Crop Profile: Vinifera and French Hybrid Grapes in New York


  1. Profile Prepared By:
        Tim Weigle
        Grape IPM Program
        Cornell University
        412 E. Main St.
        Fredonia, NY 14063
        (716) 672-6830

    Greg English-Loeb
    Dept. of Entomology
    NYSAES
    Barton Lab
    Geneva, NY 14456

    Wayne Wilcox
    Dept. of Plant Pathology
    NYSAES
    Barton Lab
    Geneva, NY 14456

    Tom Mitchell
    President
    NY Wine Growers Assoc.
    9750 Hyatt Hill Road
    Dundee, NY 1837-9605

              Rick Dunst, New York
              Fredonia Lab
              NYSAES
              412 E. Main St.
              Fredonia, NY 14063

    Tom Collins
    Head of Grower Relations
    Widmer Wine Company

    Barry Shaffer
    Farm Business Management
    Lake Erie Regional Grape Program
    412 E. Main St.
    Fredonia, NY 14063

  1. Basic Commodity Information
       State Rank:...............................4
       % U.S. Production:...................4%
       Acres Planted:..........................7100
       Acres Harvested:.....................7000
       Cash Value:..............................$7.5 million
       Yearly Production Costs:.........

Production Regions: Vinifera and French Hybrid grape production is concentrated in the Finger Lakes Region of New York State and Suffolk County (Long Island). Production of grape varieties fitting this classification are also grown in other areas of New York State but are more scattered with smaller acreage represented.
Cultural Practices: Variable depending on production system, variety planted, and harvesting method.
Commodity Destination(s):
    Wine.......................................100%


Introduction
          Many different varieties of grapes are found in New York State vineyards. Preparation of a profile that would adequately cover all aspects of a particular variety was impossible. While some pest problems such as weeds and most insects can affect all varieties of grapes in New York State, susceptibility to diseases provided the best method to separate pest management strategies in terms of susceptibility to pests and the resulting pesticide use patterns. Vinifera wines in general are expensive, as are the grapes that produce the wine. The small wineries of New York State are quality conscious and set very high standards for the grapes going into their products; after all, the winery's reputation and future are on the line when their wines find their way into the hands of customers. Simple crop loss percentage due to disease or insect pest damage doesn't tell the whole story. The damage inflicted by disease or insects may adversely affect the desirable flavor components and subtle, delicate characters of the grapes, making them unsuitable for quality wine production. In many cases, a 15-20% crop loss from disease may translate into a 100% loss because of processor rejection. There is a major concern that a substantial decrease in the number of pesticides available may devastate current IPM programs and make resistance management next to impossible (insecticides, miticides, fungicides and herbicides).

         In the Northeast, weather characteristics, especially humidity and evenly occurring precipitation through the growing season produce high disease and pest pressure relative to many other vinifera producing regions. Without the materials to keep the pest complex of grapes in check, New York grape growers and wineries will not be competitive.

         As a class of pesticides, insecticides are used less frequently than fungicides in Vinifera and French Hybrid grape production. This does not mean they are less important to the grower. Because of the nature of insecticides they may be used successfully after a problem is identified- for this reason it is important to have the right tool available when the problem arises. Because of the broad spectrum of potential insect pests a wide range of insecticides is required. It seems the tendency in insecticides, right or wrong, is to develop more highly selective (specialized - targeting relatively few pests) materials that often are very expensive. This would suggest that to be effective we will need an even larger number of insecticides that could be very expensive. Most growers questioned in the preparation of this profile have relied on materials like Sevin because they are relatively user-safe (compared to most organophosphates) and they have a broad spectrum of efficacy as well as some residual protectant activity on the crop. The grape industry in New York State has long supported the use of Integrated Pest Management in vineyards by making available research and implementation funding through the Lake Erie Processors group and the New York Wine and Grape Foundation. While pesticides remain an important component of the vineyard pest management tool box, the focus of the industry is to expand the number of options available to growers to manage pests and work towards improving the integrated approach to pest management growers are currently using.

          A survey conducted by the New York Wine Grape Growers Association developed the following "average" spray program for New York Vinifera vineyards.

Growth Stage

Mancozeb

Captan

Rubigan

Nova

Abound

Sulfur

Rovral/ Vangard

Ridomil

1-inch

3 lb








3-5 inch

3 lb


3 oz






10-inch

3 lb


4 oz






1st Prebloom




5 oz




As required*

Immediate Prebloom

3 lb




11 oz

6 lb

As required*


1st Post bloom

3 lb




11 oz

6 lb



2nd Post bloom


2.5 lb


5 oz


6 lb


As required*

Bunch-close







As required*


Cover Sprays


2.5 lb




6 lb


As required*

5 Brix







As required*


14 days later







As required*



* Dependent on weather conditions, availability of overwintering inoculum, and severity of disease pressure during the growing season. Insecticides and Miticides are used infrequently on an as needed basis. The most frequently used insecticide was Sevin. When included in the spray program, Sevin was applied in the 1st post-bloom spray. On the 224 acres of vinifera included in this survey, insecticides were used an average of less than one application per year.


  1. Pest Information

  1. Angular Leaf Scorch
    Type of Pest: Disease
    Frequency of Occurrence: Angular leaf scorch is most likely to become a problem when high rainfall occurs during the period of early shoot growth.
    Damage Caused: Disease symptoms occur mainly on the leaves and first appear as faint chlorotic spots. Lesions enlarge and change from yellow to reddish-brown, eventually killing the tissue. Lesions are confined by major veins and can have a yellow, red, or absent margin, depending on the cultivar. Infected leaves often fall prematurely.
    % Acres Affected: 5%
    Pest Life Cycles: The fungus survives winter in infected leaves on the vineyard floor. Mature spores are ready for discharge in spring when grape buds begin to grow. During rainfall, spores are released into the air from fruiting structures and susceptible tissue is infected.
    Timing of Control: Fungicides should be applied prior to rainfall, beginning at the 3-inch stage and continuing through fruit set. Angular leaf scorch is typically only a problem during years with extremely wet springs.
    Yield Losses: Premature loss of leaves is detrimental to sugar accumulation in berries but is more detrimental to overall vine health in cold sensitive Vinifera varieties.
    Regional Differences: Differences in susceptibility among varieties is more important than regional differences.
    Cultural Control Practices: Cultural practices that increase air circulation can reduce durations of leaf wetness that favor disease development. Destruction of leaf litter by cultivation, before bud break, can also reduce disease incidence.
    Biological Control Practices: None available at this time
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: None
    Other Issues:




  2. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    mancozeb
    (Penncozeb)

    5

    foliar, ground

        3-4 lb/Acre

    3-inch shoot growth through fruit set

    0-1

    66

    24



  3. Black Rot
    Type of Pest: Disease
    Frequency of Occurrence: 3- to 5-inch shoot growth through approximately August 1
    Damage Caused: Black rot is one of the most serious diseases of grapes in the eastern United States. This disease can cause substantial crop loss under the appropriate environmental conditions. All green tissues of the vine are susceptible to infection.
    % Acres Affected: 100%
    Pest Life Cycles: The black rot fungus overwinters primarily in mummified fruit on the vineyard floor or fruit retained within the vine. It can also overwinter within cane lesions. Spores within cane lesions are available for infection starting at bud break; however, the vast majority of spores (those within mummified fruit) first become available about 2-3 weeks after bud break, then reach peak levels from about 1-2 weeks before bloom until about 1-2 weeks after, depending on the year. Rain triggers the release of infective spores from mummies, and infection occurs if susceptible tissues remain wet for a sufficient length of time, which depends on temperature. Pycnidia develop within lesions caused by current season infections and release a new crop of spores during the summer. It is this secondary round of spore release and infection that is responsible for the majority of fruit rot damage. Thus, if very few current season infections are present, protective sprays can usually be stopped once most of the overwintering inoculum has been depleted (about the time berries become pea-sized). However, if more than a few current infections (and new spores) are present, protection must be maintained until fruit are no longer susceptible to infection, about August 1 in the Finger Lakes region of New York.
    Timing of Control: Disease severity the previous year and varietal susceptibility to black rot are the major factor in determining how early protection is required. Under heavy disease pressure protectant application could begin as early as 3-inch shoot growth on susceptible varieties.
    Yield Losses: 100% in years of frequent early rainfall that favors development of primary infections.
    Regional Differences: Differences in susceptibility among varieties is more important than regional differences.
    Cultural Control Practices: Removal of mummified clusters during pruning significantly reduces disease pressure for the coming season; spring cultivation to bury mummies also can contribute to a reduction of inoculum. Cultural practices that open the canopy are beneficial because they increase air circulation and improve spray coverage.
    Biological Control Practices: None available at this time
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Removal of mummified berries during pruning
    Other Issues: Many of the fungicides currently available for use in New York vineyards provide control of more than one disease. One application of azoxystrobin (Abound) provides protection against black rot, powdery mildew, downy mildew and some protection against Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot. Mancozeb and maneb + zinc salt materials provide protection against black rot, downy mildew and Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot while myclobutanil (Nova), provides protection against both black rot and powdery mildew. While any one chemical may be sprayed up to 3 times during the growing season for black rot it is more common to see a single application of a variety of materials depending the primary disease targeted for that particular application. In general no more than 3 applications of pesticide are used for black rot protection in a normal year and a majority, if not all, of the applications are applied for protection of other diseases as well.




  4. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    azoxystrobin
    (Abound)

    60

    foliar, ground

        11-12 oz

    3 to 5-inches of shoot growth (on highly susceptible varieties in years which frequent, early rainfall) to 3-4 weeks post bloom.

    0-2

    14

    12

    triadimefon
    (Bayleton)

    0

    foliar, ground

        3-4 oz

    10 to 12-inch shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    0-2

    14

    12

    ferbam
    (Carbamate WDG)

    5

    foliar, ground

        2 lbs/100 gallons

    10 to 12-inch shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom


    7

    24

    Efficacy Issues:

    Ziram is chemically related to ferbam and has the same general range of activity and effectiveness: good against black rot and Phomopsis, but only fair against downy mildew.

    mancozeb
    (Manzate, Dithane, Penncozeb)

    90

    foliar, ground

        3-4 lb depending on
        formulation

    3 to 5-inch shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    3-5

    66

    24

    Efficacy Issues:

    Mancozeb is chemically related to maneb + zinc salt and has the same general range of activity and effectiveness: good against black rot, downy mildew, and Phomopsis.

    maneb + zinc salt
    (Maneb Plus Zinc, Manex II)

    0

    foliar, ground

        2.4-3.2 qt

    3 to 5-inches of shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    3-5

    66

    24

    Efficacy Issues:

    Mancozeb is chemically related to maneb + zinc salt and has the same general range of activity and effectiveness: good against black rot, downy mildew, and Phomopsis.

    myclobutanil
    (Nova)

    60

    foliar, ground

        4-5 oz

    3 to 5-inches of shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    0-2

    14

    24

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Nova can be used in black rot management either on a protectant or post-infection basis. Using a post-infection program growers must be able to accurately monitor weather conditions as sprays are applied after an infection has occurred. Nova is highly effective against black rot when applied within 72 hours after the start of an infection period. However, post-infection activity is strongly rate-dependent, thus high-labeled rates must be used, particularly if extended kickback activity is required. Good early season management often allows black rot management programs to end once fruit reach 1/4-inch in diameter.

    Efficacy Issues:

    Nova is used for both powdery mildew and black rot management. A slip in efficacy for powdery mildew has been observed in the field which may make this a less desirable choice of the sterol-inhibiting class of fungicides. No problems with resistance have been seen with Nova and black rot

    ziram
    (Ziram)

    5

    foliar, ground

        3-4 lb

    6-inches shoot growth to 3-4 weeks after bloom


    21

    48

    Efficacy Issues:

    Ziram is chemically related to ferbam and has the same general range of activity and effectiveness: good against black rot and Phomopsis, but only fair against downy mildew.


  5. Botrytis
    Type of Pest: Disease
    Frequency of Occurrence: Bloom to August
    Damage Caused: Botrytis is a fungus that causes a bunch rot of clusters and may blight blossoms, leaves, and shoots. The bunch rot phase of the disease can cause severe economic losses, particularly on tight-clustered French hybrid and Vitis vinifera cultivars. Ripe berries are susceptible to direct attack and are particularly susceptible to infection through wounds caused by insects, hail, or cracking. Infections can spread rapidly throughout the cluster, causing withered and rotted berries. Gray masses of spores are frequently visible on infected plant parts.
    % Acres Affected: 100%
    Pest Life Cycles: The fungus overwinters in debris on the vineyard floor or on the vine. Spores are produced throughout the season, although their numbers appear to be much higher after veraison. Production of spores and subsequent infection are greatly favored by prolonged periods of wetness or very high humidity, particularly at moderate temperatures (6-=75 F). The Botrytis fungus is most capable of attacking injured or senescing tissues; hence, infections usually occur as fruit are ripening or through wounds. Wounds caused by the grape berry moth are particularly common sites of infection. Under wet conditions, withering blossom parts can become infected between late bloom and bunch closing; such infections can lead to latent infections of the young berries, which then become active as the berries begin to ripen.
    Timing of Control: 50% bloom (in wet seasons) 5 Brix and 14 days after.
    Yield Losses: Loss due to berry infection can be up to 100%
    Regional Differences: Difference in susceptibility among varieties is more important than regional differences.
    Cultural Control Practices: Control of Botrytis is best accomplished through a combination of cultural and chemical procedures. Any practice that improves air circulation and thereby reduces humidity within the canopy is of significant benefit. These include site selection to avoid fog pockets and heavily wooded areas, and management of canopy densities through pruning, avoidance of excessive nitrogen, and selective leaf removal during the growing season.
    Biological Control Practices: None available at this time
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: None
    Other Issues: Fungicides labeled for Botrytis have all been shown to be extremely prone to resistance development. The use of cultural practices and rotation of chemical controls is necessary to keep the tools we have available for the management of this disease working.




  6. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI


    iprodione
    (Rovral)


    75


    foliar, ground


        1.5-2 lb, 1.5-2 pt/Acre     depending on
        formulation


    Early-Maturing Varieties: Two applications, 1) when the disease is first observed or when the first berries reach 5 Brix, whichever comes first; and 2) 14 days after the first applications.

    Later-maturing varieties: The optimum timing for these varieties has not been researched nearly as well. General observations indicate that the best strategy for such varieties is to make the first application at veraison (color change) , with the timing of subsequent sprays determined by label restrictions, weather, and the presence or absence of disease in the field.

    If only one application is planned (all varieties), wait until veraison or shortly thereafter, depending on weather and presence of disease.


    0-2


    7


    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    The Botrytis fungus can develop resistance to both Rovral and Vangard after repeated exposure. Hence, routine sprays during bloom and bunch closing should be avoided, but occasional emergency sprays should be considered if weather conditions warrant them. Since both are prone to resistance, Rovral and Vangard should be rotated or tank-mixed during the growing season.


    cyprodnil
    (Vangard)


    20


    foliar, ground


        8-10 oz or 5-7 oz
        + 1 lb Rovral


    Early-Maturing Varieties: Two applications, 1) when the disease is first observed or when the first berries reach 5 Brix, whichever comes first; and 2) 14 days after the first applications.

    Later-maturing varieties: The optimum timing for these varieties has not been researched nearly as well. General observations indicate that the best strategy for such varieties is to make the first application at veraison (color change) , with the timing of subsequent sprays determined by label restrictions, weather, and the presence or absence of disease in the field.

    If only one application is planned (all varieties), wait until veraison or shortly thereafter, depending on weather and presence of disease.


    0-2



    Efficacy Issues:

    The Botrytis fungus can develop resistance to both Rovral and Vangard after repeated exposure. Hence, routine sprays during bloom and bunch closing should be avoided, but occasional emergency sprays should be considered if weather conditions warrant them. Since both are prone to resistance, Rovral and Vangard should be rotated or tank-mixed during the growing season.


  7. Downy Mildew
    Type of Pest: Disease
    Frequency of Occurrence: 10-inch shoot growth to harvest
    Damage Caused: Berries, leaves and young shoots can be infected. This can result in a loss of growth with early season shoot infection, premature defoliation with leaf infections and direct crop loss through berry infections.
    % Acres Affected: 80%
    Pest Life Cycles: The downy mildew fungus overwinters as dormant spores within infected leaves on the vineyard floor and first becomes active in the spring about 2-3 weeks before bloom (at approximately 10-inch shoot growth). Infective spores are then produced during rainy periods if temperatures are above 50 F, and are splashed onto susceptible tissues to cause the season's first (primary) infections. (Note that inoculum for such early-season infections come from within the vineyard.) Epidemic disease development can then result from repeated cycles of secondary spread, which is caused by new spores produced within the white fungal growth on infected tissues. These spores are produced only at night when the relative humidity is extremely high (>95%). They can be blown relatively long distances and cause infection when they land on susceptible tissues that remains wet. (Note that later-season disease spread can be regional.) Thus, disease spread is most severe during periods when humid nights with moderate to warm temperatures (which allow the secondary spores to form) are followed the next day by rains or thundershowers (which allow them to germinate and cause new infection).
    Timing of Control: 10-inch shoot growth through harvest, depending on frequency of early season rainfall, varietal susceptibility and overwintering inoculum.
    Yield Losses: Can be 100% if early season infections to shoots, leaves and /or clusters are not controlled.
    Regional Differences: Differences in susceptibility among varieties is more important than regional differences.
    Cultural Control Practices: Any practice that improves air circulation and speeds drying within vine canopies will help to control downy mildew. Spring cultivation to bury fallen, infected leaves from the previous year will also help to reduce early season disease pressure. However, properly timed fungicides are still necessary for reliable disease management.
    Biological Control Practices: None available at this time
    Post-Harvest Control Practices:
    Other Issues: Many of the fungicides currently available for use in New York vineyards provide control of more than one disease. One application of azoxystrobin (Abound) provides protection against black rot, powdery mildew, downy mildew and some protection against Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot. Mancozeb and maneb + zinc salt materials provide protection against black rot, downy mildew and Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot while Captan provides protection against both downy mildew and Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot. While any one chemical may be sprayed up to 3 times during the growing season for black rot it is more common to see a single application of a variety of materials depending the primary disease targeted for that particular application. In general no more than 3 applications of pesticide are used for downy mildew protection in a normal year and a majority, if not all, of the applications are applied for protection of other diseases as well.




  8. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    azoxystrobin
    (Abound)

    80

    foliar, ground

        11-12 oz/Acre

    Immediate prebloom, Immediate postbloom

    0-2

    14

    12

    Captan
    (Captan)

    50

    foliar, ground

        2-4 lb depending
        on formulation

    10 to 12-inch shoot growth through mid-summer

    0-3

    14

    96

    Copper
    (Copper)

    20

    foliar, ground

        Varies by formulation

    As needed

    0-2

    14

    24-48

    mancozeb
    (Manzate, Dithane, Penncozeb)

    50

    foliar, ground

        Varies by formulation

    10 to 12-inch shoot growth to post bloom

    0-3

    66

    24

    maneb + zinc salt
    (Maneb + Zinc, Manex II)

    0

    foliar, ground

        variable by
        formulation

    10 to 12-inch shoot growth to post bloom

    0-3

    66

    24

    metalaxyl
    (Ridomil Gold MZ, Ridomil/Copper/ Gold)

    10

    foliar, ground

        11-12 fl oz

    Immediate prebloom to post bloom

    0-2

    66

    48

    Use in Resistance Management:

    Resistance to Ridomil by the downy mildew fungus has been reported in several other countries. To reduce the risk of developing resistance, use no more than three total applications of Ridomil per season, and do not use to eradicate sporulating lesions on leaves or fruit.


  9. Eutypa Die Back
    Type of Pest: Disease
    Frequency of Occurrence: Spores are available during winter during rainfall or snow melt events.
    Damage Caused: Eutypa dieback produces cankers in the cordons, or trunks, of a vine which slowly caused portions of the vine above the canker to die. The entire vine, or portions of the vine can be affected.
    % Acres Affected: <1%
    Pest Life Cycles: In winter, during rainfall or snow melt, fungal spores are released from fruiting structures on dead infected wood. Spores are dispersed by the wind and infection occurs when they enter fresh pruning wounds. Cankers and foliage symptoms are not evident until two to four years after infection; then vine deterioration continues until the trunk or arm is finally killed. New shoots above cankers often appear stunted, with shortened internodes and small, cupped, greenish-yellow leaves in the spring. Healthy growth usually overgrows and obscures affected shoots by midsummer. Shoot and leaf symptoms become progressively worse each season until, eventually, no growth is produced.
    Timing of Control: Chemical control is during dormant pruning. Cultural practices at 10 to 12-inch shoot growth.
    Yield Losses: Loss of vines due to infection can cause significant loss of crop if disease is not caught early and controlled.
    Regional Differences:
    Cultural Control Practices: Infected arms and trunks should be removed in late spring when foliar symptoms are noticeable and wounds are less susceptible to reinfection. Pruning should be far enough below the canker that healthy wood is evident. Any infected wood or stumps should be removed from the vineyard and burned.
    Biological Control Practices: None available at this time
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: None
    Other Issues: Success in using Benlate for Eutypa has been limited at best. Most growers have found that the benefit is not significant enough to justify the extra time and effort it takes to make the application during pruning with the labor force that they are currently using.




  10. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    benomyl
    (Benlate)

    10

    pruning wounds on trunks, painted on or sprayed

        3.2 oz/gallon

    During the dormant season while pruning

    1

    70

    24



  11. Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot
    Type of Pest: Disease
    Frequency of Occurrence: Yearly, 1-inch shoot growth through immediate post bloom Shoot lesions can produce inoculum for a period of 5 to 7-years.
    Damage Caused: All green tissues of the vine are susceptible to infection. Severely infected leaves are misshapen, yellow, and fall from the vine prematurely. Infected rachises are brittle so that portions of the cluster may fall off before harvest. Infected fruit are discolored and can drop to the ground before maturity.
    % Acres Affected: 70%
    Pest Life Cycles: Rainy weather during the early growing season favors disease development. Spores (pycnidiospores) are produced within the black fruiting bodies (pycnidia) and ooze out during wet weather. These spores are then splashed by the rain onto newly developing shoots. Shoot tips may become infected at any time during the year, but infection is more common between bud break and bloom. Shoot and leaf lesions typically appear 3 to 4 weeks after infection. Infection of the rachis can occur from the time clusters are first visible, when shoot growth measures 2- to 3-inches, through fruit set. Fruit becomes infected at or shortly after bloom, but the fungus remains latent until the fruits ripen. Symptoms of fruit rot and most rachis lesions begin to appear 1 to 3 weeks before harvest. Infected leaves may not develop symptoms until they become senescent. Some infections of the shoot may never develop symptoms but will produce pycnidia during the dormant season. The fungus overwinters on the vine in infected canes and rachises and may survive and sporulate in dead infected canes for more than one season. Spores from pycnidia are produced in the spring to renew the disease cycle.
    Timing of Control: The critical period for development of the cane and leaf spot phase of the disease is during the first few weeks of growth (starting at 1-inch shoot growth). Rachises are susceptible from the time clusters first become visible until after pea-sized berries are formed. Fruit are most susceptible from bloom until after pea-sized berries are formed.
    Yield Losses: When incidence of the disease is high, crop losses of 10 to 40 percent can occur.
    Regional Differences: Varietal differences and differences in training systems are more apparent than regional differences.
    Cultural Control Practices: None available
    Biological Control Practices: None available at this time
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Removal of infected wood during dormant pruning. In cases of severe infection this method of control is not practical, as the integrity of the training system would be compromised due to removal of canes used in the structure of the vine.
    Other Issues: Phomopsis diseases are most likely to become a problem when the fungus is allowed to build up on dead canes in the vines (e.g. pruning stubs), especially if weather is wet during critical stages of disease development. Therefore, mechanically pruned vineyards are at particular risk of incurring economic losses from Phomopsis although damage can occur in all pruning and training systems if weather is very wet.




  12. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    azoxystrobin
    (Abound)

    0

    foliar, ground

        11-12 oz/Acre

    Immediate prebloom and/or immediate postbloom

    0-2

    14

    12

    captan
    (Captan, Captec)

    10

    foliar, ground

        1.25-4 lb or 1.5-2 qt     depending on
        formulation

    1-inch shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    0-2

    14

    12

    ferbam
    (Carbamate WDG)

    0

    foliar, ground

        2 lbs/100 gallons

    1-inch shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    0-2

    7

    24

    mancozeb
    (Manzate, Dithane, Penncozeb)

    50

    foliar, ground

        3-4 lb depending
        on formulation

    1-inch shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    0-4

    66

    24

    maneb + zinc salt
    (Maneb Plus Zinc, Manex II)

    0

    foliar, ground

        2.4-3.2 qt

    1-inch shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    0-4

    66

    24



  13. Powdery Mildew
    Type of Pest: Disease
    Frequency of Occurrence: 1-inch shoot growth through approximately August 1
    Damage Caused: The powdery mildew fungus can infect all green tissues of the grapevine. It appears as a white or grayish-white powdery covering on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves and fruit. Expanding leaves that are infected become distorted and stunted. When green shoots are infected, the fungus appears dark brown to black and remains as brown patches on the surface of dormant canes. Cluster infection before or shortly after bloom may result in poor set and considerable crop loss. If berries are infected when they are pea-size or larger, the epidermis stops growing but the pulp continues to expand and the berry splits. When berries of purple or red cultivars are infected as they begin to ripen, they fail to color properly and have a blotchy appearance at harvest. Such fruit will produce wines with off flavors.
    % Acres Affected: 100%
    Pest Life Cycles: The powdery mildew fungus overwinters as cleistothecia on dead leaves and bark. Shortly after bud break, cleistothecia swell under moist conditions and break open, releasing the ascospores contained within. The ascospores may then cause infections on all green tissue. Lesions resulting from ascospore infections produce conidia, which spread the disease. Wind-borne spores (conidia) are produced abundantly on the infected tissue and spread the disease to neighboring vines. As adjacent leaves and flower clusters become infected, new conidia are produced on them and the disease can spread rapidly throughout the vineyard. In late summer the powdery mildew fungus produces black spherical bodies (cleistothecia) on the surface of the infected leaves, shoots, and berries.
    Timing of Control: 1-inch shoot growth through late summer. One-inch spray is for highly susceptible varieties or problem areas if the weather forecasts call for rain and temperatures above 50F. Sprays should not be delayed beyond the 3- to 5-inch stage for V. vinifera and other highly susceptible varieties.
    Yield Losses: Severe, early season infections can result in 100% crop loss as the fruit becomes unmarketable for wine due to the off flavors the infected berries can transfer to the wine and there are no secondary markets for the infected crop.
    Regional Differences: Varietal differences are more apparent than regional differences.
    Cultural Control Practices: Any practice that improves air circulation and thereby reduces humidity within the canopy is of significant benefit.
    Biological Control Practices: None available at this time
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: None available at this time
    Other Issues: Many of the fungicides currently available for use in New York vineyards provide control of more than one disease. One application of azoxystrobin (Abound) provides protection against black rot, powdery mildew, downy mildew and some protection against Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot while myclobutanil (Nova), provides protection against both black rot and powdery mildew. While any one chemical may be sprayed up to 3 times during the growing season for powdery mildew it is more common to see one or two applications of a variety of materials depending the primary disease targeted for that particular application. Due to the risk of development of resistance to powdery mildew by the newer classes of fungicides, resistance management strategies have been developed which promote the integration of several fungicides with different modes of action to be used during each growing season.




  14. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    azoxystrobin
    (Abound)

    60

    foliar, ground

        11-12 oz

    Immediate prebloom and/or immediate postbloom.

    0-2

    14

    12

    fenarimol
    (Rubigan)

    50

    foliar, ground

        2-6 oz depending on
        time of year.

    1-inch shoot growth to late summer.

    0-4

    30

    12

    paraffinic oil
    (JMS Stylet Oil)

    5

    foliar, ground

        1-2% Conc.

    1-inch shoot growth to late summer.

    0-4

    0

    4

    Use in Resistance Management:

    JMS Stylet Oil can be used as a resistance management tool as it has a unique mode of action compared to the other pesticides used for powdery mildew.

    Efficacy Issues:

    Thorough spray coverage is critical for the successful use of this product due to its mode of action. Some phytotoxicity has been seen with repeated applications in some varieties. Use of multiple applications of JMS Stylet Oil has been shown to reduce the rate of sugar accumulation which can be a detriment in seasons where sugar accumulation is slowed by weather conditions. JMS Stylet Oil is incompatible with many of the pesticides currently used in vineyard disease management in New York. Care needs to be taken when using this product to limit use of other products prior to, during, and after the use of JMS Stylet Oil.

    triflumizole
    (Procure)

    5

    foliar, ground

        4-6 oz/Acre

    3 to 5-inches of shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    0-4

    7

    24

    myclobutanil
    (Nova)

    60

    foliar, ground

        4-5 oz/Acre

    3 to 5-inches of shoot growth to 3-4 weeks post bloom

    0-4

    14

    24

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Nova can be used in powdery mildew management either on a protectant or post-infection basis. Using a post-infection program growers must be able to accurately monitor weather conditions as sprays are applied after an infection has occurred. Nova is effective against powdery mildew when applied within 72 hours after the start of an infection period. However, post-infection activity is strongly rate-dependent, thus high labeled rates must be used, particularly if extended kickback activity is required.

    Efficacy Issues:

    Nova is used for both powdery mildew and black rot management. A slip in efficacy for powdery mildew has been observed in the field, which may make this a less desirable choice of the sterol-inhibiting class of fungicides.

    fixed copper
    (COCS)

    10

    foliar, ground

        2 lb + 4 lb of
        hydrated lime

    Second post bloom through late summer.

    0-2

    0

    24

    Efficacy Issues:

    Copper can be phytotoxic to some varieties. Berries of V. vinifera and certain hybrid varieties retain some susceptibility until veraison. Where powdery mildew management is needed, sprays must be applied even during extended dry periods when other diseases are not a threat. Fixed coppers will not control powdery mildew on highly susceptible varieties. Tank mixes of fixed copper and Nova should be sprayed out as soon as possible; periods of several hours or more in a solution with copper can reduce the effectiveness of Nova. Fixed copper plus lime should not be mixed with Bayleton, Carbamate, Guthion, Sevin, Imidan, or Thiodan.

    copper hydroxide
    (Champ 4.6F)

    5

    foliar, ground

        1.33 pt + 3 lb of
        hydrated lime

    Second post bloom through late summer.

    0-2

    0

    48

    Efficacy Issues:

    Copper can be phytotoxic to some varieties. Berries of V. vinifera and certain hybrid varieties retain some susceptibility until veraison. Where powdery mildew management is needed, sprays must be applied even during extended dry periods when other diseases are not a threat. Copper hydroxide will not control powdery mildew on highly susceptible varieties. Tank mixes of fixed copper and Nova should be sprayed out as soon as possible; periods of several hours or more in a solution with copper can reduce the effectiveness of Nova. Champ plus lime should not be mixed with Bayleton, Carbamate, Guthion, Sevin, Imidan, or Thiodan.

    sulfur
    (Wettable sulfur, COCS, Super Six Liquid Sulfur)

    80

    foliar, ground

        varies due to
        formulation

    1-inch shoot growth through late summer.

    0-6

    0

    24

    Efficacy Issues:

    Sulfur can be phytotoxic to some varieties. Sulfur will provide no more than 7-10 days protection following each spray. Sulfur is much less active at temperatures below 65F, and may therefore provide mediocre control under heavy disease pressure. Many wine makers discourage the use of sulfur late in the season due to it's effect on the wine making process and finished product.


  15. Banded Grape Bug
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: Sporadic pest of grapes. When present damage occurs between mid-May and early June
    Damage Caused: Feeding injury results in floret drop, reduced berry set, and reduced cluster number
    % Acres Affected: 5%
    Pest Life Cycles: Nymphs of this insect emerge in the spring and feed, using their sucking and piercing mouth parts, on flowers and young berries. Injury by small nymphs, occurring between 3- to 5-inch shoot growth (around May 15) and early June, results in floret drop, reduced berry set, and reduced cluster number. Subsequent feeding by larger nymphs and adults does not affect cluster development. This injury only occurs in the early prebloom stages (between 5- and 10-inch shoot growth). Subsequent feeding by nymphs does not reduce berry set. Adults appear to be predaceous and do not cause injury to berries. This pest is sporadic and does not require treatment in most years.
    Timing of Control: 3- to 10-inch shoot growth
    Yield Losses: Up to 100% reduction in area infested by this pest through loss of florets. Reduction of crop size of 40% or more typical in heavy infestations.
    Regional Differences: This pest appears to be more widespread in the Lake Erie region as opposed to the Finger Lakes Region, Hudson Valley or Long Island.
    Cultural Control Practices: None available
    Biological Control Practices: None available
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Not applicable
    Other Issues:




  16. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    Carbaryl
    (Sevin)

    5

    foliar, ground

        0.75 - 4 lb depending
        on formulation

    3- to 5-inch shoot growth and 10- to 12-inches of shoot growth

    1

    7

    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Used in conjunction with scouting protocol of examining clusters and shoot tips for presence of nymphs. Research has shown that due to the destructive nature of this pest ,an economic threshold of 1 nymph per 10 shoots is required to prevent crop loss.

    Use in Resistance Management:

    Sevin is the only pesticide labeled in New York State for banded grape bug under a FIFRA 2(ee) recommendation.


  17. Climbing Cutworm
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: Sporadic pest of grapes. Cool springs which delay buds moving from bud swell to shoot growth favor injury by this pest.
    Damage Caused: Feeding results in the loss of primary and in some instances loss of secondary and tertiary buds. Grapevines do compensate, at least to some extent, for primary bud loss through production of secondary buds. However, shoots from such buds are less fruitful than those from primary buds. When both primary and secondary buds are damaged the tertiary buds produce only a shoot but no fruit.
    % Acres Affected: <1%
    Pest Life Cycles: Larvae feed on the buds from full bud swell through bud break and until shoots are 10 to 15 cm long. Larvae hide during the day under the bark and in the soil litter beneath a vine and come out at night to feed.
    Timing of Control: Bud swell
    Yield Losses: In areas with high levels of feeding activity 30% crop reduction can occur. This pest can severely impact newly planted vineyards by destroying buds and delaying, or eliminating, shoot development needed to produce the necessary training systems.
    Regional Differences: This pest is more prolific in the Lake Erie Region due to its preference of sandy, light textured soils.
    Cultural Control Practices: Maintaining a vegetation-free band under the row can reduce habitat needed by the climbing cutworm to hide during the day.
    Biological Control Practices: No alternatives have been shown to be viable at this time.
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Not applicable
    Other Issues:




  18. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    Carbaryl
    (Sevin)

    0

    foliar, ground

        2.5-4 lb, 2 qt depending
        on formulation

    Bud swell

    1

    7

    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Scouting for damaged buds is used prior to application of insecticide for this pest.


  19. European Red Mite
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: Sporadic to yearly pest of grapes depending on location.
    Damage Caused: Given a head start, the vine can tolerate a fair amount of feeding damage on lower leaves. If mites get out on the shoot tips early in the season, however, they can stunt shoot development. Heavy mite infestations (20 to 30 mites per leaf) early in the season can cause stunted, chlorotic shoots with small leaves and pinpoint necrotic areas on leaves. Later in the season, as shoot growth rate declines and the vine allocates more resources to fruit, mites may also have an increased capacity to cause damage.
    % Acres Affected: 10%
    Pest Life Cycles: Mites overwinter as eggs on the bud scales. Nymphs appear very early in the growing season and pierce the leaf cells to extract plant juices. Both nymphs and adults feed on grape leaves. European red mite can have four to nine generations per year depending on weather conditions.
    Timing of Control: Particular attention should be paid to the 1- to 4-inch shoot growth stage and immediate to 20 days postbloom. Vines should be monitored for the presence of this pest and acaricides applied if populations are over the economic threshold for that scouting period.
    Yield Losses: Severe infestations can reduce sugar accumulation during the year of infestation, reducing quality. Yield, berry size and cluster number can be affected the following year if infestations are not managed.
    Regional Differences: Severe infestations can occur yearly on Long Island. Serious infestations in the Finger Lakes region have occurred more frequently in recent years. Problems with spider mites in the Lake Erie region are uncommon.
    Cultural Control Practices:
    Biological Control Practices: Predatory mites, when present in the vineyard at sufficient densities, can provide excellent biological control of spider mites. Recent research indicates that frequent use of mancozeb fungicides (a common fungicide in NY vineyard disease management programs) reduce predatory mite populations.
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Not applicable
    Other Issues:




  20. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    Osdicofol
    (Kelthane)

    5

    foliar, ground

        1.5-3.5 lb depending
        on formulation

    When scouting indicates mite populations are above threshold

    1-2

    7

    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Scouting for European red mite can be accomplished at any time after bud break. Particular attention should be paid to the 1- to 4-inch stage and immediate to 20 days postbloom period.

    hexakis fenbutatin-oxide
    (Vendex)

    5

    foliar, ground

        1.25-2.5 lb

    When scouting indicates mite populations are above threshold

    1-2

    28

    48

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Scouting for European red mite can be accomplished at any time after bud break. Particular attention should be paid to the 1- to 4-inch stage and immediate to 20 days postbloom period.


  21. Grape Berry Moth
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: There are two to three generations of this pest every year. Grape Berry Moth is one of the most serious insect pests affecting grapes in New York.
    Damage Caused: Direct feeding on clusters by larvae during the bloom period. After berries have developed, larvae enter berries and feed within. Late season feeding results in damage to multiple berries per clusters as berry enlargement causes berries to touch each other facilitating movement of a single larvae from berry to berry within a cluster.
    % Acres Affected: 50%
    Pest Life Cycles: Overwintered pupae emerge as adult moths in late May and lay eggs among the grape clusters. The larvae are small (up to 0.38 inch long) and feed internally in grape berries. The larvae cut flaps in grape leaves and pupate inside, emerging as adult moths (wingspan is 0.5 inch). Two to three generations of this pest can occur each season depending on length, and heat accumulation, of growing season.
    Timing of Control: Timing of sprays is determined using the Grape Berry Moth Risk Assessment protocol and scouting. Timings could include; immediate post bloom, first week in August and first week in September. Applications are made using the Grape Berry Moth Risk Assessment Protocol developed by Hoffman and Dennehy. The Risk Assessment Protocol is detailed in Bulletin No. 138. Risk Assessment for Grape Berry Moth and Guidelines for Management of the Eastern Grape Leafhopper. This bulletin can be found on line at: http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipmnet/ny/fruits/grapes/grmanfs/risk.pdf
    Yield Losses: Load rejection due to grape berry moth found in excess of Federal inspection standards is minimal. Percent crop loss has not been determined but research has shown 50-80% cluster infestation at harvest is not uncommon. Crop loss is estimated at 40% of tonnage on the first 6 rows, or post lengths, nearest the edge of vineyards classified as being at high risk of damage from grape berry moth.
    Regional Differences: No regional differences are apparent.
    Cultural Control Practices: No feasible cultural control practices are available
    Biological Control Practices: While research is being conducted on biological alternatives for grape berry moth no economically feasible alternatives are currently available.
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Not applicable
    Other Issues:




  22. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    Carbaryl
    (Sevin)

    50

    foliar, ground

        2.5-4 lb, 2.5 qt depending
        on formulation

    Timing is determined by used the Grape Berry Moth Risk Assessment protocol.

    0-3

    7

    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Prior to use of insecticide, vineyards are rated using the grape berry moth risk assessment protocol to determine timing of scouting and the need for insecticide applications.

    azinphosmethyl
    (Guthion)

    <5

    foliar, ground

        1.5 lb

    Timing is determined by used the Grape Berry Moth Risk Assessment protocol.

    0-3

    0-10

    48

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Prior to use of insecticide, vineyards are rated using the grape berry moth risk assessment protocol to determine timing of scouting and the need for insecticide applications.

    phosmet
    (Imidan)

    <5

    foliar, ground


    Timing is determined by used the Grape Berry Moth Risk Assessment protocol.

    0-3

    14

    24

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Prior to use of insecticide, vineyards are rated using the grape berry moth risk assessment protocol to determine timing of scouting and the need for insecticide applications.

    bacillus thuringiensis
    (Dipel 2X)

    <1

    foliar, ground

        0.5-1 lb

    Timing is determined by used the Grape Berry Moth Risk Assessment protocol.

    0-6

    0

    4

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Prior to use of insecticide, vineyards are rated using the grape berry moth risk assessment protocol to determine timing of scouting and the need for insecticide applications.

    Efficacy Issues:

    Prior to use of insecticide, vineyards are rated using the grape berry moth risk assessment protocol to determine timing of scouting and the need for insecticide applications.

    bacillus thuringiensis
    (Biobit)

    <1

    foliar, ground

        1.5-3 pints

    Timing is determined by used the Grape Berry Moth Risk Assessment protocol.

    0-6

    0

    4

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Prior to use of insecticide, vineyards are rated using the grape berry moth risk assessment protocol to determine timing of scouting and the need for insecticide applications.

    Efficacy Issues:

    Prior to use of insecticide, vineyards are rated using the grape berry moth risk assessment protocol to determine timing of scouting and the need for insecticide applications.

    methomyl
    (Lannate)

    20

    foliar, ground

        0.5-1 lb

    Timing is determined by used the Grape Berry Moth Risk Assessment protocol.

    0-3

    14

    168

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Prior to use of insecticide, vineyards are rated using the grape berry moth risk assessment protocol to determine timing of scouting and the need for insecticide applications.


  23. Grape Cane Borer
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: Sporadic pest of grapes. Immature cane borers present at 3- to 5-inch shoot growth. Adults present in September
    Damage Caused: Infested canes die back resulting in loss of crop and disruption of the vine training system.
    % Acres Affected: 5%
    Pest Life Cycles: Immature cane borers feed only on dead wood, but adults can enter vigorous, live canes in September, causing infested canes to die back.
    Timing of Control: 3- to 5-inch shoot growth
    Yield Losses: Damage is rarely of economic importance
    Regional Differences: Presence of pest has been reported primarily in vineyards surrounding Keuka Lake in the Finger Lakes Region of New York.
    Cultural Control Practices: Removal of dead wood and infested shoots when dormant pruning.
    Biological Control Practices: None available
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Removal of dead and infested wood during dormant pruning.
    Other Issues:




  24. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    phosmet
    (Imidan)

    2

    foliar, ground

        2-3 lb

    3- to 5-inch shoot growth

    1

    14

    24

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Scouting for infested shoots is used prior to application for this pest


  25. Grape Cane Gallmaker
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: Early spring
    Damage Caused: Gall-like swellings on canes are caused by the oviposition injury. Galls are usually twice as thick as the cane and 2.5 to 4 cm long. In newly planted vineyards gallmaker can destroy canes necessary for developing a training system, resulting in an extra year being necessary before a crop can be harvested from the vine. Galls usually have little effect on vigor and growth of mature vines but they can weaken the mechanical strength of the cane and cause breakage. In cases of severe infestations, shoot length can be severely stunted resulting in the loss of the crop on infested canes and the loss of the shoot for canopy management for next year.
    % Acres Affected: <5%
    Pest Life Cycles: The grape cane gallmaker has only one generation per year.
    Timing of Control: 4 to 6-inches of shoot growth
    Yield Losses: In newly planted vineyards gallmaker can destroy canes necessary for developing a training system, resulting in an extra year being necessary before a crop can be harvested from the vine. Galls usually have little effect on vigor and growth of mature vines but they can weaken the mechanical strength of the cane and cause breakage. In cases of severe infestations, shoot length can be severely stunted resulting in the loss of the crop on infested canes and the loss of the shoot for canopy management for next year.
    Regional Differences: No regional differences are apparent.
    Cultural Control Practices: Removal of infected canes below the galls during dormant pruning. This is not always feasible if infestation was severe or if canes are needed to maintain training system.
    Biological Control Practices: None available
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: None available
    Other Issues:




  26. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    phosmet
    (Imidan)

    0

    foliar, ground

        2-3 lb per acre

    3- to 5-inch shoot growth

    0-1

    14

    24



  27. Grape Cane Girdler
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: 10 to 12-inch shoot growth.
    Damage Caused: The girdling by the female causes the terminal growth of the new shoots to bend over above the upper girdle and drop to the ground. Later the whole infested shoot dies back to the lower girdle and falls from the vine. Vines 'pruned' by the grape cane girdler have a ragged appearance suggesting serious injury to the plant. However, the actual damage is usually minor. Girdling of the terminal growth has little or no effect on the crop unless fruit-producing nodes are close to attacked shoot tips.
    % Acres Affected: <5%
    Pest Life Cycles: Adult beetles emerge from infested canes during August and subsequently overwinter in trash on the ground. In May of the following year the adults leave their overwintering sites. When grape shoots are 30 to 50 cm long, usually in late May, the female begins to lay her eggs and girdle new canes. Egg laying continues for about one month.
    Timing of Control: 10 to 12-inches of shoot growth
    Yield Losses: Girdles are generally beyond the last grape cluster, so there is usually no loss of fruit, except in years of heavy infestation.
    Regional Differences: No regional differences are evident
    Cultural Control Practices: Removal and burning of infested canes below the girdle prior to the emergence of adults in late summer.
    Biological Control Practices: None available
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: None available
    Other Issues:




  28. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    azinphosmethyl
    (Guthion)

    0

    foliar, ground

        0.5 lb per acre

    10 to 12-inches of shoot growth

    0-1

    0-10

    48



  29. Grape Flea Beetle
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: A sporadic pest that does it's damage at bud swell to 3-inches of shoot growth. This pest is most damaging in years with cool springs, which prolong the time which buds remain in the bud swell to 3-inch shoot growth stage.
    Damage Caused: Overwintering adults attack the swelling buds by boring into them and hollowing out the inside. In contrast, the larvae and summer adults feed on the tender leaf tissues but avoid the leaf veins. Feeding on the primary buds is by far the more serious damage by this insect, causing yield loss and stunted growth from secondary or tertiary
    % Acres Affected: 10%
    Pest Life Cycles: The grape flea beetle is one of the first insect pests to appear in vineyards in the spring. There is only one generation per year. Overwintering adults become active and migrate to the grapevines at about the time grape buds begin to swell. Overwintering adults attack the swelling buds by boring into them and hollowing out the inside. Eggs are placed on the hardened scales surrounding the buds, but most are laid under the loose bark of the canes and near the buds. As foliage develops some eggs are laid on the upper side of the leaves but none are deposited on the underside. The larvae and summer adults feed on the tender leaf tissues but avoid the leaf veins.
    Timing of Control: Bud swell
    Yield Losses: The amount of yield loss varies from year to year. It is more serious in years when bud development is prolonged by unfavorable climatic conditions. Feeding on the primary buds is by far the more serious damage by this insect, causing yield loss and stunted growth by the secondary and tertiary buds. No fruit develops on canes where the primary and secondary buds were destroyed.
    Regional Differences: No regional differences are evident.
    Cultural Control Practices: Cleaning up wasteland and woodland areas located near cultivated vineyards eliminates or reduces hibernating sites. Frequent disking to control weeds between grape rows can also break the pupal cells in the soil. However, the practice of disking has been reduced in recent years due to concerns over erosion, poor economics as a weed management method and the need for a firm vineyard floor for various vineyard operations occurring throughout the summer (especially after heavy rainfalls)
    Biological Control Practices: None available
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: None available




  30. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    carbaryl
    (Sevin)

    2

    foliar, ground

        1.25-4 lb depending
        on formulation

    Bud swell

    0-1

    7

    12



  31. Grape Leafhopper
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: One to two generations per year depending on growing degree-day accumulations. Leafhoppers are present every year at varying levels.
    Damage Caused: Both the adults and nymphs feed on the underside of grape leaves by piercing the tissue and sucking out the plant juices. Damaged leaves become mottled with yellow dots. Excessive feeding can result in necrosis of large areas of leaf surface. A moderate infestation of grape leafhopper does not affect yield and quality significantly.
    % Acres Affected: 75%
    Pest Life Cycles: Adults overwinter in leaves and litter and enter vineyards in the spring and feed on sucker leaves. These overwintered adults generally do not cause serious damage. Depending on growing degree day (heat units) accumulations, one to two generations occur. Rapid population increases are most likely in hot, dry years.
    Timing of Control: Timing of control measures is determined using the leafhopper scouting protocol. Control measures are typically timed in conjunction with grape berry moth scouting with insecticide applications specifically for leafhoppers necessary only if an insecticide for grape berry moth is not required.
    Yield Losses: Research has shown that the only time significant yield losses occur are during seasons which are hot (which drives increases in leafhopper populations) and dry enough to put vines under water stress. Moderate to heavy feeding by leafhoppers in a "normal" year can produce a slight decrease in sugar accumulation causing grapes to be harvested later in the season and reducing the time period vines have to recover prior to the first frost.
    Regional Differences: Regional differences are not as critical as differences between varieties. Different species of leafhopper are found on Vinifera and Hybrid grapes than on Labrusca-type cultivars. Labrusca-type grapes (i.e. Concord, Niagara, Catawba, Delaware) have Erythroneura comes, also known as Eastern grape leafhopper. Hybrids and Vinifera grapes are infested by other Erythroneura leafhopper species, principally Erythroneura bistrata. This distinction may be important in the Finger Lakes, where resistance of Eastern grape leafhopper to carbaryl, and possibly Penncap-M, is suspected in isolated vineyards. The species of leafhoppers found on hybrid and vinifera grapes are not affected by resistance at this time.
    Cultural Control Practices: None available
    Biological Control Practices: Research has been conducted using Anagros epos, a wasp which parasitizes leafhopper eggs. This wasp is found in the wild but has not been shown to be effective in keeping leafhopper population below economic levels during years of high infestations.
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: None available
    Other Issues: New York State has a FIFRA 2(ee) recommendation allowing the application of lower rates of carbaryl and Penncap-M to manage Eastern grape leafhopper on grapes. Trials in New York State vineyards have shown these reduced rates to provide effective management of leafhoppers. However, if grape berry moth management is also needed, a full rate of insecticide is required to ensure adequate management of this pest.




  32. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI


    Carbaryl
    (Sevin)


    70


    foliar, ground


        .75 lb - 2 lb or 0.5-1 qt depending on formulation


    Immediate prebloom or end of July. Timing of control measures is linked to grape berry moth risk assessment protocol scouting. Treatment for leafhopper is only necessary if leafhopper populations exceed threshold and no insecticide is required for grape berry moth. In most vineyards, which are classified as being at high or intermediate risk for grape berry moth damage, insecticide applications for grape berry moth also control leafhopper populations.


    0-1


    7


    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Leafhopper is typically only a problem in vineyards that are classified as being at low risk for grape berry moth and where scouting does not indicate a need for control of berry moth. Scouting protocols have been established and are used by growers in determining the need for insecticide applications for leafhoppers.

    Efficacy Issues:

    In the Finger Lakes there are some vineyards which have documented Eastern grape leafhopper resistance to Carbaryl and possibly Penncap-M


    imidcloprid
    (Provado)


    10


    foliar, ground


        0.75 - 1 oz


    Immediate prebloom or end of July. Timing of control measures is linked to grape berry moth risk assessment protocol scouting. Treatment for leafhopper is only necessary if leafhopper populations exceed threshold and no insecticide is required for grape berry moth. In most vineyards, which are classified as being at high or intermediate risk for grape berry moth damage, insecticide applications for grape berry moth also control leafhopper populations.


    0-1


    0


    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Provado is a selective insecticide that works effectively against leafhopper without harming beneficial mite predators. In situations where only leafhopper management is necessary (grape berry moth is under threshold), Provado is a good alternative to the broad spectrum insecticides such as Sevin, Penncap, or Guthion which have been shown to decrease the predatory mite populations in some vineyards resulting in damaging populations of European red mite.

    Use in Resistance Management:

    Provado has been shown to be effective in controlling leafhopper populations where resistance to Carbaryl or methyl parathion has developed.


    methomyl
    (Lannate)


    20


    foliar, ground


        0.5 - 1 lb


    Immediate prebloom or end of July. Timing of control measures is linked to grape berry moth risk assessment protocol scouting. Treatment for leafhopper is only necessary if leafhopper populations exceed threshold and no insecticide is required for grape berry moth. In most vineyards, which are classified as being at high or intermediate risk for grape berry moth damage, insecticide applications for grape berry moth also control leafhopper populations.


    0-1


    14


    168



  33. Grape Phylloxera
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: Yearly, from 5-inches of shoot growth to harvest
    Damage Caused: Heavily infested leaves may fall prematurely, retarded shoot growth, and decreased vine vigor or vine death if roots are heavily infested.
    % Acres Affected: 10%
    Pest Life Cycles: This small aphid-like insect has a complex life cycle that involves survival on the roots throughout the year, and on the leaves during the growing season. The sequence of events in the life cycle is different for the foliar and root forms of this insect. The foliar form survives the winter as an egg under the bark of the grapevine. Asexual, wingless forms hatch in the spring and crawl onto the new leaves, where they develop galls. Young crawlers settle on the upper surface of immature leaves, causing galls to form on the under surface of the leaves. The only opening in a gall is to the upper leaf surface. Once mature, the female begins to lay eggs within a gall. Nymphs hatching from these eggs crawl to new leaves at shoot tips, settle on the leaves, and form new galls. In the case of the root form of grape phylloxera, the insects overwinter as immature forms on the roots. These forms mature in the spring and produce eggs that hatch into nymphs. The nymphs then start new galls on the roots. Winged forms develop in the spring, summer or fall and emerge from the soil to lay eggs on stems. These eggs hatch and produce the true sexual forms that produce the overwintering eggs laid under the bark. Several generations of each form of phylloxera may occur each season. Although the two forms behave differently, both belong to the same species of phylloxera that occurs on the leaves and roots of grapes. (Information from Bulletin 861, Midwest Small Fruit Pest Management Handbook, Ohio State University, 1997.)
    Timing of Control: Foliage should be examined on a weekly basis before and after bloom. Apply spray when first galls are detected; spray again 10 to 12 days later if new growth becomes infested.
    Yield Losses: ?
    Regional Differences: Regional differences are not as apparent as differences in susceptibility between varieties
    Cultural Control Practices: Loss by the root feeding form can be substantially reduced by grafting to a phylloxera-resistant rootstock. This grafting will not affect injury caused by the leaf gall form of the phylloxera
    Biological Control Practices: There are some natural predators which feed upon the foliar form of grape phylloxera, but none of these provide adequate control of the pest and none are available commercially.
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Not applicable




  34. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    endosulfan
    (Thiodan)

    2

    foliar, ground

        2 lb

    Apply when galls are first detected; spray again 10-12 days later if new growth is infested.

    0-2

    7

    24



  35. Japanese Beetles
    Type of Pest: Insect
    Frequency of Occurrence: Mid-summer
    Damage Caused: Damage is caused by direct feeding on the leaves
    % Acres Affected: 5%
    Pest Life Cycles: This pest overwinters as a larva below the soil surface. During late spring, larvae move closer to the soil surface and complete their development, with the larvae feeding principally on roots. Adults emerge in late-June or early-July and begin feeding on foliage. Mating occurs at this time and eggs are laid in the thatch layer of soil and take approximately 10 days to hatch. Young grubs begin feeding on plant roots and continue to feed until cold weather, at which time they tunnel 3 to 12 inches down into the soil where they construct overwintering cells. There is one generation per year.
    Timing of Control: After beetles appear in early to mid-July
    Yield Losses: Damage is mostly cosmetic in vigorously growing vines. Excessive foliar feeding in newly planted vineyards can result in delayed root and canopy development resulting in a delay of one year or more in terms of full crop production.
    Regional Differences: No regional differences are apparent.
    Cultural Control Practices: None available
    Biological Control Practices: No economically effective biological control is available for grapes at this time.
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Not applicable
    Other Issues:




  36. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    Carbaryl
    (Sevin)

    100

    foliar, ground

        2.5 - 4 lb or 2 qt
        per acre depending on
        formulation

    Early to mid-July when damage from feeding is considered to be detrimental.

    0-1

    7

    12

    Azinphosmethyl
    (Guthion)

    0

    foliar, ground

        1.5 lb per acre

    Early to mid-July when damage from feeding is considered to be detrimental.

    0-1

    0-10

    48

    Phosmet
    (Imidan)

    0

    foliar, ground

        3 lb

    Early to mid-July when damage from feeding is considered to be detrimental.

    0-1

    14

    24



  37. Broadleaf weeds
    Type of Pest: Weed
    Frequency of Occurrence: Yearly, throughout the season
    Damage Caused: Weeds compete directly with the vine for water and nutrients. Weed growth under the row in vineyards has been shown to be responsible for stunted vine size and crop reduction.
    % Acres Affected: 100%
    Pest Life Cycles: Variable due to species of broadleaf weed
    Timing of Control: Prior to emergence, prebloom
    Yield Losses: Up to 30% dependent on species of weeds present and degree of ground surface covered. Reduction in vine size due to competition of weeds for water and nutrients can result in decreased yield capacity over the next several growing seasons.
    Regional Differences: None
    Cultural Control Practices: The practice of "hilling up" or pushing a berm of soil against the vine and "pulling away", or the removal of the berm, can reduce weed populations under the row. However, these practices are labor intensive and less cost efficient than traditional pesticide based practices.
    Biological Control Practices: None available
    Post-Harvest Control Practices:Not applicable
    Other Issues:




  38. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    oxyflourfen
    (Goal 2X)

    10

    Soil applied, ground

        5-8 pt per acre
        surface sprayed

    Prior to bud swell. Application must be made prior to the emergence of weeds to be controlled.

    0-1

    N/A

    24

    paraquat
    (Gramoxone Extra)

    80

    Weed foliage, ground

        2-3 pt per acre
        surface sprayed

    Gramoxone should be applied to emerged weeds when they are small. Weeds 1 to 6-inches tall are easiest to control

    0-2

    0

    48

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Gramoxone has been successfully used in a post emergence weed management program that uses no pre-emergence herbicides. Weeds are allowed to grow to an average height of 6-inches prior to the first application of Gramoxone. A second application (and possibly a third), if necessary, is applied when regrowth of weeds reaches 6-inches in height. This program has been shown to provide weed management comparable to that of a conventional weed management program that uses both pre- and post emergence herbicides.

    Efficacy Issues:

    The use of post emergence herbicides is limited in Vinifera and French Hybrid vineyards where sucker growth is required for training system maintenance.

    diuron
    (Karmex DF)

    80

    Soil applied, ground

        2-6 lb per acre
        surface sprayed

    Apply in the spring just prior to the germination and growth of annual weeds.

    0-1

    0

    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    The label urges caution for use on soils low in clay or organic matter (1-2%) and limits the rate to 2-3 lb/A under those conditions. Tank mix with Solicam or Surflan for improved annual grass control. Use only in vineyards established for at least 3 years.

    simazine
    (Princep Caliber 90, Princep 4L)

    80

    Soil applied, ground

        2.2-5.3 lb or
        2.0-4.8 qt per
        acre surface
        sprayed
        depending on
        formulation

    Apply between harvest and early spring.

    0-1

    0

    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    Use the lower rate of material per acre surface sprayed on coarse-textured soils low in organic matter. New York has a FIFRA 2(ee) recommendation allowing Princep for pre-emergence control of plantains. Season-long control of annual grasses may be obtained by tank mixing with Karmex, Solicam, or Surflan. Do not use in vineyards established less than 3 years.

    glufosinate
    (Rely)

    5

    Weed foliage, ground

        3-6 qt per acre
        surface sprayed.
        Rate is based on
        height and
        species of weeds
        present.

    Best results are obtained when applications are made to actively growing weeds. Repeat applications may be necessary.

    0-2

    14

    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Rely has been successfully used in a post emergence weed management program which uses no pre-emergence herbicides. Weeds are allowed to grow to an average height of 6-inches prior to the first application of Rely. A second application of Rely is applied when regrowth of weeds reaches 6-inches in height. This program has been shown to provide weed management comparable to that of a conventional weed management program that uses both pre-and post emergence herbicides.

    Efficacy Issues:

    The use of post emergence herbicides is limited in Vinifera and French Hybrid vineyards where sucker growth is required for training system maintenance. Tank mixes with appropriate residual herbicides are recommended for broad-spectrum control and residual activity. Rely herbicide is not registered for use in Nassau and Suffolk Counties and must not be used in these locations.


    glyphosate
    (Roundup)


    80


    Weed foliage, ground


        0.5-5 qt per
        surface acre
        sprayed in 40 or
        fewer gal of
        water. Proper
        rate is dependent     upon many
        factors including
        weed species
        present, growth
        stage, and
        environmental
        factors.


    Roundup applications should not be made when green shoots, canes or foliage are in the spray zone. Roundup should be applied prior to the end of bloom stage to avoid injury, or with shielded sprayers or wiper equipment, but not within 14 days of harvest. Perennial grasses can be controlled with fall Roundup applications which can be made after 100 percent natural grape leaf fall after harvest. Roundup applications should not be made when green shoots, canes, or foliage are in the spray zone. Roundup should be applied prior to the end of bloom stage to avoid injury, or with shielded sprayers or wiper equipment, but not within 14 days of harvest. Perennial grasses can be controlled with fall Roundup applications which can be made after 100 percent natural grape leaf fall after harvest.


    0-2


    14


    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Roundup can be used as a substitute for cultivation of the vineyard row middles (see Pool, R.M., R.M. Dunst, and J.S. Kamas. 1990. Managing Weeds in New York Vineyards. V. Managing Vineyard Floors Using No-tillage. Cornell GrapeFacts I-5).

    Use in Resistance Management:

    Roundup may be tank mixed with pre-emergence herbicides according to label instructions to control both emerged and non-emerged weeds.

    Efficacy Issues:

    Efficacy depends upon absorption into mature leaves. Addition of dry ammonium sulfate at 8.5 to 17 pounds per 100 gallons water may increase performance of Roundup when tank-mixed with residual herbicides. Roundup is most effective applied at lower gallonage and higher concentration.

    oryzalin
    (Surflan A.S.)

    10

    soil applied, ground

        2-6 qt per acre
        surface sprayed.

    May be applied in the fall or spring prior to weed germination.

    0-1

    0

    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    Provides control of only some of the broadleaf weeds. Length of control depends on rate applied. It is not recommended for use on soils with organic matter content greater than 5 percent. Do not apply to newly planted vines until soil has settled.


    sulfosate
    (Touchdown)


    10


    weed foliage, ground


        0.8-6.4 pt in 3 to     30 gal of water
        per surface acre
        sprayed. Proper
        rate is dependent
        upon many
        factors including
        weed species
        present, growth
        stage, and
        environmental
       factors.


    Touchdown applications should not be made when green shoots, canes, or foliage are in the spray zone. Touchdown should be applied prior to the end of bloom stage to avoid injury, or with shielded equipment after bloom, but not within 14 days of harvest.


    0-2


    14


    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    Addition of 8.5 to 17 lb dry ammonium sulfate (AMS), or equivalent rate of a liquid formulation of AMS, may improve control of annual and perennial weeds.


  39. Grasses
    Type of Pest: Weed
    Frequency of Occurrence: Yearly, throughout the season
    Damage Caused: Weeds compete directly with the vine for water and nutrients. Weed growth under, and between, the row in vineyards has been shown to be responsible for stunted vine size and crop reduction.
    % Acres Affected: 100%
    Pest Life Cycles: Variable due to species of grass
    Timing of Control: Prior to emergence, prebloom
    Yield Losses: Up to 30% dependent on species of weeds present and degree of ground surface covered. Reduction in vine size due to competition of weeds for water and nutrients can result in decreased yield capacity over the next several growing seasons.
    Regional Differences: None
    Cultural Control Practices:
    Biological Control Practices: None available
    Post-Harvest Control Practices: Not applicable
    Other Issues:




  40. Chemical Controls:

    Pesticide

    % Trt.

    Type of Appl.

    Typical
    Rates/Acre

    Timing

    Avg. # of Appl.

    PHI

    REI

    oxyflourfen
    (Goal 2X)

    10

    Soil applied, ground, prior to weed emergence

        5-8 pt per acre
        surface sprayed

    prior to bud swell

    1

    N/A

    24

    Efficacy Issues:

    Tank mix with Solicam or Surflan for improved annual grass control. Cannot be applied to vines established less than 3 years unless vines are on a trellis wire at least 3 feet above the soil surface.

    paraquat
    (Gramoxone Extra)

    80

    Soil applied, ground

        2-3 pt per
        sprayed acre

    Gramoxone should be applied to emerged weed when they are small. Weeds 1 to 6-inches tall are easiest to control.

    1-2

    0

    48

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Gramoxone has been successfully used in a post emergence weed management program that uses no pre-emergence herbicides. Weeds are allowed to grow to an average height of 6 inches prior to the first application of Gramoxone. A second application of Gramoxone is applied when regrowth of weeds reaches 6-inches in height. This program has been shown to provide weed management comparable to that of a conventional weed management program that uses both pre- and post emergence herbicides.

    Efficacy Issues:

    The use of post emergence herbicides is limited in Vinifera and French Hybrid vineyards where sucker growth is required for training system maintenance.

    diuron
    (Karmex DF)

    80

    Soil applied, ground

        2-6 lb per acre
        surface sprayed

    Apply in the spring just prior to germination and growth of annual weeds.

    0-1

    0

    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    The label urges caution for use on soils low in clay or organic matter (1-2%) and limits the rate to 2-3 lb/A on soils high in clay or organic matter. Tank mix with Solicam or Surflan for improved annual grass control. Use only in vineyards established for at least 3 years.

    sethoxydim
    (Poast)

    5

    Soil, ground

        1.5-2.5 pt per
        acre surface
        sprayed

    Application timing and rates are adjusted according to the species and growth stage of the weed.

    1

    50

    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    Control is best when the weeds have not exceeded recommended growth stages and are not subject to environmental stresses. Addition of crop oil concentrate is recommended.

    simazine
    (Princep Caliber 90, Princep 4L)

    80

    Soil, ground

        2.2-5.3 lb or
        2.0-4.8 qt
        depending on
        formulation

    Apply between harvest and early spring.

    1

    0

    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    Use the lower rate of material per acre surface sprayed on coarse-textured soils low in organic matter. New York has a FIFRA 2(ee) recommendation allowing Princep for pre emergence control of plantains. Season-long control of annual grasses may be obtained by tank mixing with Karmex, Solicam, or Surflan. Do not use in vineyards established less than 3 years.

    glufosinate
    (Rely)

    5

    Soil, ground

        3-6 qt per acre
        surface sprayed.
        Rate is based
        on height and
        species of weeds
        present.

    Best results are obtained when applications are made to actively growing weeds. Repeat applications may be necessary.

    0-1

    14

    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Rely has been successfully used in a post emergence weed management program which uses no pre-emergence herbicides. Weeds are allowed to grow to an average height of 6 inches prior to the first application of Gramoxone. A second application of Gramoxone is applied when regrowth of weeds reaches 6-inches in height. This program has been shown to provide weed management comparable to that of a conventional weed management program that uses both pre- and post emergence herbicides.

    Efficacy Issues:

    The use of post emergence herbicides is limited in Vinifera and French Hybrid vineyards where sucker growth is required for training system maintenance. Tank mixes with appropriate residual herbicides are recommended for broad-spectrum control and residual activity. Rely herbicide is not registered for use in Nassau and Suffolk Counties and must not be used in these locations.


    glyphosate
    (Roundup)


    80


    Soil, ground


        0.5-5 qt per
        surface acre
        sprayed in 40
        or fewer gal of
        water. Proper
        rate is dependent
        upon many
        factors including
        weed species
        present, growth
        stage, and
        environmental
        factors.


    Roundup applications should not be made when green shoots, canes, or foliage are in the spray zone. Roundup should be applied prior to the end of blooms stage to avoid injury, or with shielded sprayers or wiper equipment, but not within 14 days of harvest. Perennial grasses can be controlled with fall Roundup applications which can be made after 100 percent natural grape leaf fall after harvest. Roundup applications should not be made when green shoots, canes, or foliage are in the spray zone. Roundup should be applied prior to the end of blooms stage to avoid injury, or with shielded sprayers or wiper equipment, but not within 14 days of harvest. Perennial grasses can be controlled with fall Roundup applications which can be made after 100 percent natural grape leaf fall after harvest.


    0-1


    14


    12

    Use in IPM Programs:

    Roundup can be used as a substitute for cultivation of the vineyard row middles (see Pool, R.M., R.M. Dunst, and J.S. Kamas. 1990. Managing Weeds in New York Vineyards. V. Managing Vineyard Floors Using No-tillage. Cornell GrapeFacts I-5).

    Use in Resistance Management:

    Roundup may be tank mixed with pre-emergence herbicides according to label instructions to control both emerged and non-emerged weeds.

    Efficacy Issues:

    Efficacy depends upon absorption into mature leaves. Addition of dry ammonium sulfate at 8.5 to 17 pounds per 100 gallons may increase performance of Roundup when tank-mixed with residual herbicides. Roundup is most effective when applied at lower gallonage and higher concentration.

    norflurazon
    (Solicam DF)

    10

    Soil, ground

        2.5-5.0 lb per
        acre surface
        sprayed. Rate
        is dependent
        upon soil texture.

    Apply in fall or early spring prior to weed germination.

    0-1

    0

    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    Solicam provides excellent season-long control of annual grasses and will also control several annual broadleaf species and provide some suppression of yellow nutsedge, plantains, and perennial grasses. Tank mixes with Karmex, Princep, or Surflan are needed to attain season-long, broad-spectrum weed control. Vines must be established at least 2 years.

    oryzalin
    (Surflan A.S.)

    10

    Soil, ground

        2-6 qt per
        surface acre
        sprayed.

    May be applied in the fall or spring prior to weed germination.

    0-1

    0

    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    Length of control depends on rate applied. It is not recommended for use on soils with organic matter content greater than 5 percent. Do not apply to newly planted vines until soil has settled.

    sulfosate
    (Touchdown)

    10

    weed foliage, ground

        0.8-6.4 pt in 3
        to 30 gal of water     per surface acre
        sprayed. Proper
        rate is dependent
        upon many
        factors including
        weed species
        present, growth
        stage, and
        environmental
        factors.

    Touchdown applications should not be made when greens hoots, canes, or foliage are in the spray zone. Touchdown should be applied prior to the end of bloom stage to avoid injury, or with shielded equipment after bloom, but not within 14 days of harvest.

    0-2

    14

    12

    Efficacy Issues:

    Addition of 8.5 to 17 lb dry ammonium sulfate (AMS), or equivalent rate of a liquid formulation of AMS, may improve control of annual and perennial weeds.


  1. References
  1. 1999 New York and Pennsylvania Pest Management Recommendations for Grapes.


  2. Grape IPM Disease Identification Fact Sheets No.'s 1-8. New York State Experiment Station, Geneva, NY.


  3. Grape IPM Insect Identification Sheets No.'s 1-8. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. Geneva, NY


  4. Midwest Small Fruit Pest Management Handbook, Bulletin 861, Ohio State University, 1997.