E X T O X N E T
Extension Toxicology Network
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of
Cornell University, Michigan State University, Oregon State University, and
University of California at Davis. Major support and funding was provided
by the USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
Publication Date: 9/93
TRADE OR OTHER NAMES
Arathane, Caprane, Capryl, Cekucap 25 WP, Crotonate, Crotothane,
DCPC, Dikar (a mixture of dinocap and mancozeb), DNOPC, Ezenosan,
Iscothane, Karathane, Mildane, Mildex.
In 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a
Special Review of all pesticide products containing dinocap as an active
ingredient. This was initiated because of lab results on rabbits
indicating its potential to produce birth defects and chronic
reproductive effects (2, 13). Upon completion of the Special Review in
February 1990, EPA required a variety of measures to reduce risks of
exposure to acceptable levels for mixers/loaders and applicators:
- wearing of protective suits, goggles or face shield, and
chemical resistant gloves and boots during mixing and loading;
- the use of enclosed vehicles for application whenever possible.
When use of enclosed vehicles is not possible, applicators must wear
protective suits, goggles or face shield, and chemical resistant gloves
- wearing of protective hood or wide brim hat during mist blower
or air blast applications;
- wearing of protective suit and equipment by applicators when
leaving application vehicle or while repairing equipment. Chemical-
resistant gloves when leaving the application vehicle for any reason;
- following application, applicators must remove all contaminated
protective equipment, clothing and shoes, and shower with soap and
- teratogenicity warning statements on product labels (12, 23).
Products containing dinocap must bear the signal word "Caution"
(20). Check with specific state regulations for local restrictions that
may apply, and follow product label instructions carefully.
Dinocap was first registered in the late 1950s and has been used as
a contact fungicide to control fungus and, to a lesser extent, as an
acaricide for control of ticks and mites. It is applied to foliage for
control of powdery mildew on fruit, vegetable, nursery, and ornamental
crops, and to limit mite populations on apple trees. Apples are the
major use site, accounting for over 90% of use (15). Dinocap may be
applied from early spring to late summer (2). It is available as dust,
liquid concentrate, and wettable powder formulations (20).
Dinocap is moderately toxic by ingestion and slightly toxic by
dermal absorption (22). It poses the highest threat to humans through
oral and inhalation exposure. It is irritating to the skin, eyes, and
mucous membranes lining the nose, throat and lungs (9). Dermal contact
is the most common route of exposure (15). Alcoholics and persons with
kidney or liver diseases may be at increased risk from exposure to
dinocap. Hot environments may enhance both the absorption and the
toxicity of dinocap (22).
Dinocap is included in a class of compounds which cause the
following symptoms upon acute exposure: fatigue, weakness, nausea,
vomiting, headaches, flushed skin, exhaustion, abdominal pain, loss of
appetite, weight loss, fever, excessive sweating, rapid breathing and
heart beats, shortness of breath, thirst, dehydration, heat stroke, and
convulsions. Dermal exposure can cause skin inflammation, flushing and
yellow staining, diarrhea, dizziness, and excitement. Hair can be
stained yellow by dinocap exposure. This kind of exposure can bring on
headaches and heat sensitivity. Inhalation of dinocap can cause
tightness in the chest and fluid retention in the lungs, a condition
called pulmonary edema. In addition to causing conjunctivitis and
yellow staining of the white portion of the eye, eye contact with the
insecticide can also cause sweating, rapid heartbeat, thirst, imbalance,
vomiting and weakness. Death from exposure to dinocap may be due to
overheating, or failure of the respiratory system or of the blood
circulation system (4, 17). Symptoms may appear immediately upon
exposure or may suddenly appear at any time within 2 days after the
cessation of exposure (22).
The amount of a chemical that is lethal to one-half (50%) of
experimental animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral
lethal dose fifty, or LD50. The oral LD50 for dinocap in rats is 980
mg/kg, 2,000 mg/kg in male rabbits, 53 mg/kg in mice, and 100 mg/kg in
dogs (3, 6, 7, 19, 20). The dermal LD50 for dinocap on rabbits is 9,400
In addition to the symptoms of acute exposure, prolonged or
repeated exposure may cause weight loss, cataract formation, and liver
or kidney damage (22). Greenhouse workers developed liver function
abnormalities in association with exposure to the fungicide. The
severity of the abnormalities varied with the length of work exposure
(11). Prolonged skin exposure may lead to dermatitis or allergies.
Prolonged eye contact may result in permanent injury (22).
At a dietary dose of 25 mg/kg/day of dinocap, dogs showed decreased
appetite and drastic weight loss, followed by death within six weeks.
At dietary doses of 6.25 and 25 mg/kg/day, cell death occurred in the
liver (7). No weight loss occurred in dogs given 50 mg/kg of dinocap in
a 1-year feeding study. Cataracts were produced in white Peking ducks
at this same dose level (18). Rat growth and survival were reduced with
a dietary level of 125 mg/kg/day of dinocap. Spleen enlargement
occurred in male rats receiving 125 mg/kg/day of the fungicide. Only
male rats showed growth retardation in a 2-year study (7). Degenerative
changes and cell death were seen in the livers, kidneys and stomachs of
rabbits given oral doses of 30 or 150 mg/kg of dinocap for 90 days (11).
When pregnant rabbits were given dermal doses of 25, 50 or 100
mg/kg/day, developmental toxicity in the form of reduced fetal weight
was observed at the highest dose. The developmental NOEL for this study
was 50 mg/kg/day (23). There were decreased growth rates and reduced
survival of offspring in the second generation of rats given dietary
doses of 104 to 126 mg/kg/day (11, 19).
EPA has determined that dinocap has caused birth defects in animals
and poses a teratogenic risk to humans (23). It is teratogenic at doses
lower than those which cause toxic effects in pregnant mothers (19).
Pregnant women should avoid exposure to dinocap. Exposure, especially
by inhalation or dermal absorption, may put unborn offspring at
significant risk of birth defects (2).
Fetal growth retardation, cleft palate, and abnormal rib formations
were seen in mice exposed to dinocap during organogenesis, the organ-
forming period of pregnancy. Fetal growth was inhibited at 5 mg/kg/day.
Malformations were seen at 20 mg/kg/day and higher (16). Birth defects
were observed in the offspring of rabbits given oral or dermal doses of
dinocap during pregnancy. These included abnormalities of the neural
tube, spine, and skull, at 3 mg/kg/day (13, 23). No birth defects were
discovered in rabbits given dermal doses up to and including those that
cause severe skin irritation and obvious maternal poisoning (Rohm and
Haas Company, 1985). Following dermal applications of 100 mg/kg/day to
animals, reduced fetal weight and an increased occurrence of skull
malformations were observed (13).
No information found.
Dinocap did not cause tumor development in mice that were fed the
highest tolerated dose of the fungicide (7).
Dinocap may increase the metabolic rate and cause adverse effects
to the nervous system, liver and kidneys (22). Gastrointestinal, liver,
and central nervous system changes would be expected with prolonged or
increased exposure to dinocap (17). Degenerative changes and cell death
occurred in the liver, kidneys and stomach of rabbits given oral doses
of 30 or 150 mg/kg of dinocap for 90 days. The composition of blood and
urine also changed (11).
Acute poisoning signs, degenerative changes, and cell deterioration
were more obvious in the stomachs than in the livers and kidneys of
experimental rats and rabbits. Degeneration of these organs took place
after changes occurred in the functioning of cells within the organs
(11). Spleen enlargement occurred in male rats that were given a 2,500
ppm dietary level of the material (7). Liver damage occurred in dogs
given dietary doses of 250 and 1000 ppm for 6 weeks (19).
Fate in Humans and Animals
Residues of dinocap are expected to be found in urine and blood
Effects on Birds
Dinocap is highly toxic to birds (20). Ducks fed 50 ppm of this
fungicide developed cataracts (17).
Effects on Aquatic Organisms
Dinocap is slightly toxic to fish (1, 6). The lethal concentration
fifty, or LC50, is that concentration of a chemical in air or water that
kills half of the experimental animals exposed to it. At 13 degrees C,
78% technical dinocap has an LC50 of 15 micrograms per liter (ug/l) in
rainbow trout. Its LC50 in goldfish is 33 ug/l at 18 degrees C (11).
This fungicide should not be applied directly to water due to its
toxicity to fish (15).
Effects on Other Animals (Nontarget species)
Dinocap is nontoxic to bees and other beneficial insects (6, 5, 1).
It does not usually interfere with IPM programs that use predatory
insects for biological control of mites (13). The potential hazard of
this fungicide to endangered species is low (15). Biological
magnification of dinocap is unlikely (5).
Breakdown of Chemical in Soil and Groundwater
Dinocap adsorbs weakly to soil particles. It therefore has a
moderate potential to contaminate groundwater (21). Dinocap is more
readily bound to soils that have large amounts of clay or organic
matter. It is subject to microbial degradation and to a small amount of
Breakdown of Chemical in Water
Dinocap is almost insoluble in water (6). The cleaning of dinocap
application equipment or disposal of related wastes should not be done
near/in water bodies, as this can cause contamination (15).
Breakdown of Chemical in Vegetation
Dinocap is readily absorbed and translocated by treated plants. It
builds up in the growing shoots and leaf tips. Since this material
penetrates foliage rapidly, it is not likely to be washed off by rain
(15). There is good crop tolerance to dinocap for the recommended use
areas (6). However, dinocap can be toxic to plants if it is applied in
hot weather (13). The approximate trace, or 'residual,' period of
dinocap in plants is 1 to 2 weeks (5). The edible portion of treated
fruits or vegetables should be washed or wiped before they are used
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES
Dinocap is dark reddish-brown liquid (14). The technical product
is about 80% pure (1). Dinocap poses a moderate fire hazard if exposed
to heat or flame. Its vapors are heavier than air and may travel
considerable distances to a source of ignition and flash back. Heating
of dinocap for more than 48 hours at temperatures above 90 degrees F (32
degrees C) may result in explosive decomposition. Thermal decomposition
may release toxic oxides of carbon and nitrogen. Dinocap may pose a
fire and explosion hazard in the presence of strong oxidizers (22).
Dinocap should not be used or combined with oil or materials with
petroleum-solvent bases (5). It is incompatible with alkaline
preparations, lime sulfur, inorganic acids, amines, alkanolamines,
caustic materials, halogenated compounds, and iron (6, 17). The
fungicide should not be applied when temperatures are above 90 degrees F
(10). Containers must be kept from freezing during storage (8).
Inappropriate storage or disposal of this material can contaminate
water, food, or feed.
Dinocap treated areas should not be entered without protective
clothing until sprays have dried. Any unprotected persons must vacate
areas being treated (14). Inhalation of dinocap vapors, dust, and spray
mist should be avoided. Skin, eyes, and hair should be also protected
from contact with this material (6). Dinocap treated areas should not
be grazed (10).
No occupational exposure limits for dinocap have been established
by OSHA, NIOSH or ACGIH.
0.2 mg/m3 Rohm and Haas Recommended TWA (22)
0.6 mg/m3 Rohm and Haas Recommended STEL (22)
|NOEL: ||0.5 mg/kg/day for oral exposure (2); 50 mg/kg/day for dermal exposure (14)
|CAS #: ||39300-45-3
|Specific gravity: ||1.10 (22)
|H20 solubility: ||practically insoluble in water (14); 4 ug/ml (21).
|Solubility in other solvents: ||soluble in most organic solvents such as benzene and ether (17)
|Boiling point: ||138-140 degrees C (280-284 degrees C) at 0.05 mmHg (18, 22)
|Flash point: ||190 degrees F (88 degrees C) (22)
|Vapor pressure: ||very low (6); 4.0 x 10 to the minus 8 power (21).
|Koc: ||630 g/ml (21)
|pH: ||3 - 5 (22)
|Viscosity: ||500 - 1000 CPS at 20 degrees C (22)
|Chemical Class/Use: ||dinitrophenolic compound used as a protective fungicide and acaricide (10)
Rohm and Haas Co.
Independence Mall West
Philadelphia, PA, 19105
Review by Basic Manufacturer:
Comments solicited: November, 1992.
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