D-D Mixture - Chemical Profile 6/84
D-D (Dichloropropane-dichloropropene mixture)
CHEMICAL NAME: A 100% mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene,
2,3-dichloropropene, and other related chlorinated
TRADE NAME(S): D-D, Nemafene (56)
FORMULATION(S): 100% liquid mixture of 3 chemicals. Sometimes
mixed with allyl alcohol (herbicide) or
TYPE: Soil fumigant-nematicide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Shell Chemical Co.
P.O. Box 3871
Houston, TX 77001
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: Controlled dosages are injected into the soil where
D-D provides fumigant action against plant parasitic nematodes,
symphylids, and wireworms on a broad range of crops; also preplant
treatment to control bacterial canker and decline of peach trees, for
suppression of verticillium wilt, and to control quackgrass in fields
to be planted to white potatoes in northwestern states, for reduction
of damaging effects of verticillium wilt in disease-infected land to be
used for mint production in northwestern states, and as treatment to aid
in control of field bindweed (perennial morningglory) on bare ground
Effective against soil nematodes including root knot, meadow,
sting and dagger, spiral and sugar beet nematodes (26).
Pests controlled: cyst (soybean, golden, tobacco, sugar beet),
root knot, root lesion or meadow, burrowing, citrus, stem and bulb,
free living (sting, ring, awl, spiral, lance, pin, stubby-root, stylet,
dagger), and other plant parasite nematodes, symphylids and wireworms
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: Mixture of C3 H4 Cl2 and C3 H6 Cl2 (principal
PHYSICAL STATE: Clear amber liquid (pure compound) (26)
ODOR: Pungent, garlic-like (18g)
BOILING POINT: Approximately 217-340 F (with decomposition) (18g)
VAPOR PRESSURE: 35 mmHg at 20 C (pure compound) (26)
SOLUBILITY: c. 2g/kg water at room temperature (pure compound)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: NA
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: For dichloropropene (a major constituent of
D-D): TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 1 ppm, 5
mg/m3; STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 10
ppm, 50 mg/m3. Skin notation (15a).
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 = 2100 mg/kg (rabbit). It is irritant to
human skin (26).
ORAL: LD50 = 140 mg/kg (rat); 300 mg/kg (mice) (26).
INHALATION: LC50 = 1000 ppm (4 hr. exposure, rat) (18g).
B. SUB-CHRONIC AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
Animals repeatedly exposed to D-D vapors showed liver and kidney
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Toxic to plants and germinating seeds (48).
Does not accumulate in soil even after several annual
applications. May reduce nitrifying microorganisms in cold soils and
thereby change the nitrogen cycle (18g).
No hazard to wildlife when applied according to recommendations on
the product label (18g).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
Oral: Acute gastrointestinal distress, with congestion and edema
Inhalation: Gasping, refusal to breathe, and extreme respiratory
distress at concentrations over 1,500 ppm. Eye and upper respiratory
irritation appears soon after exposure to vapors. Repeated exposure
may give rise to central nervous system depression.
Dermal: Severe skin irritation with marked inflammation of skin
and mucous membranes (18g).
SKIN CONTACT: If on skin, immediately flush skin with plenty of
water for 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes or
boots. If water is not immediately available, remove excess chemical
from skin with sorbent material such as a towel or dry soil, then
proceed at once to a location where water is available. Get medical
INGESTION: IF SWALLOWED, call a physician, poison control
center, or hospital emergency room immediately and follow the
directions given. If medical advice is not available, induce vomiting.
NEVER INDUCE VOMITING OR GIVE ANYTHING BY MOUTH TO AN UNCONSCIOUS OR
DROWSY PERSON. To induce vomiting, give one or two glasses of water
followed by two tablespoons (30 cc or one ounce) Syrup of Ipecac. For
a child, give one glass of water followed by one tablespoon (15 cc or
one-half ounce) Syrup of Ipecac. If Ipecac is not available, give two
glasses of water (one glass for a child) and induce vomiting by
touching finger to back of victim's throat. Keep victim's head below
hips while vomiting. After vomiting has occurred, get medical
attention. If you are not successful at inducing vomiting, get medical
attention immediately. Do not waste time with further attempts (18g).
INHALATION: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing,
give artificial respiration, preferably mouth to mouth. If breathing
is labored, give oxygen. Get medical attention (18g).
EYE CONTACT: If in eyes, immediately flush eyes with water for
15 minutes. Get medical attention immediately (18g).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
There is no specific antidote for D-D intoxication (18g).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
GENERAL: Flammable (56)
Compatible with other fumigants (48).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: D-D must be kept away from heat or open-flame
(18g). Hazardous by ingestion, inhalation, or by skin absorption.
Although toxic to warm-blooded animals, the vapors provide a warning
of the presence of D-D. Store in cool place away from dwellings. Do
not cut or weld container. Do not store in or use containers or
equipment made of aluminum, magnesium, or their alloys (56).
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: When handling or working with D-D wear clean
body covering including polyethylene, neoprene, or rubber footwear;
wear eye protection such as chemical workers' goggles (56).
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: NIOSH or MESA approved respiratory equipment
should be worn when liquid D-D is exposed to the atmosphere (56).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
15a. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1983.
TLVs: threshold limit values for chemical substances and
physical agents in the work environment with intended changes
for 1983-84. Cincinnati, OH. 93 pp.
18g. Shell Chemical Company, Agricultural Chemicals. 1982.
Technical data bulletin: summary of basic data for
D-D soil fumigant. Houston, TX.
26. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 6th ed. 1979. C. R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 655 pp.
48. Harding, W.C. 1979-80. Pesticide profiles, part two: fungicides
and nematicides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Service Bull.
283, 22 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.