cadmium compounds Chemical Fact Sheet 9/86
CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR CADMIUM PESTICIDE COMPOUNDS
FACT SHEET NUMBER: 103
DATE ISSUED: SEPTEMBER , 1986
1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICALS
- Chemical names: Cadmium carbonate, cadmium chloride, cadmium
sebecate, cadmium succinate, anilinocadmium dilactate.
- Common names: Cadmium carbonate, cadmium chloride, cadmium sebecate,
cadmium succinate, anilinocadmium dilactate
- Trade names: None
- EPA Shaughnessy codes: 012901, 012902, 012903, 012904, 064601
- Chemical abstracts service (CAS) numbers: 134A, 135, 136A, 136B, 051D
- Years of Initial Registration: 1949 - 1952
- Pesticide type: Fungicides
- Chemical family: Cadmium salts
2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS
- Application sites: golf course and home lawn turf
- Types of formulations: wettable powders, dusts, granulars
- Types and methods of application: ground application by hand held
sprayers and boom sprayers.
3. SCIENCE FINDINGS
- Physical state: solid
- Boiling point: 765 C
- Melting point: 321 C
- Moderate to moderately high (Toxicity Categories III and II); specific
values are unavailable for each compound since there are no technical
registrations and there are data gaps on formulated products.
- Acute effects to kidneys are formation of fatty bodies in the kidneys
and degeneration of renal tubules.
- Oncogenic as demonstrated in laboratory animal and human epider-
- Rat chronic inhalation study -- LOEL of 12.5 ug Cd chloride/m to the
(-3) (lowest dose tested) for lung tumors.
- Rat chronic injection study -- 3.6% Cd chloride (lowest concen-
tration tested) caused testicular and pancreatic islet tumors.
- Epidermiological studies of factory workers chronically exposed to
cadmium oxide and dust have shown statistically significant
increases in the incidences of lung tumors.
- Kidney effects of proteinuria, glucosuria, excretion of amino acids
and decreased renal function:
- Rat drinking water study (24 wks) -- NOEL of 10 mg/L (lowest dose
tested) for proteinuria.
- Epidermiological study of factory workers exposed to cadmium oxide
and dust (50 yrs) -- LOEL of 2 ug/m(-3) for renal tubular
- Mutagenic effects from 36 studies on various cadmium compounds are
equivocal; depending on protocol and end point examined, results vary.
- Teratogenic, fetotoxic and reproduction effects have been shown in
laboratory animal studies however, the data do not support that
cadmium would produce these types of effects in humans.
4. SUMMARY OF REGULATORY POSITION AND RATIONALE
The Agency initiated a Special Review of cadmium pesticide
compounds in October 1977 based on data indicating that they may pose
risks of oncogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and fetotoxicity
from their application to golf courses and home lawns to control turf
During this time the Agency conducted further evaluations of
toxicology studies of various cadmium compounds. Additionally, the
Agency assessed new applicator exposure data and cadmium fungicide
The Agency concluded that the toxicology data from laboratory
animal and human epidermiological studies demonstrate a correlation
between inhalation exposure to cadmium and an increased incidence of
lung tumors. The Agency has classified cadmium as a "B1" or "probable"
human carcinogen. Based on the derived potency value and estimates of
applicator exposure, the estimates of oncogenic risk to applicators are
10 to the (-4) to 10 to the (-6) from applications to golf courses and
10 to the (-8) from applications to home lawns.
In regard to mutagenicity, the Agency reassessed the studies for
which the Special Review was initiated and assessed additional studies
that have become available since the initiation. From the results of the
many studies, the Agency now concludes that there are conflicting
results which cannot be readily resolved due to the many protocols and
end points that have been used. Therefore, the Agency believes that the
data no longer support the mutagenicity risk criteria for Special
Since initiation of the Special Review, the Agency also reassessed
cadmium's potential as a human teratogen and fetotoxin. Although data
from home studies link cadmium with teratogenic and fetotoxic effects in
laboratory animals, the Agency now concludes that the composite of data
from studies do not support the risk criteria that cadmium is
teratogenic and fetotoxic to humans.
Additional laboratory animal and human epidermiological studies
that the Agency has reviewed since 1977 demonstrate that cadmium causes
acute and chronic effects to the kidneys, including fatty body
formation, and renal tubular degeneration, proteinuria, glucosuria and
amino acid excretion. In comparison of the lowest effect level for
kidney effects with the estimated applicator exposure the Agency
concludes that there are risks of applicators developing kidney effects
from the use of cadmium fungicides on golf courses and homelawns. The
risk to golf course applicators is much higher than to home lawn
applicators. Therefore, the Agency has added this hazard with
oncogenicity for the risk criteria for this Special Review.
The Agency examined the benefits from the uses of cadmium
fungicides on golf courses and home lawns and the availability of
alternate fungicides and their associated hazards. The Agency concludes
that the benefits are low. Use of cadmium fungicides is very low in
annual volume (30,000 lbs) and in percentage of golf course acreage
treated (2%) as compared to the eleven alternatives. Use on home lawns
is negligible. Some of the alternatives are as effective and some are
more expensive. Total substitution for cadmium fungicides could annually
cost the golf courses nationwide as much as $240,000 or $500 each. Some
of the alternatives are associated with chronic hazards while others are
The Agency received seven comments from the cadmium registrants
during the comment period. These were arguments against the risk
criteria for the initiated Special Review and additional benefits
information. All comments and the benefits information have been
considered and are addressed in the Technical Support Document.
The Agency has carefully evaluated all the information and also
considered possible measures to reduce exposure and the risks of
oncogenicity and kidney effects. The weight of the evidence leads the
Agency to conclude that the risks to applicators outweigh the minor
benefits and therefore cancellation is the prudent regulatory action to
This proposed regulatory action along with a request for comments
from the public, USDA and the FIFRA Science Advisory Panel will be
published in the Federal Register in October 1986. The comment period
will be 60 days. After that time the Agency will evaluate any received
comments in consideration of their impact on the risk and benefit
assessments and the proposed regulatory decision. The Agency will then
complete the Special Review by publishing in the Federal Register a
6. CONTACT PERSON AT EPA
Valerie Meredith Bael
Product Manager Number 21
Office of Pesticide Programs
Registration Division (T5-767C)
401 M Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460
DISCLAIMER: THE INFORMATION PRESENTED IN THIS CHEMICAL INFORMATION FACT
SHEET IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND NOT TO BE USED TO FULFILL
DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND REREGISTRATION.