclosed cab, and use of more than 30 gallons of bromoxynil products 
per day requires use of a mechanical transfer system for mixing/loading 
Also, in addition to sticker labeling, users will be informed of the use 
modifications via direct mail and the media, according to EPA.
The required data include, the agency noted, "a dermal developmental 
toxicity study using bromoxynil octanoate in the rabbit, an expanded 
dominant lethal study in the rat to determine whether bromoxynil causes 
male reproductive toxicity effects, and a worker exposure study designed 
to assess exposure to users as well as to evaluate  the effectiveness of 
various protective measures. " The data will be  filed in  1990 and 
reviewed before the 1991 use season, EPA said.
Using 1988 estimates, EPA noted that the following percent of U.S. crops 
are treated with bromoxynil (Buctril): field corn, 8%; small  grains, 
including wheat, 6%; onions, 50%; garlic, 95%; flax, 5%; mint, 30%, and 
up to 100% of the canary grass . The agency said that about 2.2 million 
pounds are used annually.
USDA News Release, 5/89
A GAO Briefing report, "Pesticides: Economic Research Service's Analyses 
of Proposed EPA Actions," in a summary section noted, "According to EPA 
officials, ERS/NAPIAP (USDA's National Agricultural Pesticide Impact 
Assessment Program) had limited impact on EPA pesticide regulatory 
proposals during fiscal years 1985 through 1988 -- the period covered by 
our review. " The GAO said its review of documentation led to the same 
conclusion as that of the EPA's.
The report was done at the request of Rep. Dingell ( D-Mich . ), 
Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House  Committee 
on Energy and Commerce, who asked the General  Accounting  Office to 
look into the use of ERS funds for analysis of EPA's proposed  pesticide 
decisions and the impact of the analysis on the decisions.
GAO noted that USDA had filed comments on 15 pesticide proposals  from 
EPA, of which six agreed with EPA, four objected and the  comments  on 
one of the four, according to EPA, were valuable, the report noted.  It  
listed the 15 pesticides but did not identify the three and one. The  
four   were alachlor, aldicarb, captan and daminozide.
The GAO report said, "ERS estimated that, for fiscal years 1985  through 
1988, its expenditures relating to EPA proposals ranged  from  $550,000 
to $650,000 annually and totaled $2.4 million."  USDA officials, 
according to the report, said that the ERS' analyses  had been more 
useful to EPA than the GAO draft indicated .  Agriculture  officials ( 
not identified) were quoted in the report as saying that the  ERS'  
analyses "have had a significant impact on the pesticide regulatory  
The chief of the Economic Analysis Branch, Biological and Economic  
Analysis Division, OPP, EPA, was asked by GAO whether the agency  could  
do pesticide benefit analysis without help from ERS/NAPIAP. The  report  
recorded his reply: " EPA can and does conduct, in a majority of  cases,  
benefit analyses in support of special review decision with little or  
no such  assistance. " The chief was further quoted in the report as 
judging  NAPIAP  analyses or studies as "uneven" in overall quality.
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/10/89
A summary of pesticide food testing by the New York State  Department of 
Agriculture and Markets for the month of May  is  given  below:
1.  One sample of baby food sweet potatoes, labeled "organically grown 
without synthetic herbicides, pesticides, or fungicides,"  contained 
1.09 parts per million  of the fungicide Botran.  All other samples  
(2,468) of food and milk were free of significant pesticide residues.
2.  Analysis of 96 raw milk samples for Sulfamethazine showed no drug 
contamination was found at the 10 parts per billion level (ppb).
3.  Analysis of 76 raw milk samples for aflatoxins indicated that no 
mold toxins were detected at the 0.05 ppb level. 
4.  Analysis of 31 apple  and apple product samples for daminozide 
(Alar) and UDMH ( a breakdown product or metabolite) showed that 
daminozide levels ranged from 10 ppb to 3.8 ppm in six apple samples and 
one apple juice sample.  The one apple sample that contained 3.8 ppm of 
daminozide also contained 22 ppb of UDMH.  The latter compound was not 
detected at the 10 ppb level in any of  the  other samples.  The apple 
juice sample contained 47 ppb of daminozide but no UDMH.