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Pest and Pesticide Use Assessment for Cabbage Production Systems in New York State for 1991

Introduction

Nationally, New York state ranks first in kraut cabbage and third in fresh market cabbage production. Total cabbage production in New York state in 1990 was valued at 27 million dollars. This is approximately one-eighth of the value of New York state's total principle fresh market and processed vegetables (New York State Agricultural Statistics, 1990-1991).

Integrated pest management programs for cabbage in New York state have been available since the late 1970s. Many of these IPM techniques are in use. However, recent advances in cabbage IPM research have not yet been widely adopted by the industry for a variety of reasons, including current economic forces and market demands (Petzoldt, 1990).

In today's setting, the absence of pesticide-use information can create numerous misunderstandings associated with consumer concerns over food safety and health effects of pesticides. It is for this reason that this project was undertaken.

This report summarizes pesticide-use data during 1991 for cabbage. Funding for this report was provided by the National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program, United States Department of Agriculture.

For each pesticide used on cabbage, data are presented on the number of acres treated, the amount of active ingredient per treatment, the method of application, thetype of coverage, the time of application, and the target pest(s). In addition, data are provided for growers' estimated costs of pesticide use per acre, their reasons for applying pesticides, alternative control practices, and the calibration frequency of their pesticide application equipment. Also, cost comparison tables are provided for each pesticide used on cabbage by pesticide type (insecticide, fungicide, or herbicide).

Certain words and/or terms used throughout this paper are defined below:

Demographics

Table 1 shows the cabbage type, the number of records and the total acres of cabbage planted and harvested. Forty-one surveys were filled out encompassing 10 counties. Thirty-eight surveys were collected from growers in 9 counties representing a total of 3,617 acres and harvesting 3,584 acres with an average yield of 23.3 tons per acre. Three surveys from Suffolk county were from custom applicators and therefore acreage and yield were not included.

Table 1:  Acreage and yield of cabbage data collected
                    No. of         Acres          Acres
Cabbage type        records       planted       harvested
Process                5             276            273
Fresh market          31           2,549          2,519
Both                   5             792            792
Total                 41           3,617          3,584
Avg. yield per acre        23.3 tons

Insecticide Use

All 41 surveys indicated the use of at least one insecticide on cabbage for the 1991 growing season. A total of 108 insecticides were used. Seventy-four percent of the insecticide applications were made by the grower or his/her employee. The type of application equipment used most often to apply insecticides was a hydraulic sprayer with a nozzle tip (58.6%).

Table 2 summarizes the 108 insecticide records for cabbage used by the 41 growers/applicators. Parathion was the most frequently used insecticide (25%), applied to 3,114 acres an average of 6.4 times for a total of 19,983 acre treatments. This use pattern will change significantly in 1992, because parathion will no longer be labelled for use on cabbage. For all of the insecticides applied, the responses "ground" for application method, "broadcast not incorporated" for type of coverage and "post emergence" for time of application were the most popular answers.

Table 2:  Insecticide use on cabbage (108 insecticide records)
                                                  Rate per    Total
               No. of   Acres    Times    Acre  application  applied
Insecticide    records treated  applied   trts      (lb)       (lb)
Azinphos-methyl   5     592.0    4.255   2,519.0    0.750    1,889.3
 (Guthion)
Bacillus thur.    1      66.0    4.000     264.0    2.000      528.0
 (Cutlass)
Bacillus thur.    3      46.0    2.174     100.0    0.064        6.4
 (Dipel)
Bacillus thur.    4     232.0    3.483     808.0    0.064       51.7
 (Javelin)
Carbaryl          2      10.0    3.000      30.0    2.000       60.0
 (Sevin)
Chlorpyrifos      3     255.0    1.941     495.0    1.000      495.0
 (Lorsban)
Dimethoate       12     896.0    7.443   6,669.0    0.500    3,334.5
 (Cygon)
Endosulfan        8     408.0    2.373     968.0    1.000      968.0
 (Thiodan)
Esfenvalerate    11   1,140.0    3.032   3,456.0    0.050      172.8
 (Asana)
Malathion         1       1.0    3.000       3.0    1.250        3.8
 (Cythion)
Methamidophos     8     515.0    1.707     879.0    1.000      879.0
 (Monitor)
Methomyl          1      55.0    1.000      55.0    0.900       49.5
 (Lannate)
Mevinphos         4     307.0    1.147     352.0    0.250       88.0
 (Phosdrin)
Naled             1      66.0    1.000      66.0    2.000      132.0
 (Dibrom)
Oxydemeton-methyl 2      83.0    2.000     166.0    0.750      124.5
 (Metasystox-R)
Parathion        27   3,114.0    6.417  19,983.0    0.500    9,991.5
 (Parathion)
Permethrin       10   1,417.0    2.924   4,144.0    0.200      828.8
 (Ambush)
Permethrin        4     436.0    1.509     658.0    0.200      131.6
 (Pounce)

Table 3 shows the total pounds of insecticide active ingredients applied to cabbage by county. As expected, counties with the greatest number of acres of cabbage, applied the greatest amount of insecticide active ingredient. The amount increases proportionately with the number of acres, applying 2.4-7.7 pounds of active ingredient per acre (lbs AI/A).

Table 3:  Total pounds of insecticide active ingredient applied to NYS 
cabbage in 1991 by county
                             lbs              Acres
County                      Active             in
                          Ingredient         Cabbage
Chenango                     43.2               18
Genesee                   2,548.0              332
Monroe                   10,200.9             1866
Niagara                     981.5              233
Ontario, Wayne & Yates    2,692.7              479
Orleans                   2,639.5              431
Rensselaer                    3.8                1
Suffolk                     285.3        not given

Table 4 indicates that the imported cabbageworm, diamondback moth and cabbage looper were the most frequently targeted pests (57.4%, 54.6% and 51.9% of insecticide treatments respectively). The fact that there were 278 responses for 108 insecticides used indicates that each insecticide was used to treat an average of 2.5 pests.

Table 4:  Frequency of insecticide treatment for target pests on cabbage 
(108 insecticide records)
                         Number of        Percent of
Target Pest              responses          records
Flea beetle                  30              27.8
Imported cabbageworm         62              57.4
Cabbage aphid                21              19.4
Thrips                       46              42.6
Diamondback moth             59              54.6
Cabbage looper               56              51.9
Insect unspecified            4               3.7

Table 5 shows the number of acre treatments of specific insecticides for each target pest found on cabbage. Flea beetles were most often controlled with parathion (68.1%) as were imported cabbageworms (53.4%), cabbage aphids (74.3%), thrips (60.2%) and diamondback moth (41.8%); all other insecticides used accounted for very little of their treatment. Cabbage looper was the only pest that was controlled by more than parathion in any significant amount. Dimethoate (Cygon) was used for 27.6% looper control.

Table 5:  Percent of acre treatments for target pests on cabbage (108  
insecticide records)
FB=flea beetle, ICW=imported cabbageworm, CA=cabbage aphip, TH=thrips,
DBM=diamond-backed moth, CL=cabbage looper
                      FB       ICW      CA       TH       DBM      CL
Active Ingredient      %        %        %        %        %        %
Azinphos-methyl      14.1      1.7      6.8      0.1      6.5      0.6
Bt                     -       2.6       -        -       3.5      5.7
Carbaryl              0.1      0.1       -       0.1       -       0.1
Chlorpyrifos          1.2      0.2       -        -       1.0      1.6
Dimethoate            3.5     17.8      3.0     24.1     18.6     27.6
Endosulfan            4.5      2.9       -       2.4      1.6      2.8
Esfenvalerate         3.4      8.2      0.1      5.1      8.2      9.6
Malathion            <0.1       -        -        -        -      <0.1
Methamidophos          -       1.1      4.3      1.3      2.1      3.4
Methomyl               -       0.2      0.9       -       0.2      0.3
Mevinphos              -       1.0       -       0.1      1.1      1.4
Naled                  -       0.2       -        -       0.2       -
Oxydemeton-methyl      -       0.5      2.7      0.6      0.5      0.8
Parathion            68.1     53.5     74.3     60.2     41.8     36.7
Permethrin            5.1     10.0      7.8      6.1     14.6      9.3

A cost comparison of insecticides used in cabbage production is shown in Table 6. It is understandable why parathion is so widely used as it costs only $2.04 per acre per application.

Table 6:  Cost comparison of insecticides used in cabbage production
                       Maximum    *Median     Cost per    Avg. #
                       rate/A     cost/lb     acre per    times   Total
Insecticide (AI)     (lbs of AI)   of AI    application  applied   cost
Ambush(permethrin)       0.2      $56.00       $11.20      2.9   $32.48
Asana(esfenvalerate)     0.05     167.88         8.39      3.0    25.17
Cygon(dimethoate)        0.5        7.12         3.56      7.4    26.34
Cythion(malathion)       1.25       3.94         4.93      3.0    14.79
Dibrom(naled)            2.0        6.38        12.76      1.0    12.76
Dipel(Bt)                0.064    216.87        13.88      2.2    30.53
Guthion(azinphos-methyl) 0.75      14.65        10.99      4.3    47.26
Javelin(Bt)              0.064    224.84        14.39      3.5    50.37
Lannate(methomyl)        0.9       22.22        20.00      1.0    20.00
Lorsban(chlorpyrifos)    1.0       10.94        10.94      1.9    20.79
Metasystox-R(oxydemeton- 0.75      19.85        14.89      2.0    29.78
               methyl)
Monitor(methamidophos)   1.0       14.38        14.38      1.7    24.45
Parathion(parathion)     0.5        4.08         2.04      6.4    13.05
Phosdrin(mevinphos)      0.25      22.00         5.50      1.1     6.05
Pounce(permethrin)       0.2       50.28        10.06      1.5    15.09
Sevin(carbaryl)          2.0        5.56        11.12      3.0    33.36
Thiodan(endosulfan)      1.0       29.98        29.98      2.4    71.95
*Price obtained from AGCHEMPRICE Current U.S.A. Prices of Non-Fertilizer 
Agricultural Chemicals April 1992.  Published by DPRA Incorporated.
As this is a 1992 edition, 1991 costs may not be accurately reflected.

Fungicide Use

Of the 41 growers/applicators surveyed, fifteen (36.6%) indicated that they had not applied fungicides to their 1991 cabbage crop. The remaining 26 used 33 fungicides. Seventy percent of the fungicide applications were made by the grower or his/her employee. The type of application equipment used most often was a hydraulic sprayer with a nozzle tip (54.3%).

Table 7 summarizes the 33 fungicide records for cabbage. Chlorothalonil (Bravo - all formulations) was the most frequently used fungicide (63.6%), applied to 2,501 acres an average of 2.5 times for a total of 6,323 acre treatments. The application method used most often for chlorothalonil was by ground application (71%); the most common type of coverage was "broadcast not incorporated" (71%) and the most common timing of coverage was post emergence (90%).

Table 7:  Fungicide use on cabbage (33 fungicide records)
                                                  Rate per    Total
               No. of   Acres    Times    Acre  application  applied
Fungicide      records treated  applied   trts      (lb)       (lb)
Benomyl           2     405.0    5.000   2,025.0   1.000     2,025.0
 (Benlate)
Captan            3     800.3    2.999   2,400.3   0.280       672.1
 (Captan)
Chlorothalonil   20   2,431.0    2.535   6,163.0   1.125     6,933.4
 (Bravo)
Chlorothalonil    1     160.0    1.000     160.0   1.173       187.7
 (Bravo 500)
Copper            1       5.0    1.000       5.0
 (Copper)
Copper hydroxide  2      96.0    1.000      96.0   0.570        54.7
 (Kocide 101)
Copper hydroxide  1      82.0    2.000     164.0   0.330        54.1
 (Kocide 606)
Metalaxyl/        2      70.0    3.857     270.0   1.440       388.8
 chlorothalonil (Ridomil/Bravo)
Thiram            1       8.0    3.000      24.0   0.280         6.7
 (Thiram)

Table 8 shows the total pounds of fungicide active ingredients applied by county. In contrast to insecticide use by county (Table 3), fungicide use is concentrated in Monroe county. Here fungicide application is indicated at a rate of 4.2 lbs AI/A versus 0.2-2.2 lbs AI/A for the other counties.

Table 8:  Total pounds of fungicide active ingredient applied to NYS 
cabbage in 1991 by county
                              lbs              Acres
County                      Active               in
                          Ingredient          Cabbage
Genesee                      565.3               332
Monroe                     7,904.3              1866
Niagara                      220.8               233
Ontario, Wayne & Yates       128.3               479
Orleans                      946.4               431
Suffolk                      557.1         not given

Table 9 summarizes the use of fungicides for specific target pests on cabbage. Table 9 indicates that the major disease treated for was alternaria leaf spot (69.7% of fungicide treatments) followed by black rot (36.4%). All other target pests were insignificant.

Table 9:  Frequency of fungicide treatment for target pests on cabbage 
(33 fungicide records)
                         Number of          Percent of
Target Pest              responses           records
Alternaria leaf spot         23                69.7
Black rot                    12                36.4
Black leg                     1                 3.0
Seed decay                    1                 3.0
Fusarium yellows              2                 6.1
Root rot                      1                 3.0
Downy mildew                  4                12.1
Don't know                    1                 3.0
Not specified                 3                 9.1

A cost comparison of fungicides used in cabbage production is shown in Table 10.

Table 10:  Cost comparison of fungicides used in cabbage production
                       Maximum    *Median     Cost per    Avg. #
                       rate/A     cost/lb     acre per    times   Total
Fungicide (AI)       (lbs of AI)   of AI    application  applied   cost
Benlate(benomyl)          1.0      $30.90     $30.90       5    $154.50
Bravo(chlorothalonil)     1.125      6.73       7.57       2.5    18.92
Bravo 500(chlorothalonil) 1.173      7.83       9.18       1.0     9.18
Captan(captan)            0.28       4.12       1.15       3.0     3.45
Kocide 101(CuOH)          0.57       2.09       1.19       1.0     1.19
Kocide 606(CuOH)          0.33      12.95       4.27       2.0     8.54
Ridomil/Bravo(metalaxyl/  1.62      13.11      21.24       3.9    82.84
              chlorothalonil)
*Price obtained from AGCHEMPRICE Current U.S.A. Prices of Non-Fertilizer 
Agricultural Chemicals.  April 1992.  Published by DPRA Incorporated.
As this is a 1992 edition, 1991 costs may not be accurately reflected.

Herbicide Use

Six (14.6%) of the 41 growers/applicators surveyed, indicated that they had not applied herbicides to their 1991 cabbage crop. The remaining 35 used 43 herbicides. Ninety-five percent of the herbicide applications were made by the grower or his/her employee. The type of application equipment used most often was a hydraulic sprayer with a nozzle tip (80.5%,).

Table 11 summarizes the 43 herbicide records for cabbage. Trifluralin (Treflan) was the most frequently used (69.8%), applied to 2,709 acres an average of 1.01 times for a total of 2,739 acre treatments. The application method used 100% of the time to apply trifluralin was ground application; the most common type of coverage was broadcast incorporated (90.0%) and the most common timing of coverage was pre-planting (96.7%).

Table 11:  Herbicide use on cabbage (43 herbicide records)
                                                  Rate per    Total
               No. of   Acres    Times    Acre  application  applied
Herbicide      records treated  applied   trts      (lb)       (lb)
DCPA              2      257.0    1.00    257.0    10.500    2,698.5
 (Dacthal)
Metolachlor       7    1,025.0    1.00  1,025.0     2.000    2,050.0
 (Dual)
Napropamide       3       77.0    1.00     77.0     2.000      154.0
 (Devrinol)
Sethoxydim        1       10.0    1.00     10.0
 (Poast)
Trifluralin      30    2,709.0    1.01  2,739.0     0.750    2,054.3
 (Treflan)

Table 12 shows the total pounds of herbicide active ingredients applied within a county. As with insecticide use (Table 3), total pounds of herbicide active ingredients increase with the number of acres planted in cabbage. Herbicide applications range from 0.75 - 2.4 lbs AI/A.

Table 12:  Total pounds of herbicide active ingredient applied to NYS 
cabbage in 1991 by county
                                lbs              Acres in
County                          AI               Cabbage
Chenango                       13.5                18
Genesee                       746.0               332
Monroe                      4,392.0              1866
Niagara                       418.5               233
Ontario, Wayne & Yates        787.3               479
Orleans                       683.3               431

Metolachlor (Dual) use in table 11 is only indicative for 7 growers. The New York State Vegetable Growers Association has obtained a Third Party Registration label for the use of Dual herbicide on transplanted cabbage. Therefore, the records of all growers who used Dual for their 1991 cabbage crop were available as data. Table 13 summarizes Dual use by county. Dual is being applied at an average rate of 3.1 lbs AI/A. This would include two plantings of cabbage.

Table 13:  Metolachlor (Dual) herbicide use on NYS cabbage
for 1991 by county
                    Number of    Number of      *lbs Metolachlor
County               records       acres             applied
Albany                  1            15                30.0
Broome                  1             4                16.0
Cayuga                  1            25                18.8
Cortland                2            17                38.0
Genesee                 3           240               825.0
Madison                 1            50               100.0
Monroe                  4         1,200             4,400.0
Niagara                10         1,355             3,510.0
Ontario                 4           305             1,010.0
Orleans                 8           500             1,500.0
Wayne                   2           140               560.0
Yates                   1           100               300.0
Total                  38         3,951            12,307.8
* Assumes all that was ordered was used in 1991.

Table 14 summarizes the use of herbicides for specific target pests on cabbage. The major weeds requiring control are the annual broadleaf weeds (70.1% of herbicide applications) followed by the annual grasses (60.5%).

Table 14:  Frequency of herbicide treatment for target pests on cabbage 
(43 herbicide records)
                         Number of            Percent of
Target Pest              responses             records
Annual broadleaf             34                 70.1
Perennial broadleaf           9                 20.9
Annual grass                 26                 60.5
Perennial grass              15                 34.9
Biennial weeds                1                  2.3
Weed unspecified              2                  4.7

Table 15 shows the percent of acre treatments treated by specific herbicides for each target pest found in cabbage. Annual broadleaf weeds are being treated with trifluralin (Treflan) (76.5%) as are perennial broadleaf weeds (100.0%). Annual grasses are being treated with trifluralin (55.9%) followed by metolachlor (Dual) (32.1%) while perennial grasses are being treated with metolachlor (62.9%) followed by trifluralin (20.8%).

Table 15:  Percent of acre treatments treated with herbicides for target 
pests on cabbage  (43 herbicide records)
                Annual   Perennial    Annual   Perennial   Biennial
              broadleaf  broadleaf     grass     grass      weeds
Herbicide         %          %           %         %          %
DCPA             9.1         -          9.5      15.7         -
Metolachlor     12.0         -         32.1      62.9         -
Napropamide      2.4         -          2.5        -          -
Sethoxydim        -          -           -        0.6         -
Trifluralin     76.5      100.0        55.9      20.8      100.0

A cost comparison of herbicides used in cabbage production is shown in Table 16.

Table 16:  Cost comparison of herbicides used in cabbage production
                       Maximum    *Median     Cost per    Avg. #
                       rate/A     cost/lb     acre per    times   Total
Herbicide (AI)       (lbs of AI)   of AI    application  applied   cost
Dacthal(DCPA)           10.5       $6.80       $71.40     1.00   $71.40
Devrinol(napropamide)    2.0       18.35        36.70     1.00    36.70
Dual(metolachlor)        2.0        7.81        15.62     1.00    15.62
Poast(sethoxydim)        0.28      78.00        21.84     1.00    21.84
Treflan(trifluralin)     0.75       6.92         5.19     1.01     5.24
*Price obtained from AGCHEMPRICE Current U.S.A. Prices of Non-Fertilizer 
Agricultural Chemicals.  April 1992.  Published by DPRA Incorporated.
As this is a 1992 edition, 1991 costs may not be accurately reflected.

General Pesticide Use and Alternatives

The majority of growers (47.2%) calibrate theri application equipment 2-3 times a season. Thirty percent of the growers indicated they spent between $100 and $150 per acre on pesticides for their 1991 cabbage crop. The most common response to the question "How do you decide whether or not to apply pesticides to your cabbage" was "presence of pest on the basis of scouting" (40.0%, Table 17).

Table 17:  Basis used to decide whether or not to apply pesticides to 
crop (36 records)
Basis for applying                         Number of      Percent of
pesticides to crop                         responses       records
Presence of pest on the basis of scouting     32             88.9
Treat on routine schedule                      4             11.1
Cooperative extension recommendation          13             36.1
Chemical salesperson recommendation           12             33.3
Farmer/grower recommendation                   4             11.1
Private consultant recommendation             13             36.1
Crop Management Association recommendation     2              5.6

Table 18 summarizes the alternative methods growers are using to control insects, diseases and weeds of cabbage. More than three- quarters of the growers surveyed are using cultivation, crop rotation and resistant varieties.

Table 27:  Alternative methods to control insects, diseases and weeds of 
cabbage (36 records)
Alternative methods                      Number of       Percent of
of control                               responses        records
Early harvest                                3               8.3
Crop rotation                               30              83.3
Resistant varieties                         27              75.0
Biocontrols-predators/parasites              2               5.6
Improve drainage                            10              27.8
Plant in location best suited for crop      18              50.0
Cultivation                                 32              88.9
Timely planting                             11              30.6
Row cover                                    1               2.8

Conclusions and Comparisons of NYS Pesticide Usage on Cabbage With National Usage and Other States

According to Vegetables 1990 Summary and Agricultural Chemical Usage Survey, National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, total pesticide active ingredients applied to cabbage in Texas was 93,230 lbs on 11,600 acres; 7,190 lbs on 2,500 acres in Michigan; 263,900 lbs on 14,300 acres in Florida; and 4,630 lbs on 960 acres in Arizona. That translates to 8.0 lbs AI/A for Texas, 2.9 lbs AI/A for Michigan, 18.5 lbs AI/A for Florida and 4.8 lbs AI/A for Arizona. New York State usage, according to this survey, totaled 37,016.5 lbs for 3,617 acres, or 10.2 lbs AI/A. Without parathion, usage drops to about 7.5 lbs AI/A.

This insecticide usage can probably be attributed to the fact that in the last 4 years, the diamondback moth (DBM) has become the most serious pest of crucifers in New York; its increased pest status has significantly increased insecticide use (Shelton, et. al., 1991). According to Shelton, et. al., (1991) DBM's resistance to insecticides was documented in 1988, therefore New York cabbage growers can no longer rely on chemicals to suppress DBM populations consistently. An evaluation of insecticide use on between 12 and 35 fields from 1978 through 1981 indicated that a 49% reduction in insecticides and a 54% improvement in control of cabbage Lepidoptera resulted from utilizing scouting and thresholds (Petzoldt, et. al., 1991). Research in 1991 demonstrated that cabbage pests can be managed in a manner modified to minimize environmental impacts without affecting yield or quality, or increasing management costs, by using alternative methods and integrated pest management (IPM) techniques (Petzoldt, et. al., 1991). The results of this survey would indicate that growers may not be utilizing IPM practices as widely as we would like.

The control of black rot and alternaria leaf spot were the major reasons for the application of fungicides by the growers surveyed. However, using resistant varieties is a more effective management practice than the application of copper or other fungicides for the control of black rot (Dillard, 1991). Again, as with insecticide usage, this would indicate IPM techniques are not being used by New York cabbage growers.

According to Herbicide Use in the United States, National Summary Report, April 1991, herbicide use on cabbage in 1990 was 230,000 lbs. AI/yr. From our survey, herbicide usage totaled 6,982 lbs AI on cabbage in 1991, or 3% of the national usage. The major herbicides used in New York were trifluralin (Treflan) and metolachlor (Dual) to control annual broadleaf weeds and annual grasses. National usage of trifluralin on cabbage was 31,519 lbs AI compared to 2,054 lbs from our survey (6.5% of national usage). Metolachlor is not listed in Herbicide Use in the United States for cabbage, but New York State usage for other agricultural commodities is listed at 885,629 lbs. Metolachlor use on cabbage in our survey totaled 12,308 lbs or 1.3% of that used in New York State. DCPA was used nationally on cabbage at 147,167 lbs. From this survey, 2,699 lbs represents 1.8% of national use. Napropamide usage in New York State was 154 lbs or 1.1% of the national use (14,000 lbs.).

References

Dillard, H. R. 1991.
Copper vs. Black Rot - Who Won? New York State Vegetable Conference Proceedings, p. 74.

Geden, C. J., and D. A. Rutz. 1991.
Current and Future Prospects for House Fly Biocontrol. Fifty-third Annual New York State Pest Management Conference Proceedings, p. 5.

Herbicide Use in the United States, National Summary Report, April 1991.

Lazarus, W. F., D. A. Rutz, R. W. Miller, and D. A. Brown. 1989.
Costs of Existing and Recommended Manure Management Practices for House Fly and Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Control on Dairy Farms. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 82. No. 4. pp. 1145-1151.

New York State Agricultural Statistics, 1991-1992.

Petzoldt, C. H. 1990.
Integrated Pest Management Implementation Programs for Vegetables in New York, a Progress Report for FY90. NARS Report Control No. NY33.

Petzoldt, C. H., L. Pedersen, A. M. Shelton, and J. Mishanec. 1991.
Modifying Pesticide Inputs in Cabbage to Meet Environmental Concerns. Fifty-third Annual New York State Pest Management Conference Proceedings, p. 67.

Shelton, A. M., M. P. Hoffmann, P. J. Cameron, and C. H. Petzoldt. 1991.
Parasitism of Diamondback Moth in Cabbage. Fifty-third Annual New York State Pest Management Conference Proceedings, p. 72.

Specker, D. R., D. A. Rutz, W. G. Smith, J. K. Waldron, R. I. Carruthers, and K. S. Goh. 1986.
Pest and Pesticide Use Assessment in Dairy Cattle/Field and Forage Production Systems in the Northeast. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 140 pp.

Vegetables 1990 Summary and Agricultural Chemical Usage Survey. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA.