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Dodine

Publication Date: 9/93

TRADE AND OTHER NAMES

Other common names include dodine acetate, doguadine (France), and tsitrex (USSR). Trade names include AC 5223, Apadodine, Carpene, Curitan, Cyprex, Efuzin, Melprex, Sulgen, Syllit, Tebulan, Vandodine and Venturol.

REGULATORY STATUS

Products containing dodine must bear the signal word "Danger" on the label (1).

INTRODUCTION

Dodine is a fungicide used to control scab on apples, pears and pecans, brown rot of peaches, and several foliar diseases of cherries, strawberries, peaches, sycamore trees and black walnuts (1). It is also used as an industrial biocide and preservative (3). It is available as soluble concentrate and wettable powder formulations (1).

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS

ACUTE TOXICITY

Because it may cause severe eye irritation, dodine is considered a highly toxic material (1). Dodine is not acutely toxic via inhalation or ingestion (3).

The oral LD50 for technical dodine in rats is 1,000 mg/kg (1, 4). The dermal LD50 on rats is > 6,000 mg/kg, and on rabbits is > 1,500 mg/kg for a single 24-hour contact (1). Dodine did not cause allergic skin reactions when tested on humans. It is an eye and skin irritant (3).

CHRONIC TOXICITY

Chronic dietary exposure in rats caused reduced weight gain in both sexes and reduced food consumption in males. The NOEL in this study was 10 mg/kg (3). Dogs fed dodine for 12 months exhibited histological changes in the thyroid indicative of thyroid stimulation. The NOEL in this study was 50 ppm (1.25 mg/kg) (3).

Reproductive Effects

In a 2 year feeding study, rats given dietary doses of 800 mg/kg exhibited slight retardation of growth, but no adverse effects on reproduction or lactation (4). Offspring of mice fed dodine in the diet exhibited decreased numbers of pups surviving to weaning (3).

Teratogenic Effects

No information was found.

Mutagenic Effects

The Ames test for mutagenicity was negative on 5 strains of bacteria (3).

Carcinogenic Effects

No information was found.

Organ Toxicity

No information was found.

Fate in Humans and Animals

No information was found.

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Effects on Birds

The oral LD50 for dodine in mallard ducks is 1,142 mg/kg (4).

Effects on Aquatic Organisms

Dodine is toxic to fish (1). The 48-hour LC50 for dodine in harlequin fish is 0.53 mg/l (4).

Effects on Other Animals (Nontarget species)

Dodine is non-toxic to bees (1). Its LD50 in honeybees is > 11 mg/bee for topical application (4).

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

Breakdown of Chemical in Soil and Groundwater

Dodine may have a large potential to leach and contaminate groundwater. Its soil half-life is 10 days (2).

Breakdown of Chemical in Surface Water

No information was found.

Breakdown of Chemical in Vegetation

No information was found.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES

Dodine is a colorless or white, slightly waxy crystalline solid (1, 3). It is not compatible with lime or chlorobenzilate (1).

Workers handling dodine should wear goggles and protective clothing that will prevent prolonged skin contact with this material.

Exposure Guidelines:

PADI: 0.0013 mg/kg/day based on NOEL of 1.25 mg/kg in a 12 month dog studyand a 1000 fold safety factor (3).
MPI: 0.078 mg/day (3)

Physical Properties:

CAS #: 2439-10-3
Chemical name: 1-dodecylguanidinium acetate
Chemical Class/Use: aliphatic and alicyclic fungicide
H20 solubility: 63 mg/l at 25 degrees C (4).
Solubility in other solvents: soluble in methanol and ethanol; practically insoluble in most organic solvents (1).
Melting point: 136 degrees C (4)
Vapor pressure: < 10-7, negligible (2)
Koc: 100,000 (2)

BASIC MANUFACTURER

Rhone Poulenc Ag Co.
PO Box 12014
2 T.W. Alexander Dr.
Research Triangle Park, NC 27609
Telephone: 919-549-2000

Review by Basic Manufacturer:

Comments solicited: April, 1993
Comments received: May, 1993

REFERENCES

  1. Meister, R.T. (ed.). 1992. Farm Chemicals Handbook '92. Meister Publishing Company, Willoughby, OH.
  2. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1990 (Nov.). SCS/ARS/CES Pesticide Properties Database: Version 2.0 (Summary). USDA - Soil Conservation Service, Syracuse, NY.
  3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Feb. 2, 1987. Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 135: Dodine. US EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs, Registration Div., Washington, DC.
  4. British Crop Protection Council. 1983. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. Croydon, England.