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New York Agricultural Statistics Service

April 1994

Potatoes: Ag Chemical Usage In 1993

This report on Fall Potatoes is lifted from the 1993 field crops summary issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) containing on- farm agricultural chemical use statistics. The data presented in this report are part of the data series on chemical use funded through the Water Quality Initiative.

The Water Quality Initiative is a multi-agency program designed to provide information for farmers, ranchers, and foresters to address on-farm and off- farm environmental issues. In the past, there has been an inadequate amount of farm level data to determine the magnitude of water quality problems or to permit an assessment of alternatives for farmers and other affected parties. This report and other agricultural chemical reports help fill the needs of analysts evaluating the complex environmental issues of the 1 990's.

NASS is responsible for collecting on-farm agricultural chemical use information to support the evaluation of water quality and food safety issues. The Economic Research Service (ERS) conducts research on the impact of alternative pesticide regulations, policies, and practices.

Survey Procedures

The information presented in this publication is a result of data collected from sample surveys conducted during the 1993 crop year. Chemical use data were collected on potatoes beginning in late July 1993. Generally, data were collected late in the growing season or after the farm operator indicated planned applications were completed. We would like to thank all those that volunteered to provide the data for this report.

A random sample of fields was selected so that the probability of selecting a particular field was directly proportional to the total acres planted. Thus, each acre planted to potatoes had exactly the same chance of selection.

Sample fields were selected using information obtained through a survey of farm operators conducted in June. Farmers operating the sample fields were personally interviewed to obtain information on chemical applications made to those specific fields. The survey instrument was used to collect chemical application data by product name or trade name. A thorough review compared reported data with manufacturer's label recommendations and with data from other farm operators using the same product. Following this review, product information was converted to an active ingredient level. The chemical use estimates in this publication consist of survey estimates of those active ingredients.

Fall Season Potatoes

Nitrogen and phosphate were applied to virtually all fall season potato acres in the 11 States surveyed in 1993. Potash was used on 91 percent of the acreage nationally, with lower use in Western States where the compound tends to be more naturally occurring.

Farmers applied 206 pounds of nitrogen per acre in 2.3 times across the field for a total of 230 million pounds. Phosphate, totaling 184 million pounds, was applied an average of 1.5 trips at a combined rate of 167 pounds per acre. Potash totaled 157 pounds per acre for an 11 State total of 159 million pounds. Applications averaged 1.4 trips across the field.

Herbicides were applied to 83 percent of the potato acreage in 1993. Coverage ranged from 53 and 64 percent of the acreage in North Dakota and Minnesota to 89 percent or more in Idaho, Maine, Michigan, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin. Insecticide applications were lowest in Colorado, Idaho, and Oregon with 58, 79, and 84 percent of the area covered. Minnesota covered 93 percent of their potato acreage and North Dakota covered 95 percent. The remaining 6 States applied Insecticides to virtually all of their potatoes. Insecticide use for the eleven States in 1993 was an average of 88 percent of the potato acreage. Fungicide use approached general coverage in eight of the eleven States surveyed. Fungicide usage increased substantially in Michigan and Minnesota and remained high in North Dakota due to the wet growing season. However, Idaho with dominating acreage, covered only 48 percent of it's fields, bringing the U.S. average down to 76 percent. The use of other chemicals (primarily desiccants) on 53 percent of potato acreage was up from 43 percent the previous year. This year's report collected data on 10 different herbicides, 26 insecticides, 12 fungicides, and 8 other types of chemicals.

Tables:


Table 1: Fall Potatoes: Fertilizer Applications, Total Acreage And Percentage Receiving Applications, Major States And Total, 1993

StateArea PlantedArea Receiving 1
Nitrogen Phosphate Potash
1,000 AcresPercent
Colorado 72.5 96 96 85
Idaho 390.0 100 99 85
Maine 81.0 100 99 98
Michigan 40.0 100 100 97
Minnesota 70.0 99 94 94
New York 28.8 100 100 100
North Dakota 143.0 100 97 91
Oregon 50.4 100 98 77
Pennsylvania 21.0 100 99 99
Washington 150.0 100 99 97
Wisconsin 71.5 100 100 100
TOTAL 1,118.2 100 98 91


1 Refers to acres reported as receiving one or more applications of a specific fertilizer ingredient.

Source: "Crop Production - 1993 Summary" and Agricultural Chemical Usage Survey. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA.


Table 2: Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications, Major States And Total, 1993

StateArea PlantedArea Applied 1Applic.Rate per Applic.Total Crop YearTotal Appl.
1,000 AcresPercentNumberPounds per AcreMillion pounds
Colorado 72.5 96 2.4 79 189 13.1
Idaho 390.0 100 2.7 88 239 93.1
Maine 81.0 100 1.3 136 172 13.9
Michigan 40.0 100 2.7 77 208 8.3
Minnesota 70.0 99 1.6 71 114 7.8
New York 28.8 100 1.2 110 127 3.7
North Dakota 143.0 100 1.9 56 109 15.5
Oregon 50.4 100 2.3 95 221 11.1
Pennsylvania 21.0 100 1.7 96 161 3.4
Washington 150.0 100 2.0 157 308 46.2
Wisconsin 71.5 100 3.4 55 189 13.5
TOTAL 1,118.2 100 2.3 90 206 229.6


1 Refers to acres reported as receiving one or more applications of a specific fertilizer ingredient.


Table 3: Fall Potatoes: Phosphate Fertilizer Applications, Major States And Total, 1993

State Area Applied 1 Applications Rate per Application Total Crop Year Total Appl.
Percent Number Pounds per Acre Million pounds
Colorado 96 1.4 155 214 14.9
Idaho 99 1.8 105 189 72.8
Maine 99 1.1 160 177 14.1
Michigan 100 1.2 95 115 4.6
Minnesota 94 1.1 74 80 5.3
New York 100 1.0 217 217 6.2
North Dakota 97 1.2 68 79 11.0
Oregon 98 1.7 93 159 7.8
Pennsylvania 99 1.2 104 126 2.6
Washington 99 1.5 149 227 33.8
Wisconsin 100 1.4 109 147 10.5
TOTAL 98 1.5 113 167 183.6


1 Refers to acres reported as receiving one or more applications of a specific fertilizer ingredient.

Note: Data may not multiply across or add down due to rounding.

Source: "Crop Production - 1993 Summary" and Agricultural Chemical Usage Survey. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA.


Table 4: Fall Potatoes: Potash Fertilizer Applications, Major States And Total, 1993

State Area Applied 1 Applications Rate per Application Total Crop Year Total Appl.
Percent Number Pounds per Acre Million pounds
Colorado 85 1.3 65 87 5.3
Idaho 85 1.4 82 116 38.6
Maine 98 1.1 160 178 14.2
Michigan 97 1.7 127 217 8.5
Minnesota 94 1.2 108 133 8.8
New York 100 1.1 145 161 4.6
North Dakota 91 1.2 79 97 12.7
Oregon 77 1.6 107 169 6.6
Pennsylvania 99 1.2 106 131 2.7
Washington 97 1.4 166 235 34.1
Wisconsin 100 2.3 143 322 23.0
TOTAL 91 1.4 110 157 159.0


1 Refers to acres reported as receiving one or more applications of a specific fertilizer ingredient.

Note: Data may not multiply across or add down due to rounding.


Table 5: Fall Potatoes: Pesticide Applications, Total Acreage And Percentage Receiving Applications, Major States And Total, 1993

StateArea PlantedArea Receiving 1
HerbicideInsecticideFungicideOther Chemical
1,000 AcresPercent
Colorado 72.5 72 58 91 39
Idaho 390.0 92 79 48 27
Maine 81.0 89 99 97 96
Michigan 40.0 90 100 100 61
Minnesota 70.0 64 93 96 43
New York 28.8 94 100 96 53
North Dakota143.0 53 95 94 69
Oregon 50.4 77 84 78 54
Pennsylvania 21.0 79 100 92 62
Washington 150.0 93 99 80 74
Wisconsin 71.5 92 98 98 81
TOTAL 1,118.2 83 88 76 53


1 Refers to acres reported as receiving one or more applications of a specific pesticide class.

Source: "Crop Production - 1993 Summary" and Agricultural Chemical Usage Survey. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA.


Table 6: Fall Potatoes: Agricultural Chemical Applications, Major States, 1993 1

Agricultural Chemical 2 Area Applied 3 Application Rate Per Application Rate Per Crop Year Total Applied
Percent Number Pounds per Acre Million pounds
FERTILIZERS
Nitrogen 100 2.3 90 206 229.6
Phosphate 98 1.5 113 167 183.6
Potash 91 1.4 110 157 159.0
Percent Number Pounds per Acre 1,000 pounds
HERBICIDES
EPTC 28 1.0 3.28 3.34 1,034
Glyphosate 4 1.0 0.70 0.73 29
Linuron 6 1.0 0.73 0.75 52
Metolachlor 13 1.1 1.61 1.72 250
Metribuzin 64 1.1 0.44 0.48 340
Pendimethalin 17 1.0 0.91 0.91 169
Sethoxydim 3 1.4 0.20 0.29 11
Trifluralin 6 1.0 0.56 0.56 37
INSECTICIDES
Azinphos-methyl 14 1.4 0.39 0.56 85
Bt (Bacillus thur.) 4 2 1.3
Carbaryl 3 1.2 0.88 1.04 32
Carbofuran 19 1.2 0.48 0.58 122
Cryolite 1 1.7 9.86 16.69 241
Diazinon 1 1.2 2.22 2.61 30
Dimethoate 2 1.3 0.42 0.56 14
Disulfoton 7 1.0 2.34 2.41 193
Endosulfan 14 1.4 0.71 0.96 147
Esfenvalerate 16 1.2 0.04 0.04 8
Ethoprop 9 1.0 4.28 4.29 421
Fonofos 3 1.0 1.82 1.82 64
Methamidophos 27 1.5 0.79 1.20 367
Methyl parathion 2 2.2 0.79 1.73 48
Mevinphos 1 1.3 0.20 0.26 2
Oxamyl 2 1.7 0.55 0.95 22
Permethrin 12 1.2 0.12 0.14 18
Phorate 28 1.0 2.66 2.68 845
Phosmet 5 1.7 0.83 1.41 74
Piperonyl butoxide 4 2.3 0.47 1.11 48
Propargite 3 1.0 1.13 1.16 35
Rotenone * 1.1 0.24 0.27 1
Sulfur 3 1.6 3.79 6.01 209
FUNGICIDES
Chlorothalonil 37 2.1 0.89 1.89 774
Copper ammonium 3 1.9 0.32 0.60 17
Copper hydroxide 11 1.4 0.64 0.93 111
Iprodione 8 1.1 0.90 0.98 84
Mancozeb 42 3.5 1.09 3.85 1,796
Maneb 13 2.9 1.04 3.00 439
Metalaxyl 30 1.5 0.19 0.29 96
Triphenyltin hydrox. 12 1.9 0.14 0.26 36
OTHER CHEMICALS
Chloropicrin 1 1.0 45.40 45.40 337
Dichloropropene 6 1.0 195.68 195.68 13,231
Diquat 33 1.3 0.29 0.36 132
Endothall 1 1.1 0.63 0.67 9
Maleic hydrazide 6 1.1 2.00 2.11 152
Metam-sodium 10 1.0 143.96 145.64 16,588
Paraquat 2 1.1 0.36 0.40 11
Sulfuric acid 5 1.0 271.28 271.28 13,667


*Applied on less than one percent of acres.

1Area planted in 1993 for the 11 major States was 1.12 million acres.

2Insufficient reports to publish data for the following agricultural chemicals:

Herbicides: 2,4-D, DCPA.
Insecticides: Ethyl parathion, Malathion, Methomyl.
Fungicides: Basic copper sulfate, Copper sulfate, DCNA, Metiram.

3 Refers to acres receiving one or more applications of a specific agricultural chemical.

4 Rates and Total Applied are not available, amounts of active ingredient are not comparable between products.

Note: Data may not multiply across due to rounding.

Source: "Crop Production - 1993 Summary" and Agricultural Chemical Usage Survey. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA.


Table 7: Fall Potatoes: Agricultural Chemical Applications, New York, 1993 1

Agricultural Chemical 2 Area Applied 3 Application Rate Per Application Rate Per Crop Year Total Applied
Percent Number Pounds per Acre Million pounds
FERTILIZERS
Nitrogen 100 1.2 110 127 3.7
Phosphate 100 1.0 217 217 6.2
Potash 100 1.1 145 161 4.6
Percent Number Pounds per Acre 1,000 pounds
HERBICIDES
Glyphosate 23 1.3 1.13 1.43 10
Linuron 34 1.0 0.99 0.99 10
Metolachlor 75 1.2 1.77 2.17 47
Metribuzin 60 1.3 0.45 0.56 10
INSECTICIDES
Azinphos-methyl 58 2.4 0.46 1.08 18
Bt (Bacillus thur.) 4 271.2
Cryolite 17 1.2 11.31 13.34 64
Dimethoate 11 1.0 0.50 0.50 2
Endosulfan 40 1.8 0.75 1.35 15
Esfenvalerate 5 19 1.1 0.04 0.05
Methamidophos 77 1.4 0.81 1.10 24
Mevinphos 15 1.3 0.23 0.29
Oxamyl 23 1.6 0.50 0.82 5
Permethrin 32 1.6 0.12 0.19 2
Phosmet 23 1.5 0.78 1.20 8
Piperonyl butoxide 36 1.8 0.42 0.74 8
FUNGICIDES
Chlorothalonil 22 1.2 0.83 1.00 6
Mancozeb 75 5.7 1.04 5.90 127
Maneb 38 4.7 1.11 5.26 58
Metalaxyl 37 1.3 0.15 0.20 2
OTHER CHEMICALS
Diquat 46 1.4 0.25 0.34 5
Maleic hydrazide 13 1.0 2.16 2.16 8


1 Area planted in 1993 for New York was 28,800 acres.

2 Insufficient reports to publish data for the following agricultural chemicals:

Herbicides: EPTC, Pendimethalin.
Insecticides: Carbaryl, Disulfoton, Ethoprop, Ethyl parathion, Methomyl, Methyl parathion, Phorate.
Fungicides: Copper hydroxide, Triphenyltin hydrox.

3 Refers to acres receiving one or more applications of a specific agricultural chemical.

4 Rates and Total Applied are not available, amounts of active ingredient are not comparable between products.

5 Total Applied is less than 500 pounds.

Note: Data may not multiply across due to rounding.

Source: "Crop Production - 1993 Summary" and Agricultural Chemical Usage Survey. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA.