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Fluvalinate

Publication Date: 9/93

TRADE OR OTHER NAMES

Some trade names include Klartan, Mavrik, Mavrik Aqua Flow, Spur and Yardex.

REGULATORY STATUS

Pesticides containing fluvalinate must bear the signal word "Danger" on the product label (1). Fluvalinate is classified as a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) because of its high toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates (5). Restricted Use Pesticides may be purchased and used only by certified applicators.

INTRODUCTION

Fluvalinate is a synthetic pyrethroid which is used as a broad spectrum insecticide against moths, beetles and Hemipteran insect pests on cotton, cereal, grape, potato, fruit tree, vegetable and plantation crops, fleas, turf and ornamental insects. It has both stomach and contact activity in target insects and is available in emulsifiable concentrate and flowable formulations (1).

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS

ACUTE TOXICITY

Fluvalinate is a moderately toxic material (1, 5).

Fluvalinate is moderately irritating to the eye and it is a mild skin irritant (5). Fluvalinate does not cause allergic skin reactions (5). Some formulated products, including Mavrik 2E, can cause skin irritation and are corrosive to the eyes (3).

Workers exposed to fluvalinate have reported coughing, sneezing, throat irritation, itching or burning sensations on the arms or face with or without a rash, headache and nausea (5).

The amount of a chemical that is lethal to one-half (50%) of experimental animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral lethal dose fifty, or LD50. The oral LD50 for technical fluvalinate in rats is 261 to 282 mg/kg (1, 5). The oral LD50 for the product Mavrik 2E in rats is 1,050 to 1,110 mg/kg (3). The dermal LD50 for technical fluvalinate in rats and rabbits is > 20,000 mg/kg (1, 5). The dermal LD50 for Mavrik 2E in rabbits is > 2,100 mg/kg (3).

CHRONIC TOXICITY

A 90-day study with rats fed 3 mg/kg/day and a 6-month study with dogs fed 5 mg/kg/day both showed no adverse effects (5).

Reproductive Effects

A reproductive study with rats showed no effects on offspring at 1 mg/kg. Toxic effects in fetuses occurred at 12.5 and 25 mg/kg, the highest dose tested (5).

Teratogenic Effects

EPA reports that no birth defects were detected in the offspring of rats fed 50 mg/kg nor in the offspring of rabbits fed 125 mg/kg (5).

Mutagenic Effects

Fluvalinate is not mutagenic (5).

Carcinogenic Effects

No tumors were observed in mice given doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day, nor in rats given doses as high as 2.5 mg/kg/day (5).

Organ Toxicity

Pyrethroids may cause adverse effects on the central nervous system. Long-term feeding studies have caused increased liver and kidney weights and adverse changes to liver tissues in test animals (4). No neurological effects were observed in hens given doses of 20,000 mg/kg/day of fluvalinate for 21 days (5).

Fate in Humans and Animals

No information was found.

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Effects on Birds

Fluvalinate is slightly toxic to birds. The acute oral LD50 for fluvalinate in bobwhite quail is > 2,510 mg/kg. The dietary LC50 for fluvalinate in mallard ducks and bobwhite quail is > 5,620 ppm (5).

Effects on Aquatic Organisms

Fluvalinate is highly toxic to fish (1). The 96-hour LC50 for fluvalinate in bluegill sunfish is 0.09 ug/l, and in rainbow trout is 2.9 ug/l. Its 48-hour LC50 in Daphnia magna, a small freshwater crustacean, is 74 ug/l, and in mysid shrimp is 2.9 ug/l (5).

Pyrethroid insecticides are extremely toxic to fish with 96-hour LC50 values generally below 10 ug/l. Corresponding LD50 values in mammals and birds are in the range of several hundred to several thousand mg/kg. Fish sensitivity to the pyrethroids may be explained by their relatively slow metabolism and elimination of these compounds. The half-lives for elimination of several pyrethroids by trout are all greater than 48 hours, while elimination half-lives for birds and mammals range from 6 to 12 hours (8).

Generally, the lethality of pyrethroids to fish increases with increasing octanol/water partition coefficients (9).

Effects on Other Animals (Nontarget species)

Fluvalinate was not toxic to honeybees exposed to residues left on cotton leaves after application of ultralow volume (ULV) and emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations (6).

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

Breakdown of Chemical in Soil and Groundwater

Fluvalinate is nearly insoluble in water and it has a strong tendency to bind to soil particles. It is therefore unlikely to contaminate groundwater, however metabolites of fluvalinate may leach (2, 5). Applications of less than 0.1 pounds of active ingredient per acre will decrease the potential for groundwater contamination (5). Its soil half-life is 30 days (2). In sandy loam, sandy clay and clay soils, fluvalinate degrades under aerobic conditions with half-lives of 4 to 8 days. Under anaerobic conditions in sandy loam, its half-life is 15 days (5).

Fluvalinate is stable to hydrolysis under normal environmental temperatures and pH (5). Photodegradation of fluvalinate does not occur on soil (5).

Breakdown of Chemical in Surface Water

In aqueous solution, fluvalinate is subject to photodegradation with a half-life of 0.6 to 1 days. Photodegradation yields anilino acid and 3- phenoxy benzoic acid (5).

In pond waters and in laboratory degradation studies, pyrethroid concentrations decrease rapidly due to sorption to sediment, suspended particles and plants. Microbial and photodegradation also occur (7).

Breakdown of Chemical in Vegetation

No information was found.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES

Fluvalinate is a viscous, yellow oil (1).

Workers should wear goggles, a face shield and gloves when opening or pouring containers of 2E formulations of fluvalinate (1).

Exposure Guidelines:

No occupational exposure limits have been established for fluvalinate by OSHA, NIOSH or ACGIH (4).

ADI: 0.01 mg/kg/day based on a 2-year rat feeding study and a 100 fold safety margin (5).
MPI: 0.6 mg/kg/day for a 60 kg person (5).

Physical Properties:

CAS #: 69409-94-5
Chemical Class/Use: Synthetic pyrethroid insecticide
Density: 1.29 g/cm3 (5)
H20 solubility: insoluble; 0.005 ug/ml (2); 2 ppb (5).
Solubility in other solvents: very soluble in organic solvents and aromatic hydrocarbons; slightly soluble in hexane (5)
Boiling point: > 450 degrees C (1)
Vapor pressure: < 1 x 10-7 Torr at 25 degrees C (1)
Koc: 1,000,000 gm/ml (2)

BASIC MANUFACTURER

Sandoz Agro, Inc.
1300 E. Touhy Ave.
Des Plaines IL 60018
Telephone: 708-699-1616

Review by Basic Manufacturer:

Comments solicited: April, 1993
Comments received: May, 1993

REFERENCES

  1. Meister, R.T. (ed.). 1992. Farm Chemicals Handbook '92. Meister Publishing Company, Willoughby, OH.
  2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1990 (Nov.). SCS/ARS/CES Pesticide Properties Database: Version 2.0 (Summary). USDA - Soil Conservation Service, Syracuse, NY.
  3. Maddy, K.T. et al. 1984 (Feb. 14). A study of fluvalinate dislodgeable degradation rates on orange foliage in Tulare County in California during May 1983. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA.
  4. Occupational Health Services, Inc. 1993 (Nov. 17). MSDS for Resmethrin. OHS Inc., Secaucus, NJ.
  5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. March 31, 1986. Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 86: Fluvalinate. US EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs, Registration Div., Washington, DC.
  6. Waller, G.D., et al. 1988. Pyrethroid residues and toxicity to honeybees of selected pyrethroid formulations applied to cotton in Arizona. J. of Economic Entomology 81 (4): 1022-6.
  7. Muir, D.C.G., et al. 1985. Bioconcentration of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin by Chironomus tentans larvae in sediment and water. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 4: 51-61.
  8. Bradbury, S.P. and J.R. Coats. 1989. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of pyrethroid insecticides in fish. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 8: 373-380.
  9. Haya, K. 1989. Toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to fish. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 8: 381-391.