E X T O X N E T
Extension Toxicology Network
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of
Cornell University, Michigan State University, Oregon State University, and
University of California at Davis. Major support and funding was provided
by the USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
Publication Date: 5/94
TRADE OR OTHER NAMES
Ficam, Dycarb, Garvox, Multamat, Multimet, Niomil, Rotate, Seedox,
Most formulations of bendiocarb are classified as general use
pesticides, with the exception of Turcam, Turcam 2.5 G and Turcam
Fertilizer GC, which are classified as Restricted Use Pesticides (RUP) (28,
30). Restricted use pesticides may be purchased and used only by certified
Bendiocarb is a carbamate insecticide. It is effective against a wide
range of nuisance and disease vector insects. It is used to control
mosquitoes, flies, wasps, ants, fleas, cockroaches, silverfish, ticks and
other pests in homes, industrial plants, and food storage sites. In
agriculture it is used against a variety of insects, especially those in
the soil. Bendiocarb is also used as a seed treatment on sugar beets and
maize and against snails and slugs (24, 14, 16, Res. Discl. 158:67, 1977).
Pesticides containing bendiocarb are formulated as dusts, granules, ultra-
low volume sprays, and as wettable powders (28).
Bendiocarb is highly toxic if it is ingested or if it is absorbed
through the skin (27). Absorption through the skin is the most likely
route of exposure. Individuals exposed under conditions of high
temperature and humidity are at the greatest risk because these conditions
promote rapid absorption of bendiocarb across the skin (24). Persons with
asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, mechanical obstruction of the
gastrointestinal or ureogenital tract, and those in vagotonic states are at
special risk from any route of exposure (27).
Irritation and pain, blurred vision, tearing, muscle spasms and
unresponsive pupils (to changes in light) may all occur if bendiocarb gets
in the eye(s). These effects are due to anti-cholinesterase activity.
In one case of exposure while applying bendiocarb, the victim
experienced symptoms of severe headache, vomiting and excessive salivation
and his cholinesterase level was depressed by 63%. He recovered from these
symptoms in less than three hours with no medical treatment and his
cholinesterase level returned to normal within 24 hours. In another case,
poisoning occurred when an applicator who was not wearing protective
equipment attempted to clean contaminated equipment. The victim
experienced nausea, vomiting, incoordination, pain in his arms, hands and
legs, muscle spasms, and breathing difficulty. These symptoms abated
within two hours after decontamination and treatment with atropine. The
victim was fully recovered by the following day (24).
Like other carbamate insecticides, bendiocarb is a reversible
inhibitor of cholinesterase, an essential nervous system enzyme. Symptoms
of bendiocarb poisoning include weakness, blurred vision, headache, nausea,
abdominal cramps, chest discomfort, constriction of pupils, sweating,
muscle tremors, and decreased pulse. If there is severe poisoning,
symptoms of twitching, giddiness, confusion, muscle incoordination, slurred
speech, low blood pressure, heart irregularities, and loss of reflexes may
also be experienced. Death can result from discontinued breathing,
paralysis of muscles of the respiratory system, intense constriction of the
openings of the lung, or all three (16, 26). Carbamates generally do not
accumulate in mammalian tissue and the cholinesterase inhibition reverses
rapidly once exposure ceases. Complete recovery from an acute poisoning by
bendiocarb, with no long term health effects, is possible if exposure
ceases and the victim has time to recover their normal level of
cholinesterase before succumbing to symptoms. In non-fatal cases, the
illness usually lasts less than 24 hours (24, 27). (For more information
on cholinesterase, please refer to the Toxicology Information Brief on
The amount of a chemical that is lethal to one-half (50%) of
experimental animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral
lethal dose fifty, or LD50. The oral LD50 for technical bendiocarb in rats
is 34-156 mg/kg, 35-40 mg/kg for rabbits, and 35 mg/kg for guinea pigs.
The dermal LD50 for rats is 566 mg/kg (24, 27, NIOSH RTECS Online File #
Chronic exposure to bendiocarb can cause the same symptoms as acute
exposure. Long term feeding studies with test animals show depressed
levels of cholinesterase activity. A two-year study with dogs fed doses of
12.5 mg/kg showed elevated serum cholesterol and decreased levels of
calcium in the bloodstream. A two-year study with rats fed doses of 10
mg/kg/day showed a wide range of changes in organ weights, blood and
urinalysis characteristics, as well as an increased incidence of stomach
and eye lesions (24).
In a three generation study with rats, fertility and reproduction were
not affected by bendiocarb at dietary levels of up to 12.5 mg/kg. Prenatal
and postnatal doses of 40 mg/kg were toxic to rat dams and reduced pup
weight and survival rates. No effects were seen at 20 mg/kg (24).
No teratogenic effects were seen in the offspring of rats given 4
mg/kg/day or in rabbits given 5 mg/kg/day of bendiocarb during gestation
Numerous studies show that bendiocarb is not mutagenic (24).
Bendiocarb was not carcinogenic in two-year studies of rats and mice
No changes in organ weight or harmful effects in tissues were observed
in a two-year dietary study of dogs fed doses of up to 12.5 mg/kg/day. In
a two-year study with rats fed doses of 10 mg/kg/day, changes in organ
weight and an increased incidence of stomach and eye lesions were observed
Fate in Humans and Animals
Bendiocarb is absorbed through all the normal routes of exposure, but
dermal absorption is especially rapid.
Carbamates generally are excreted rapidly and do not accumulate in
mammalian tissue. If exposure does not continue, cholinesterase inhibition
and its symptoms reverse rapidly. In non-fatal cases, the illness
generally lasts less than 24 hours (26). Within 2 days after feeding doses
of up to 10 mg/kg of bendiocarb to rats, 89 to 90 % of the dose was
eliminated in the urine, 2 to 6% was exhaled, and another 2 to 6% was
eliminated in the feces. This same pattern of elimination was observed in
a human subject given an oral dose of bendiocarb (24).
Effects on Birds
Bendiocarb is highly toxic to birds. The LD50 for mallard ducks is
3.1 mg/kg, and for quail is 19 mg/kg.
Effects on Fish
The LC50 for bendiocarb in fish is 0.4-1.8 mg/L (5).
Effects on Other Animals (Nontarget Species)
Earthworm populations under turf were reduced by 99% within one week
after a single application of 4.48 kg/hectare of bendiocarb. This rate is
twice the highest application rate permitted on labels for products
containing bendiocarb (26).
Bendiocarb does not accumulate in soil, water, or plants.
Breakdown of Chemical in Soil and Groundwater
The half-life of bendiocarb varies with soil type from less than one
week to up to four weeks (8, 28).
Breakdown of Chemical in Water
Bendiocarb is degraded in solution by hydrolysis. It does not
accumulate in water.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES
Bendiocarb is an odorless, white crystalline solid. It is stable
under normal temperatures and pressures, but should not be mixed with
alkaline preparations. Thermal decomposition products may include toxic
oxides of nitrogen (27).
Occupational Exposure Limits:
No occupational exposure limits have been established for bendiocarb
by OSHA, ACGIH, or NIOSH.
|CAS #: ||22781-23-3
|Koc: ||200 calculated from log P (28)
|Density: ||1.25 g/ml
|H20 solubility: ||260 ppm (28)
|Solubility in other solvents:
|Acetone ||2-3 x 10 to the minus 5 ppm
|Dichloromethane ||3-6 x 10 to the minus 5 ppm
|Dimethyl sulfoxide ||2-3 x 10 to the minus 5 ppm
|Ethanol ||3-5 x 10 to the minus 4 ppm
|Xylene ||1.6 x 10 to the minus 4 ppm (30)
|Melting point: ||124-129 degrees C (264 degrees F)(27, 30)
|Vapor pressure: ||3.5 x 10 to the minus 5 mm Hg at 25 degrees C (28).
|Water: ||hexane partition coefficient: 1:9 at 25 degrees C (5)
|Chemical Class/Use: ||Carbamate insecticide
NOR-AM Chemical Company
Little Falls Centre One
2711 Centerville Rd.
Wilmington, DE 19808
Review by Basic Manufacturer:
Comments solicited: June, 1992
Comments received: January, 1994
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