E X T O X N E T
Extension Toxicology Network
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of
Cornell University, Michigan State University, Oregon State University, and
University of California at Davis. Major support and funding was provided
by the USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
Publication Date: 9/93
TRADE OR OTHER NAMES
Trade names for commercial products containing vinclozolin include BAS
352F, Drive, Ornalin, Ronilan and Vorlan. Vinclozolin may also be used in
formulations mixed with other fungicides such as thiram, carbendazim,
chlorothalonil, maneb and thiophanate-methyl.
Vinclozolin is a dicarboximide non-systemic pesticide that is used for
the control of several species of fungi in vines (such as grapes),
strawberries, vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. It may also be used on turf
grass. This fungicide works by inhibiting spore germination. Vinclozolin is
a general use pesticide.
Vinclozolin is a slightly toxic pesticide that carries the signal word
CAUTION on its label. The acute LD50 for vinclozolin is greater than 10,000
mg/kg in rats and around 8,000 mg/kg in guinea pigs.
The compound is a moderate skin irritant and will slightly irritate the
membranes in the nose and throat (2). The inhalation LC50 of vinclozolin is
greater than 29 mg/l of air for rats (4 hrs), indicating a rather low toxicity
by this route of exposure.
Vinclozolin was fed to dogs at relatively low levels (up to 50 mg/kg/day)
for six months. Increases in the weight of the adrenal gland occurred in the
dogs at the middle doses (7.5 mg/kg) for both sexes. Slightly higher doses in
females caused changes in the structure of the gland (10). Another study with
dogs fed small amounts of vinclozolin caused chronic effects (unspecified) at
levels of 2.5 mg/kg and above (5). Dogs appear to be the most sensitive
species of animal tested so far (1). A two year feeding study with rats
showed reductions in body weight and changes in the blood chemistry at low
doses (about 25 mg/kg) (1).
A study at low doses of vinclozolin, which followed female rats through
three successive litters showed no effects on the reproduction of those
litters. Birth defects, however, were noted at the highest dose tested (73
In one study on mice, no birth defects were noted in the offspring of
pregnant females given large amounts of vinclozolin (900 mg/kg) (1). However,
the fungicide was toxic to the fetuses and caused fetal reabsorptions.
In another study rabbits were fed moderate amounts (up to 300 mg/kg) of
the fungicide for an undisclosed amount of time. No effects were noted in the
A number of tests on the mutagenicity of vinclozolin have been negative.
One of the mutation tests was run at very high doses (2,000 mg/kg/day) (5).
Based on the information available, it is unlikely that vinclozolin would
present a significant mutagenic risk to humans exposed at low levels.
A two year study on rats showed no carcinogenic effects at the highest
dose tested (219 mg/kg) (5). In another study conducted for six months over a
wide range of doses, there were no cancer related effects in the mice at
levels up to the maximum dose tested (500 mg/kg/day) (1).
Male dogs experienced changes in absolute weight and fat content of the
kidney at relatively low doses for six months. At slightly higher doses (15
mg/kg) and for the same length of time (6 months), fat droplets appeared in
the tubes within the kidney (1).
A single moderate dose (about 285 mg/kg) administered by injection to
male mice resulted in only minor changes or no changes in kidney function and
kidney structures (6).
Fate in Animals and Humans
Rats which had been given a single dose of vinclozolin (level not
indicated) eliminated equal portions of the breakdown products in urine and
feces (2). No indication of the time this elimination took or of the residue
levels in the animals was noted.
Vinclozolin is only moderately toxic to freshwater fish. The LC50 (96
hour) for the compound is 130 mg/l in guppies (3), and 52.2 mg/kg in trout
(2). In the one bird species tested, the bobwhite quail, the LD50 of
vinclozolin is 2,510 mg/kg (3). This value indicates that the compound is
practically non-toxic to this species.
Vinclozolin is non-toxic to honey bees and to earthworms (3, 4).
Vinclozolin is rather persistent in soil and is only partially broken
down by soil microorganisms (2). Currently there are no estimates available of
the presence or absence of vinclozolin in surface or in ground water.
In its discussion of tolerance setting for vinclozolin in grapes, the EPA
stated that there is no reasonable expectation for vinclozolin residues to be
found in eggs, milk, meat or poultry from its use on table grapes (5).
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES
|NOEL: ||2.5 mg/kg (dog); 25 mg/kg (rat)
|ADI: ||0.025 mg/kg
|RfD: ||0.025 mg/kg/day
|CAS #: ||50471-44-8
|Chemical name: ||(RS)-3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione; 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)5-ethenyl-5-methyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione
|Chemical class/use: ||dicarboximide fungicide
|Solubility in water: ||3.4 mg/l at 20 degrees C
|Solubility in other solvents: ||14 mg/l in ethanol, 435 mg/l in acetone, 253 mg/l in ethyl acetate, 9 mg/l in cyclohexane, 143 mg/l in benzene, and 100 mg/l in xylene, all at 20 degrees C.
|Melting Point: ||108 degrees C
|Vapor Pressure: ||0.016 mPa at 20 degrees C
Agricultural Products Division
P.O. Box 13528
2505 Meridian Parkway
Research Triangle Park, N.C. 277099-3528
Review by Basic Manufacturer:
Comments solicited: October, 1992
Integrated Risk Information System. 1992. National Library of
The Agrochemicals Handbook. 1991. The Royal Society of Chemistry.
The Farm Chemicals Handbook. 1992. Meister Publishing. Willoughby,
Worthing, C.R. (ed.). 1991. The Pesticide Manual: A World
Compendium. Ninth Edition. The British Crop Protection Council.
Federal Register. 1987. Volume 52, Number 92. Wednesday, May 13, 1987.
Rules and Regulations. Page 17954.
Rankin, G.O. 1989. Comparative Acute Renal Effects of Three
Carboximide Fungicides: Succinimide, Vinclozolin and Iprodione. Toxicology.
June 16; 56(3):263-272.