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1,3-Dichloropropene - Chemical Fact Sheet 9/86

                          CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR:
                            1,2-DICHLOROPROPENE

FACT SHEET NUMBER:  95

DATE ISSUED:  SEPTEMBER, 1986

                     1.  DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL

- Generic Name:  1,3-dichloropropene
- Common Name:  None
- Trade Names:  Telone II™, Dow Telone™
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number:  542-75-6
- EPA Shaughnessy Code:  029001
- Year of Initial Registration:  1966
- Pesticide Type:  Broad spectrum soil fumigant
- Chemical Family:  Chlorinated hydrocarbon
- U.S. Producer:  Dow Chemical Company

                  2.  USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS

- Application sites:  A soil fumigant with nematicidal, fungicidal,
  insecticidal and herbicidal properties, for use on cotton. potatoes,
  tobacco, sugar beets, vegetables, grains, citrus fruit tree planting
  sites, deciduous fruit and nut-tree planting sites, bush and vine
  planting sites, floral/turf and ornamental tree sites.
- Types of formulations:  94% Liquid concentrate formulations.
- Types and methods of applications:  Chisel injection into the soil,
  using row (banded) or overall (broadcast) treatment.
- Application rates:  43 to 968 lbs ai/acre.  One application per year.
- Usual carriers:  None

                       3.  SCIENCE FINDINGS

Chemical Characteristics

- Color:  Pale yellow liquid at room temperature
- Molecular weight:  110.98
- Miscible in hydrocarbon solvents

Toxicological Characteristics

- Acute oral toxicity - 470 to 713 mg/kg, Toxicity Category II
- Acute oral toxicity - 640 mg/kg, Toxicity Category III
- Skin irritation - Moderate irritant, Toxicity Category III
- Eye irritation - Corneal opacity reversible within seven days,
  Toxicity Category II.
- Subchronic toxicity:
  - Subchronic inhalation (rat and mouse) - NOEL 30 ppm

- Chronic toxicity:
  - A two year rat oral gavage study had a NOEL of 25 mg/kg/day.
    Effects noted were an increased incidence of basal hyperplasia in
    treated males and females, increased kidney nephropathy in treated
    females, and urinary bladder edema at high dosages in males and
    females.
  - In a two year mouse feeding study, the effects noted were reduced
    female survival rate at the high dose and increased incidences of
    urinary bladder epithelial cell hyperplasia in both males and
    females in the mid- and high-dose levels.  A NOEL was not
    determined in this study.

- Oncogenicity:
  - 1,3-dichloropropene has been classified as a probable human
    carcinogen based on studies in rats and mice.  Oral studies in
    rats showed that it produced squamous cell papillomas and
    carcinomas of the forestomach in males at the high dose.  In the
    liver, there were increases of neoplastic nodules in treated males
    at both dosage levels compared to the controls.  In female rats,
    squamous cell papillomas of the forestomach, mammary gland
    adenomas/fibroadenomas and thyroid follicular cell
    adenomas/carcinomas were observed.
  - In mice, 1,3-dichloropropene produced an increased incidence of
    urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, squamous cell
    papillomas of the forestomach, and lung adenomas and carcinomas
    (combined) in females at the mid and high dosage levels.  There
    was an increase in hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in the
    females at the mid dosage level.  In male mice, there was an
    increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in combination with
    carcinomas, lung adenomas in combination with carcinomas, and
    squamous cell papillomas of the forestomach at the mid and high
    dosage levels.  Urinary bladder carcinomas were also observed in
    the males at the high dosage level.
  - Studies also indicate that 1,2-dichloropropane, an impurity in
    1,3-dichloropropene, is an oncogen in rats and mice, but the
    Agency believes it is a less potent oncogen than 1,3-
    dichloropropene.

- Mutagenicity:
  - 1,3-dichloropropene has been determined to be a direct acting
    mutagen.  1,3-dichloropropene has produced positive gene mutation
    in microbial systems.  In addition, 1,3-dichloropropene produced
    positive results for DNA damage/repair in microbial strains.  Data
    on structural chromosomal aberration are not available.  These
    studies are required.

- Reproductive effects:
  - No data are available on reproductive effects.  A two-generation
    reproduction study is required.

- Developmental effects:
  - In two inhalation studies, 1,3-dichloropropene was found to cause
    developmental effects in rats and rabbits.  In the rat study, no
    teratogenic effects were observed, but maternal toxicity occurred
    at all dose levels.  Developmental toxicity (delayed ossification
    of vertebral centra) occurred at the highest dose (120 ppm).  In
    the rabbit study maternal toxicity occurred at the 2 highest dose
    levels (60 ppm and 120 ppm), but no evidence of developmental
    toxicity was apparent.

- Exposure:
  - The average inhalation exposure of applicators engaged in various
    work activities is estimated to range from 0.15 to 23.00
    mg/kg/year.
  - Dietary exposure to 1,3-dichloropropene has not been estimated.
    Residue data for this assessment are required.

- Risks to workers and applicators:
  - The upper bound inhalation oncogenic risks to workers handling
    1,3-dichloropropene during distribution and storage are estimated
    to be in the range of 10 to the minus (-2) to 10 to the minus (-5).
    Risks to applicators during and immediately post-treatment are
    estimated to be in the range of 10 to the minus (-3) to 10 to the
    minus (-5).

Physiological and biochemical behavioral characteristics

- Mechanism of pesticidal action:  1,3-dichloropropene acts as a
  sterilant on contact with the pest.
- Metabolism in plants:  Metabolism of 1,3-dichloropropene in plants
  is not adequately understood.

Environmental Characteristics

- Data indicate that 1,2-dichloropropane, an impurity of technical
  1,3-dichloropropene has the potential to leach to ground water.
  Additional studies on the environmental fate of 1,3-dichloropropene,
  is impurities and metabolites are required.  Data indicate that 1,3-
  dichloropropene itself leaches to ground water when it is present in
  the most sensitive environment (shallow ground water and sandy soils
  of low percentage organic matter in areas of high rainfall or
  irrigation.

Ecological Characteristics

- Avian acute oral toxicity:  Bobwhite quail - 152 mg/kg.
- Avian dietary toxicity:  Mallard duck - >10,000 ppm;
                           Bobwhite quail - >10,000 ppm.
- Aquatic invertebrate toxicity:  Daphnia magna - 6.2 ppm.
- Freshwater fish toxicity:  Bluegill sunfish - 7.09 ppm;
                             Rainbow trout - 3.94 ppm.
- Based on these data, the Agency characterizes 1,3-dichloropropene as
  low to moderately toxic to waterfowl and upland game birds.  1,3-
  dichloropropene is moderately toxic to coldwater fish, warmwater
  fish, and freshwater invertebrates.
- Endangered species:  1,3-dichloropropene has low to moderate
  toxicity to birds and aquatic species.  Available data do not
  indicate a potential hazard to endangered species.

Tolerance Assessment

- No tolerances or exemptions from the requirement of tolerances for
  residues of 1,3-dichloropropene in or on food/feed commodities have
  been established in the United States. Mexico, Canada or by the
  Codex Alimentarius.
- Current data are inadequate to determine if residues of 1,3-
  dichloropropene, its metabolites, or manufacturing impurities will
  result in food or feed from use of 1,3-dichloropropene.  Data on the
  metabolism of 1,3-dichloropropene in crops grown in greated soils
  are required.  The additional data will be used to assess possible
  residues in food and feed crops and may lead to additional data
  requirements in residue chemistry.  Tolerances in food crops may be
  necessary if residues are found in crops, and may be necessary in
  animals if residues are found in animal feed items.

Problems Known to have Occurred with Use of the Chemical

- The Agency's Pesticide Incidence Monitoring System does not report
  any incidents during the period 1966-1981.  However, information
  from the State of California indicates that physicians treated an
  average of 2.20 1,3-dichloropropene incidents annually from 1981
  through 1985.  An additional 3.89 occupational cases were reported
  annually as dermal (1.80) or eye (2.00) injuries.

Science Summary

- The Agency has categorized 1,3-dichloropropene as a probable human
  carcinogen.  Chronic toxicity data show that the chemical is
  oncogenic at multiple sites in both sexes of rats and mice.  Other
  data supporting the oncogenic finding of 1,3-dichloropropene are:
  (1) a subcutaneous injection study in mice which showed increased
  incidence of fibrosarcomas at the site of injection, (2) studies
  showing that the compound is a direct acting mutagen, and (3) the
  structural similarity between 1,3-dichloropropene and known human
  oncogens (i.e., vinyl chloride).  The chemical has not been shown to
  cause teratogenic effects in rats or rabbits.  1,3-dichloropropene
  is acutely toxic by the oral and inhalation routes of exposure.
- 1,3-dichloropropene has low to moderate toxicity to birds and
  moderate toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates.  Limited data
  indicate that 1,3-dichloropropene has the potential to leach ground
  water in sensitive environments.  Available data are insufficient to
  more completely assess the environmental fate of the pesticide.
  Available data are also insufficient to assess the residues in raw
  agricultural commodities.
- 1,2-dichloropropane, an impurity in 1,3-dichloropropene, is
  oncogenic in rats and mice.  However, its oncogenic potency is lower
  than for 1,3-dichloropropene.  Data indicate that 1,2-
  dichloropropane has the potential to leach to ground water.

            4.  SUMMARY OF REGULATORY POSITIONS AND RATIONALE

- The Agency has placed 1,3-dichloropropene in Special Review because of
  oncogenic effects.  1,3-dichloropropene has been categorized as a
  probable human carcinogen, with effects demonstrated at multiple sites
  in both sexes of rats and mice.
- The Agency is classifying the 1,3-dichloropropene products for
  Restricted Use by certified applicators only, based upon acute
  toxicity and oncogenicity.  Restricted use will help ensure that
  mixer/loaders and applicators observe use precautions intended to
  protect against inhalation exposure.
- The Agency is continuing on an interim basis the current reentry
  interval of 72 hours for 1,3-dichloropropene products.
  The Agency is continuing to require protective clothing and equipment
  during mixing, loading, application, and if spillage occurs.
  Protective clothing and equipment include coveralls, gloves, heavy-
  duty footwear, safety goggles, and a mask or respirator approved for
  use with 1,3-dichloropropene.
- Available residue data are inadequate to determine if residues of 1,3-
  dichloropropene, its metabolites, or manufacturing impurities will
  occur in food or feed as a result of soil fumigation.  Although such
  fumigation use has in the past been considered non-food, the Agency
  may require the establishment of tolerances in food, feed, or animals
  if residues are found.
- The Agency is requiring environmental fate data including ground water
  monitoring studies on 1,3-dichloropropene, its impurities, and
  metabolites to determine whether there is a potential for groundwater
  contamination.
- The Agency will require a cancer hazard warning statement on
  1,3-dichloropropene products, to provide the opportunity for informed
  consent by users, and to encourage compliance with protective measures
  that will reduce exposure.
  Endangered species labeling statements are not warranted at this time,
  based upon available data.  If environmental fate or other data
  indicate a potential hazard to endangered species, the Agency will
  request a consultation from the Office of Endangered Species,
  Department of the Interior.
- Labeling Statements
  a. Manufacturing-Use Products
     - Precautionary Statements:
     - "DANGER.  Causes Severe eye damage.  May be fatal if inhaled,
        absorbed through skin, or swallowed.  Do not get in eyes, on
        skin or on clothing.  Wear chemical worker goggles, face shield
        or safety glasses.  Wash thoroughly with soap and water after
        handling, and before eating and smoking".
     - Effluent discharge statement:
       - "Do not discharge effluent containing this product directly
          into lakes, streams, ponds, estuaries, oceans or public waters
          unless this product is specifically identified and addressed
          in a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
          permit.  Do not discharge effluent containing this product
          into sewer systems without previously notifying the sewage
          treatment plant authority.  For guidance, contact your State
          Water Board or Regional Office of the Environmental Protection
          Agency".
     - Cancer Hazard Warning Statement:
       - "The use of this product may be hazardous to your health.  This
          product contains 1,3-diChloropropene which has been determined
          to cause tumors in laboratory animals.  Risks can be reduced
          by closely following the use directions, and precautions, and
          by wearing protective clothing specified elsewhere on this
          label".
  b. End Use Products
     - Precautionary statements:
       - "DANGER.  Causes Severe eye damage.  May be fatal if inhaled,
          absorbed through skin, or swallowed.  Do not get in eyes, on
          skin or on clothing.  Wear chemical worker goggles, face
          shield or safety glasses.  Wash thoroughly with soap and water
          after handling, and before eating and smoking".
     - Restricted use statement:
       - "For retail sale to and use only by Certified Applicators or
          persons under their direct supervision and only for those uses
          covered by the Certified Applicators certification."
     - Cancer Hazard Warning Statement:
       - "The use of this product may be hazardous to your health.  This
          product contains 1,3-dichloropropene which has been determined
          to cause tumors in laboratory animals.  Risks can be reduced
          by closely following the use directions and precautions, and
          by wearing protective clothing specified elsewhere on this
          label".
     - Environmental hazard statement:
       - "Do not contaminate water by cleaning of equipment or disposal
          of wastes.  In case of spills, properly dispose of
          contaminated materials."
     - Protecting clothing statements:
       - "Required clothing and equipment for mixing/loading and
          applying 1,3-dichloropropene":
       - "One-piece coveralls which have long sleeves and long pants
          constructed of laminated fabric as specified in the USDA/EPA
          Guide for Commercial Applicators".
       - "Liquid-proof hat such as a plastic hard hat with a plastic
          sweat band".
       - "Heavy-duty liquid proof (neoprene/synthetic) work gloves and
          boots."
       - "Any article worn while handling 1,3-dichloropropene must be
          washed before reusing.  Immediately remove all clothing which
          has been drenched or has otherwise absorbed 1,3-
          dichloropropene from any spill.  Dispose of contaminated
          clothing in a sanitary landfill, or by incineration if
          allowed by state and local authorities.  If burned, stay out
          of smoke."
- Reentry statement:
  - "Workers entering the treated area for 72 hours after
     application of 1,3-dichloropropene must wear protective
     clothing."
- Storage and Disposal Statements:
  - "Pesticide wastes are hazardous.  Improper disposal of excess
     pesticide is a violation of Federal Law.  If these wastes cannot
     be disposed of by use according to label instructions, contact your
     State Pesticide or Environmental Control Agency, or the Hazardous
     Waste representative at the nearest EPA Regional Office for
     Guidance."

                    5.  SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS

- Residue chemistry data
  - Nature of residue (plant metabolism) - May 30, 1987
  - Storage stability - May 30, 1987
  - Crop field trials - April 30, 1988

- Toxicology data:
  - Acute dermal toxicity - June 30, 1987
  - Acute inhalation toxicity - June 30, 1987
  - Dermal sensitization - June 30, 1987
  - 21 day dermal - October 30, 1987
  - Chronic toxicity (dog) - December 30, 1990
  - Oncogenicity (rat and mouse) - July 30, 1988
  - Reproduction - July 30, 1987
  - Structural chromosomal aberration - October 30, 1987
  - General metabolism - October 30, 1988

  - Environmental fate data:
    - Photodegradation in air - June 30, 1987
    - Aerobic soil metabolism - January 30, 1989
    - Anaerobic aquatic metabolism - January 30, 1989
    - Aerobic aquatic metabolism - January 30, 1989
    - Mobility of degradates - October 30, 1987
      (leaching, adsorption/desorption)
    - Soil dissipation - January 30, 1989
    - Aquatic sediment - January 30, 1989
    - Soil dissipation (long-term) - December 30, 1990
    - Accumulation in rotational crops - January 30, 1990 (confined)
    - Monitoring ground water & well water - April 30, 1988 (protocol)

  - Reentry protection data:
    - Soil dissipation - January 30, 1989
    - Dermal exposure - January 30, 1989
    - Inhalation exposure - January 30, 1989

  - Ecological effects data are not required for this Standard.
  - Product chemistry data are required during 1987.

                   6.  CONTACT PERSON AT EPA

Henry Jacoby
Product Manager Number 21
Office of Pesticide Programs, EPA
Registration Division (TS0767C)
Fungicide-Herbicide Branch
401 M Street, S.W.
Washington, DC 20460
Phone (703) 557-1900

DISCLAIMER:  THE INFORMATION PRESENTED IN THIS CHEMICAL INFORMATION FACT
SHEET IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND NOT TO BE USED TO FULFILL
DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND REREGISTRATION.