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Vinclozolin

Publication Date: 9/93

TRADE OR OTHER NAMES

Trade names for commercial products containing vinclozolin include BAS 352F, Drive, Ornalin, Ronilan and Vorlan. Vinclozolin may also be used in formulations mixed with other fungicides such as thiram, carbendazim, chlorothalonil, maneb and thiophanate-methyl.

INTRODUCTION

Vinclozolin is a dicarboximide non-systemic pesticide that is used for the control of several species of fungi in vines (such as grapes), strawberries, vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. It may also be used on turf grass. This fungicide works by inhibiting spore germination. Vinclozolin is a general use pesticide.

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS

ACUTE TOXICITY

Vinclozolin is a slightly toxic pesticide that carries the signal word CAUTION on its label. The acute LD50 for vinclozolin is greater than 10,000 mg/kg in rats and around 8,000 mg/kg in guinea pigs.

The compound is a moderate skin irritant and will slightly irritate the membranes in the nose and throat (2). The inhalation LC50 of vinclozolin is greater than 29 mg/l of air for rats (4 hrs), indicating a rather low toxicity by this route of exposure.

CHRONIC TOXICITY

Vinclozolin was fed to dogs at relatively low levels (up to 50 mg/kg/day) for six months. Increases in the weight of the adrenal gland occurred in the dogs at the middle doses (7.5 mg/kg) for both sexes. Slightly higher doses in females caused changes in the structure of the gland (10). Another study with dogs fed small amounts of vinclozolin caused chronic effects (unspecified) at levels of 2.5 mg/kg and above (5). Dogs appear to be the most sensitive species of animal tested so far (1). A two year feeding study with rats showed reductions in body weight and changes in the blood chemistry at low doses (about 25 mg/kg) (1).

Reproductive Effects

A study at low doses of vinclozolin, which followed female rats through three successive litters showed no effects on the reproduction of those litters. Birth defects, however, were noted at the highest dose tested (73 mg/kg) (1).

Teratogenic Effects

In one study on mice, no birth defects were noted in the offspring of pregnant females given large amounts of vinclozolin (900 mg/kg) (1). However, the fungicide was toxic to the fetuses and caused fetal reabsorptions.

In another study rabbits were fed moderate amounts (up to 300 mg/kg) of the fungicide for an undisclosed amount of time. No effects were noted in the animals (3).

Mutagenic Effects

A number of tests on the mutagenicity of vinclozolin have been negative. One of the mutation tests was run at very high doses (2,000 mg/kg/day) (5). Based on the information available, it is unlikely that vinclozolin would present a significant mutagenic risk to humans exposed at low levels.

Carcinogenic Effects

A two year study on rats showed no carcinogenic effects at the highest dose tested (219 mg/kg) (5). In another study conducted for six months over a wide range of doses, there were no cancer related effects in the mice at levels up to the maximum dose tested (500 mg/kg/day) (1).

Organ Toxicity

Male dogs experienced changes in absolute weight and fat content of the kidney at relatively low doses for six months. At slightly higher doses (15 mg/kg) and for the same length of time (6 months), fat droplets appeared in the tubes within the kidney (1).

A single moderate dose (about 285 mg/kg) administered by injection to male mice resulted in only minor changes or no changes in kidney function and kidney structures (6).

Fate in Animals and Humans

Rats which had been given a single dose of vinclozolin (level not indicated) eliminated equal portions of the breakdown products in urine and feces (2). No indication of the time this elimination took or of the residue levels in the animals was noted.

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Vinclozolin is only moderately toxic to freshwater fish. The LC50 (96 hour) for the compound is 130 mg/l in guppies (3), and 52.2 mg/kg in trout (2). In the one bird species tested, the bobwhite quail, the LD50 of vinclozolin is 2,510 mg/kg (3). This value indicates that the compound is practically non-toxic to this species.

Vinclozolin is non-toxic to honey bees and to earthworms (3, 4).

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

Vinclozolin is rather persistent in soil and is only partially broken down by soil microorganisms (2). Currently there are no estimates available of the presence or absence of vinclozolin in surface or in ground water.

In its discussion of tolerance setting for vinclozolin in grapes, the EPA stated that there is no reasonable expectation for vinclozolin residues to be found in eggs, milk, meat or poultry from its use on table grapes (5).

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES

Exposure Guidelines:

NOEL: 2.5 mg/kg (dog); 25 mg/kg (rat)
ADI: 0.025 mg/kg
RfD: 0.025 mg/kg/day

Physical Properties:

CAS #: 50471-44-8
Chemical name: (RS)-3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione; 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)5-ethenyl-5-methyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione
Chemical class/use: dicarboximide fungicide
Solubility in water: 3.4 mg/l at 20 degrees C
Solubility in other solvents: 14 mg/l in ethanol, 435 mg/l in acetone, 253 mg/l in ethyl acetate, 9 mg/l in cyclohexane, 143 mg/l in benzene, and 100 mg/l in xylene, all at 20 degrees C.
Melting Point: 108 degrees C
Vapor Pressure: 0.016 mPa at 20 degrees C

BASIC MANUFACTURER

BASF Corporation
Agricultural Products Division
P.O. Box 13528
2505 Meridian Parkway
Research Triangle Park, N.C. 277099-3528
Telephone: 800-832-4357
Fax: 919-361-5722

Review by Basic Manufacturer:

Comments solicited: October, 1992
Comments received:

REFERENCES

  1. Integrated Risk Information System. 1992. National Library of Medicine, Vinclozolin.
  2. The Agrochemicals Handbook. 1991. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge, England.
  3. The Farm Chemicals Handbook. 1992. Meister Publishing. Willoughby, OH.
  4. Worthing, C.R. (ed.). 1991. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium. Ninth Edition. The British Crop Protection Council.
  5. Federal Register. 1987. Volume 52, Number 92. Wednesday, May 13, 1987. Rules and Regulations. Page 17954.
  6. Rankin, G.O. 1989. Comparative Acute Renal Effects of Three Carboximide Fungicides: Succinimide, Vinclozolin and Iprodione. Toxicology. June 16; 56(3):263-272.