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Iprodione

Publication Date: 9/93

TRADE OR OTHER NAMES

Trade names for commercial products containing iprodione include Kidon, Rovral, Chipco 26019, LFA 2043, NRC 910, DOP 500F, and Verison. The compound is used in formulations with numerous other fungicides such as thiabendazole and carbendazim. It is compatible with most other pesticides.

INTRODUCTION

Iprodione is a dicarboximide contact fungicide used to control a wide variety of crop diseases. It is used on vegetables, ornamentals, pome and stone fruit, root crops, cotton and sunflowers to control a wide variety of fungal pests. It may also be used as a post harvest fungicide and as a seed treatment. Iprodione inhibits the germination of spores and the growth of the fungal mat (mycelium).

Chipco 26019 is a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) for spring and summer diseases on turf and ornamentals. The use of Rovral is also restricted to various diseases on fruit, vegetables and some crops. Most other products containing iprodione are general use pesticides. RUPs may be purchased and used only by certified applicators.

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS

ACUTE TOXICITY

Iprodione is a slightly toxic compound and carries the signal word CAUTION on the label.

The oral LD50 for iprodione is 3,500 mg/kg in rats, 4,000 mg/kg in mice, and greater than 4,400 mg/kg in rabbits (1). No dermal toxic effects were noted at doses of 2,500 mg/kg in the rat and at 1,000 mg/kg in the rabbit (3). Inhalation toxicity is also low for this compound. The inhalation LC50 for iprodione (4-h) is greater than 3.3 mg/l in the rat (3).

CHRONIC TOXICITY

Rats fed high doses of iprodione (1,000 mg/kg) for a year and an half suffered no ill effects. Dogs fed even higher doses (2400 mg/kg) for the same period of time did not develop any adverse effects from the pesticide either (3). These results seem to contradict the results found in other studies listed below, therefore the risk of toxicity to humans from low level chronic exposure to the compound is impossible to evaluate.

Reproductive Effects

Female rats were fed iprodione over three successive generation. No effects on reproduction were noted at doses at and below the low dose of 25 mg/kg. Reproductive effects (lower kidney weights in the third generation females) were observed at doses of 100 mg/kg (4).

Teratogenic Effects

There were no developmental effects noted in the offspring of pregnant rats fed relatively low levels of iprodione (at or below doses of 90 mg/kg). The dose rate of 200 mg/kg did elicit some developmental toxicity in the rats. The specific nature of that toxic response was not noted in the reference (4). Rabbits responded similarly to iprodione exposure. The animals did not develop any dose related toxicity at or below 90 mg/kg. but did develop toxicity at 200 mg/kg (4).

Mutagenic Effects

No information is currently available.

Carcinogenic Effects

A two year feeding experiment with rats showed no cancer related effects at doses up to the moderately low levels (as compared to the LD50) of 50 mg/kg (4). Another cancer study conducted for a year and a half with mice also produced no cancer related effects at doses up to 178 mg/kg (4).

Organ Toxicity

Beagle dogs were fed relatively low doses (up to 90 mg/kg/day) of iprodione for one year. At doses starting at 15 mg/kg the dogs had decreased prostrate weights and changes within red blood cells (damage to the hemoglobin molecules). At the highest dose (90 mg/kg), the dogs exhibited liver and kidney weight increases. The females also had a slight decrease in the uterus weights. No effects were noted below the 4.2 mg/kg dose (2).

Mice administered a single injection of iprodione at high doses (330 mg/kg) experienced only limited changes in kidney function.

Fate in Humans and Animals

Information on animal metabolism of iprodione is either currently lacking or was unavailable at the time of the writing of this profile (4).

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Iprodione is only slightly toxic to wildfowl. Its LD50 in bobwhite quail is 930 mg/kg (3). Iprodione is moderately toxic to fish species, with LC50 values ranging from 2.25 mg/l in the sunfish to 6.7 mg/l in the rainbow trout (1).

Iprodione is non-toxic to bees and thus should not pose a risk to them when used as directed.

A bioconcentration factor of 360 has been noted for iprodione in carp indicating that the compound does not significantly concentrate in this species.

Iprodione alone or in combinations with several other fungicides was not toxic to plants (phytotoxic) (6).

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

The half-life of iprodione in soil ranges from 20 to 160 days (1). Degradation rates vary with soil acidity, soil clay content and with history of the soil fungicide treatment. Soils that had been treated consistently with iprodione for ten or more years had slower or little breakdown of the compound vinclozolin while soil that had been treated with vinclozolin had quick degradation rates of vinclozolin and iprodione (5).

Information on the presence or absence of iprodione in ground water or in surface is currently unavailable.

Exposure Guidelines:

NOEL: 4.2 mg/kg (rat)
ADI: 0.3 mg/kg (human)
RfD: 0.042 mg/kg/day

Physical Properties:

CAS #: 36734-19-7
Chemical name: 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)2,4-dioxo-1-imidazoline-carboximide
Chemical class/use: dicarboximide fungicide
Solubility in water: 13 mg/l at 20 degrees C
Solubility in other solvents: 25 g/l ethanol; 25 g/l methanol; 150 g/l acetonitrile; 150 g/l toluene; 200 g/l benzene; 300 g/l acetone; 500 g/l dimethylformamide, all at 20 degrees C.
Melting Point: 136 degrees C
Vapor Pressure: less than 0.133 mPa at 20 degrees C
Kow: 1,260 at 22 degrees C

BASIC MANUFACTURER

Rhone Poulenc
P.O. Box 12014
2 T.W. Alexander Dr.
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Telephone 919-549-2000
Emergency 800-334-7577

Review by Basic Manufacturer:

Comments solicited: November, 1992
Comments received:

REFERENCES

  1. The Agrochemicals Handbook. 1991. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge, England.
  2. National Library of Medicine. 1992. Hazardous Substance Databank. Iprodione.
  3. Worthing, Charles R. 1991. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium. Ninth Edition. The British Crop Protection Council.
  4. The Federal Register. Rules and Regulations. Monday, January 29, 1990. Volume 55 number 19. P 2834.
  5. Martin, C, P. Davet, D. Vega and C. Cosste. 1991. Field Effectiveness and biodegradation of cyclic imides in lettuce field soils. Pesticide Science. V 32 (4) p. 427-438.
  6. Suta, V. M. Trandafirescu, V. Popescu, E. Voica, and S. Fugel. 1979. Proceedings of the British Crop Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases. page 103.
  7. Rankin, G.O. 1989. Comparative Acute Renal Effects of Three Carboximide Fungicides: Succinimide, Vinclozolin and Iprodione. Toxicology. June 16; 56(3):263-272.