E X T O X N E T
Extension Toxicology Network
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of
Cornell University, Michigan State University, Oregon State University, and
University of California at Davis. Major support and funding was provided
by the USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
Publication Date: 9/93
TRADE OR OTHER NAMES
Some trade names include Klartan, Mavrik, Mavrik Aqua Flow, Spur and
Pesticides containing fluvalinate must bear the signal word "Danger" on
the product label (1). Fluvalinate is classified as a Restricted Use
Pesticide (RUP) because of its high toxicity to fish and aquatic
invertebrates (5). Restricted Use Pesticides may be purchased and used
only by certified applicators.
Fluvalinate is a synthetic pyrethroid which is used as a broad spectrum
insecticide against moths, beetles and Hemipteran insect pests on cotton,
cereal, grape, potato, fruit tree, vegetable and plantation crops, fleas, turf
and ornamental insects. It has both stomach and contact activity in target
insects and is available in emulsifiable concentrate and flowable
Fluvalinate is a moderately toxic material (1, 5).
Fluvalinate is moderately irritating to the eye and it is a mild skin
irritant (5). Fluvalinate does not cause allergic skin reactions (5). Some
formulated products, including Mavrik 2E, can cause skin irritation and are
corrosive to the eyes (3).
Workers exposed to fluvalinate have reported coughing, sneezing, throat
irritation, itching or burning sensations on the arms or face with or without
a rash, headache and nausea (5).
The amount of a chemical that is lethal to one-half (50%) of experimental
animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral lethal dose fifty,
or LD50. The oral LD50 for technical fluvalinate in rats is 261 to 282 mg/kg
(1, 5). The oral LD50 for the product Mavrik 2E in rats is 1,050 to 1,110
mg/kg (3). The dermal LD50 for technical fluvalinate in rats and rabbits
is > 20,000 mg/kg (1, 5). The dermal LD50 for Mavrik 2E in rabbits is > 2,100
A 90-day study with rats fed 3 mg/kg/day and a 6-month study with dogs
fed 5 mg/kg/day both showed no adverse effects (5).
A reproductive study with rats showed no effects on offspring at 1
mg/kg. Toxic effects in fetuses occurred at 12.5 and 25 mg/kg, the highest
dose tested (5).
EPA reports that no birth defects were detected in the offspring of rats
fed 50 mg/kg nor in the offspring of rabbits fed 125 mg/kg (5).
Fluvalinate is not mutagenic (5).
No tumors were observed in mice given doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day, nor in
rats given doses as high as 2.5 mg/kg/day (5).
Pyrethroids may cause adverse effects on the central nervous system.
Long-term feeding studies have caused increased liver and kidney weights and
adverse changes to liver tissues in test animals (4). No neurological effects
were observed in hens given doses of 20,000 mg/kg/day of fluvalinate for 21
Fate in Humans and Animals
No information was found.
Effects on Birds
Fluvalinate is slightly toxic to birds. The acute oral LD50 for
fluvalinate in bobwhite quail is > 2,510 mg/kg. The dietary LC50 for
fluvalinate in mallard ducks and bobwhite quail is > 5,620 ppm (5).
Effects on Aquatic Organisms
Fluvalinate is highly toxic to fish (1). The 96-hour LC50 for
fluvalinate in bluegill sunfish is 0.09 ug/l, and in rainbow trout is 2.9
ug/l. Its 48-hour LC50 in Daphnia magna, a small freshwater crustacean, is 74
ug/l, and in mysid shrimp is 2.9 ug/l (5).
Pyrethroid insecticides are extremely toxic to fish with 96-hour LC50
values generally below 10 ug/l. Corresponding LD50 values in mammals and
birds are in the range of several hundred to several thousand mg/kg. Fish
sensitivity to the pyrethroids may be explained by their relatively slow
metabolism and elimination of these compounds. The half-lives for elimination
of several pyrethroids by trout are all greater than 48 hours, while
elimination half-lives for birds and mammals range from 6 to 12 hours (8).
Generally, the lethality of pyrethroids to fish increases with increasing
octanol/water partition coefficients (9).
Effects on Other Animals (Nontarget species)
Fluvalinate was not toxic to honeybees exposed to residues left on cotton
leaves after application of ultralow volume (ULV) and emulsifiable concentrate
(EC) formulations (6).
Breakdown of Chemical in Soil and Groundwater
Fluvalinate is nearly insoluble in water and it has a strong tendency to
bind to soil particles. It is therefore unlikely to contaminate groundwater,
however metabolites of fluvalinate may leach (2, 5). Applications of less
than 0.1 pounds of active ingredient per acre will decrease the potential for
groundwater contamination (5). Its soil half-life is 30 days (2). In sandy
loam, sandy clay and clay soils, fluvalinate degrades under aerobic conditions
with half-lives of 4 to 8 days. Under anaerobic conditions in sandy loam, its
half-life is 15 days (5).
Fluvalinate is stable to hydrolysis under normal environmental
temperatures and pH (5). Photodegradation of fluvalinate does not occur on
Breakdown of Chemical in Surface Water
In aqueous solution, fluvalinate is subject to photodegradation with a
half-life of 0.6 to 1 days. Photodegradation yields anilino acid and 3-
phenoxy benzoic acid (5).
In pond waters and in laboratory degradation studies, pyrethroid
concentrations decrease rapidly due to sorption to sediment, suspended
particles and plants. Microbial and photodegradation also occur (7).
Breakdown of Chemical in Vegetation
No information was found.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES
Fluvalinate is a viscous, yellow oil (1).
Workers should wear goggles, a face shield and gloves when opening or
pouring containers of 2E formulations of fluvalinate (1).
No occupational exposure limits have been established for fluvalinate by
OSHA, NIOSH or ACGIH (4).
|ADI: ||0.01 mg/kg/day based on a 2-year rat feeding study and a 100 fold safety margin (5).
|MPI: ||0.6 mg/kg/day for a 60 kg person (5).
|CAS #: ||69409-94-5
|Chemical Class/Use: ||Synthetic pyrethroid insecticide
|Density: ||1.29 g/cm3 (5)
|H20 solubility: ||insoluble; 0.005 ug/ml (2); 2 ppb (5).
|Solubility in other solvents: ||very soluble in organic solvents and aromatic hydrocarbons; slightly soluble in hexane (5)
|Boiling point: ||> 450 degrees C (1)
|Vapor pressure: ||< 1 x 10-7 Torr at 25 degrees C (1)
|Koc: ||1,000,000 gm/ml (2)
Sandoz Agro, Inc.
1300 E. Touhy Ave.
Des Plaines IL 60018
Review by Basic Manufacturer:
Comments solicited: April, 1993
Comments received: May, 1993
Meister, R.T. (ed.). 1992. Farm Chemicals Handbook '92. Meister
Publishing Company, Willoughby, OH.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1990
(Nov.). SCS/ARS/CES Pesticide Properties Database: Version 2.0
(Summary). USDA - Soil Conservation Service, Syracuse, NY.
Maddy, K.T. et al. 1984 (Feb. 14). A study of fluvalinate
dislodgeable degradation rates on orange foliage in Tulare County in
California during May 1983. California Department of Food and
Agriculture, Sacramento, CA.
Occupational Health Services, Inc. 1993 (Nov. 17). MSDS for
Resmethrin. OHS Inc., Secaucus, NJ.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. March 31, 1986. Pesticide Fact
Sheet Number 86: Fluvalinate. US EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs,
Registration Div., Washington, DC.
Waller, G.D., et al. 1988. Pyrethroid residues and toxicity to
honeybees of selected pyrethroid formulations applied to cotton in
Arizona. J. of Economic Entomology 81 (4): 1022-6.
Muir, D.C.G., et al. 1985. Bioconcentration of cypermethrin,
deltamethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin by Chironomus tentans larvae in
sediment and water. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 4: 51-61.
Bradbury, S.P. and J.R. Coats. 1989. Toxicokinetics and
toxicodynamics of pyrethroid insecticides in fish. Environmental
Toxicology and Chemistry 8: 373-380.
Haya, K. 1989. Toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to fish.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 8: 381-391.