Chem-News June 1989
June 8, 1989
TO: Contributors to the New York State Pesticide Recommendations
(Redbook), the Cornell Recommends Series and Others Interested
in Pesticide Information
FROM: William G. Smith, Extension Associate
2(ee) Pesticide Recommendations
Section 18, Emergency Exemption Requests
USDA Charged With Minor Use Problem
Daminozide (Alar) Stop Sale
USDA Pesticide Benefits and EPA
New York Food Laboratory Report
2(ee) Pesticide Recommendations
For Cornell specialists making 2(ee) pesticide recommendations in the
future, you must submit quantitative efficacy data or other reports that
demonstrate the efficacy of your recommendations. The Department of
Environmental Conservation (DEC) will no longer approve 2(ee)'s based on
efficacy statements alone. If you are planning on making any new 2(ee)
recommendations, send a letter of request and your data/reports to me
and I will forward your request on to DEC. Allow a minimum of 60 days
for DEC review/approval of your request.
Don Rutz, Chemicals-Pesticides Program
SECTION 18, EMERGENCY EXEMPTION REQUESTS
Cornell specialists who have submitted Section 18, emergency exemption
requests in the past and are planning to do so for the 1990 growing
season, please submit these requests prior to December 1, 1989. The
review process averages approximately four months by the DEC and EPA and
requests submitted later than the above date may not be processed in
time for the appropriate use.
William G. Smith, Chemicals-Pesticides Program
CONGRESSMEN CHARGE USDA WITH SOLVING MINOR USE PROBLEM
USDA Secretary Clayton Yeutter has been charged with solving the minor
use problem by two Congressmen who provided directions on how it should
Reps. Brown (D-Calif. ) and Stallings (D-Idaho), in a May 10 letter to
Yeutter, with a copy to EPA Administrator Reilly, directed that the
department's first priority should be to develop a "crop/ pest/ disease/
region matrix to highlight problem areas as information about chemicals
and registration decisions are obtained Such a matrix would enable us
to tell when a cancellation decision has left a given crop exposed to
pest or disease damage." they noted:
"Using this matrix as an 'early warning system,' USDA and the states
could search their research and extension programs to see if a viable
alternative control methodology was available to control a pest or
disease on a certain crop. It could also serve as a flag to the IR-4
program to move any pending registration applications in problem areas
to the front of the line. It would point out broader problem areas in
pest and disease control by crop or region, which could serve as a
priority-setting process for longer-term research and extension efforts.
Finally, such an orderly review would function to give grower groups
notice about upcoming problems."
The Congressmen further advised that USDA should be responsible for
keeping all interested parties, especially growers, informed about
pesticide regulatory decisions.
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/17/89
UNIROYAL SUSPENDS SALE OF DAMINOZIDE (ALAR) IN THE U.S.:
EPA ISSUES NOTICE TO CANCEL CERTAIN ALAR REGISTRATIONS
The Uniroyal Chemical Company has announced that it is temporarily
halting all sales in the U.S. of their growth regulator, daminozide
(Alar), until all the chemical data required for reregistration has been
generated and reviewed by the EPA. Sales of the pesticide will continue
to other countries.
Also, the EPA has issued a preliminary determination ( 5/24/89 Federal
Register ) to cancel all registrations of daminozide products that are
used on food crops and to retain the daminozide non-food uses on
ornamentals and bedding plants.
Federal Register, 5/24/89
MESUROL STATUS CLARIFIED BY EPA
The registration status of Mesurol 75 WP has recently been clarified by
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA has conditionally
approved an amendment for the use of Mesurol 75 WP, EPA Reg. No. 3125-
288, for use on cherries. This conditional amendment expires on
9/15/89. Mesurol 75 WP will not be sold, distributed or allowed to be
used after 9/15/89. The EPA did not approve an amendment for the use of
Mesurol on blueberries.
Mobay Corporation, 5/1/89
Sulfur Dioxide Tolerance Established in or on Grapes
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a tolerance of
10.0 p.p.m. for sulfite residues in or on grapes resulting from use of
the fungicide sulfur dioxide. The EPA proposal had been based on a
petition submitted by Uvas Quality Packaging.
The agency said 57 comments, "representing the California grape growing,
shipping and packing industry as well as Chilean grape importers and
sodium metabisulfite pad manufacturers, supported the establishment" of
a tolerance for grapes.
Federal Register, 5/10/89
First Tolerance Established for Residues of Hexythiazox (Savey)
The first permanent tolerance was set for residues of hexythiazox
(Savey) at 0.30 p.p.m. in or on pears, as had been petitioned by duPont.
The acaricide is trans-5- ( 4-chlorophenyl) -N-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-2-
oxothiazolidine-3-carboxamide and its metabolites containing the (4-
chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-thiazolidine moiety .
Stating that it has classified hexythiazox as a Class C (possible human)
oncogen, EPA noted that there was a significantly increased incidence of
hepatocellular carcinomas and adenomas/carcinomas combined in female
mice at 1,500 p.p.m., and that there was a significantly increased
incidence of pre-neoplastic hepatic nodules in both males and females at
1,500 p.p.m., the highest dose tested.
Classification as Category C rather than Category B, the agency said,
"was based primarily on the fact that only one species was affected
(mouse), mutagenicity assays did not support upgrading to a B
classification, and the structure activity relationship of hexythiazox
to other compounds supported a C classification. "
"Stating that risks from use of the acaricide on pears would be
"extremely small," EPA stated that, "based on the highly conservative
assumption that all pears are treated with hexythiazox and would bear
residues at the proposed tolerance level," the oncogenic risk would be
10-8. This, the agency said, is a "worst case" estimate. It added that
it expects the percent of crop treated with hexythiazox in a typical
year would be about 30%, with residue levels in pear juice and nectar
not exceeding the 0.30 p.p.m. tolerance. The agency concluded that "the
proposed use of hexythiazox on pears will pose an extremely small risk
to humans.... "
Also, EPA noted that duPont included the label restriction, "Do not
graze or feed livestock on cover crops growing in treated areas."
EPA established an ADI for hexythiazox of 0.025 mg/kg/day based on a no
observed effect level of 2.5 mg/kg/day in a l-year dog feeding study,
and using a safety factor of 100. The agency said the theoretical
maximum residue contribution from the tolerance is 0.000037 mg/kg/day or
about 7.4% of the ADI.
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/3/89
Triasulfuron (Amber) Temporary Tolerances Granted
The EPA has granted Ciba-Geigy temporary tolerances for residues of
triasulfuron (Amber) at 0.05 p.p.m. in meat, fat, and meat byproducts
(excluding liver and kidney) of cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep;
0.1 p.p.m. in or on wheat and barley grain, and in milk and liver of
cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep; 0.5 p.p.m. in or on wheat and
barley straw, and in kidney of cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep;
5.0 p.p.m. in or on wheat and barley forage; and 15 p.p.m. in or on
wheat and barley hay (dry forage).
The temporary tolerances for residues of the herbicide -- 2-(2-
amino)carbonyl]benzenesulfonamide expire Dec . 31, 1990 .
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/3/89
Proposed Extension of Iprodione (Rovral) Tolerances
EPA proposed extending some of the current tolerances for residues of
the fungicide iprodione (Rovral) resulting from preharvest use to also
cover residues from postharvest use. The inclusion of the phrase "pre-
and postharvest" would apply to the tolerances of 20.0 p.p.m. in or on
cherries (sweet), nectarines, peaches, and plums. The agency proposal,
which is open for comments and/or advisory committee requests until May
26, was based on a petition submitted by IR-4.
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/3/89
BROMOXYNIL RELABELED; EXPOSURE DATA REQUIREMENTS IMPOSED
Bromoxynil relabeling has been agreed to by EPA and the registrant,
Rhone Poulenc, which will also: voluntarily cancel and recall the
butyrate formulation because of a high skin absorbant rate, provide EPA
with additional requested toxicity and exposure data, move toward
packaging which would minimize mixer/loader exposure, and offer training
programs for dealers and growers for the 1990 use season on handling the
New labeling will be stickered on all bromoxynil containers within three
weeks, EPA said. This new labeling includes a birth defects warning,
restricted-use classification and protective clothing requirements. The
birth defects warning is directed at pregnant women and concerns
supernumerary ribs observed in dermal rat and rabbit studies.
EPA calculated a developmental no-observed effect level (NOEL) of 3.5
mg/kg for bromoxynil octanoate. On the label changes, EPA said the
"Changes have been made on the labels to minimize exposure to both
mixer/loaders and applicators of bromoxynil. Included in these measures
are the classification of bromoxynil as a restricted use pesticide, a
warning that pregnant women should avoid contact with the product due to
birth defects observed in laboratory animals exposed to bromoxynil, and
requirements to wear coveralls over a long sleeve shirt and long pants,
clean gloves and chemical resistant shoes. Mixer/loaders are required to
wear a chemical resistant apron if using an open pour system. Ground
boom application on more than 180 acres per day is required to be with
an enclosed cab, and use of more than 30 gallons of bromoxynil products
per day requires use of a mechanical transfer system for mixing/loading
Also, in addition to sticker labeling, users will be informed of the use
modifications via direct mail and the media, according to EPA.
The required data include, the agency noted, "a dermal developmental
toxicity study using bromoxynil octanoate in the rabbit, an expanded
dominant lethal study in the rat to determine whether bromoxynil causes
male reproductive toxicity effects, and a worker exposure study designed
to assess exposure to users as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of
various protective measures. " The data will be filed in 1990 and
reviewed before the 1991 use season, EPA said.
Using 1988 estimates, EPA noted that the following percent of U.S. crops
are treated with bromoxynil (Buctril): field corn, 8%; small grains,
including wheat, 6%; onions, 50%; garlic, 95%; flax, 5%; mint, 30%, and
up to 100% of the canary grass . The agency said that about 2.2 million
pounds are used annually.
USDA News Release, 5/89
USDA PESTICIDE BENEFITS WORK HAS "LIMITED IMPACT" ON EPA, GAO SAYS
A GAO Briefing report, "Pesticides: Economic Research Service's Analyses
of Proposed EPA Actions," in a summary section noted, "According to EPA
officials, ERS/NAPIAP (USDA's National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
Assessment Program) had limited impact on EPA pesticide regulatory
proposals during fiscal years 1985 through 1988 -- the period covered by
our review. " The GAO said its review of documentation led to the same
conclusion as that of the EPA's.
The report was done at the request of Rep. Dingell ( D-Mich . ),
Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House Committee
on Energy and Commerce, who asked the General Accounting Office to
look into the use of ERS funds for analysis of EPA's proposed pesticide
decisions and the impact of the analysis on the decisions.
GAO noted that USDA had filed comments on 15 pesticide proposals from
EPA, of which six agreed with EPA, four objected and the comments on
one of the four, according to EPA, were valuable, the report noted. It
listed the 15 pesticides but did not identify the three and one. The
four were alachlor, aldicarb, captan and daminozide.
The GAO report said, "ERS estimated that, for fiscal years 1985 through
1988, its expenditures relating to EPA proposals ranged from $550,000
to $650,000 annually and totaled $2.4 million." USDA officials,
according to the report, said that the ERS' analyses had been more
useful to EPA than the GAO draft indicated . Agriculture officials (
not identified) were quoted in the report as saying that the ERS'
analyses "have had a significant impact on the pesticide regulatory
The chief of the Economic Analysis Branch, Biological and Economic
Analysis Division, OPP, EPA, was asked by GAO whether the agency could
do pesticide benefit analysis without help from ERS/NAPIAP. The report
recorded his reply: " EPA can and does conduct, in a majority of cases,
benefit analyses in support of special review decision with little or
no such assistance. " The chief was further quoted in the report as
judging NAPIAP analyses or studies as "uneven" in overall quality.
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 5/10/89
FOOD LABORATORY REPORT FROM THE NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS
A summary of pesticide food testing by the New York State Department of
Agriculture and Markets for the month of May is given below:
1. One sample of baby food sweet potatoes, labeled "organically grown
without synthetic herbicides, pesticides, or fungicides," contained
1.09 parts per million of the fungicide Botran. All other samples
(2,468) of food and milk were free of significant pesticide residues.
2. Analysis of 96 raw milk samples for Sulfamethazine showed no drug
contamination was found at the 10 parts per billion level (ppb).
3. Analysis of 76 raw milk samples for aflatoxins indicated that no
mold toxins were detected at the 0.05 ppb level.
4. Analysis of 31 apple and apple product samples for daminozide
(Alar) and UDMH ( a breakdown product or metabolite) showed that
daminozide levels ranged from 10 ppb to 3.8 ppm in six apple samples and
one apple juice sample. The one apple sample that contained 3.8 ppm of
daminozide also contained 22 ppb of UDMH. The latter compound was not
detected at the 10 ppb level in any of the other samples. The apple
juice sample contained 47 ppb of daminozide but no UDMH.