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cadmium compounds Chemical Fact Sheet 9/86





         CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR CADMIUM PESTICIDE COMPOUNDS

FACT SHEET NUMBER:  103
DATE ISSUED:  SEPTEMBER , 1986

                 1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICALS

- Chemical names:  Cadmium carbonate, cadmium chloride, cadmium
  sebecate, cadmium succinate, anilinocadmium dilactate.
- Common names:  Cadmium carbonate, cadmium chloride, cadmium sebecate,
  cadmium succinate, anilinocadmium dilactate
- Trade names:  None
- EPA Shaughnessy codes:  012901, 012902, 012903, 012904, 064601
- Chemical abstracts service (CAS) numbers:  134A, 135, 136A, 136B, 051D
- Years of Initial Registration:  1949 - 1952
- Pesticide type:  Fungicides
- Chemical family:  Cadmium salts

              2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS

- Application sites:  golf course and home lawn turf
- Types of formulations:  wettable powders, dusts, granulars
- Types and methods of application:  ground application by hand held
  sprayers and boom sprayers.

                        3. SCIENCE FINDINGS

Chemical Characteristics:

- Physical state:  solid
- Boiling point:  765 C
- Melting point:  321 C

Toxicology Characteristics:

Acute toxicity:
- Moderate to moderately high (Toxicity Categories III and II); specific
  values are unavailable for each compound since there are no technical
  registrations and there are data gaps on formulated products.
- Acute effects to kidneys are formation of fatty bodies in the kidneys
  and degeneration of renal tubules. 

Chronic toxicity:
- Oncogenic as demonstrated in laboratory animal and human epider-
  miological studies: 
  - Rat chronic inhalation study -- LOEL of 12.5 ug Cd chloride/m to the
    (-3) (lowest dose tested) for lung tumors.
  - Rat chronic injection study -- 3.6% Cd chloride (lowest concen-
    tration tested) caused testicular and pancreatic islet tumors. 
  - Epidermiological studies of factory workers chronically exposed to
    cadmium oxide and dust have shown statistically significant
    increases in the incidences of lung tumors.
  - Kidney effects of proteinuria, glucosuria, excretion of amino acids
    and decreased renal function:
    - Rat drinking water study (24 wks) -- NOEL of 10 mg/L (lowest dose
      tested) for proteinuria.
    - Epidermiological study of factory workers exposed to cadmium oxide
      and dust (50 yrs) -- LOEL of 2 ug/m(-3) for renal tubular
      proteinuria.
- Mutagenic effects from 36 studies on various cadmium compounds are
  equivocal; depending on protocol and end point examined, results vary.
- Teratogenic, fetotoxic and reproduction effects have been shown in
  laboratory animal studies however, the data do not support that
  cadmium would produce these types of effects in humans.

            4. SUMMARY OF REGULATORY POSITION AND RATIONALE

     The Agency initiated a Special Review of cadmium pesticide 
compounds in October 1977 based on data indicating that they may pose 
risks of oncogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and fetotoxicity 
from their application to golf courses and home lawns to control turf 
diseases.

     During this time the Agency conducted further evaluations of 
toxicology studies of various cadmium compounds. Additionally, the 
Agency assessed new applicator exposure data and cadmium fungicide 
benefits information.

     The Agency concluded that the toxicology data from laboratory 
animal and human epidermiological studies demonstrate a correlation 
between inhalation exposure to cadmium and an increased incidence of 
lung tumors. The Agency has classified cadmium as a "B1" or "probable" 
human carcinogen. Based on the derived potency value and estimates of 
applicator exposure, the estimates of oncogenic risk to applicators are 
10 to the (-4) to 10 to the (-6) from applications to golf courses and 
10 to the (-8) from applications to home lawns.

     In regard to mutagenicity, the Agency reassessed the studies for 
which the Special Review was initiated and assessed additional studies 
that have become available since the initiation. From the results of the 
many studies, the Agency now concludes that there are conflicting 
results which cannot be readily resolved due to the many protocols and 
end points that have been used. Therefore, the Agency believes that the 
data no longer support the mutagenicity risk criteria for Special 
Review.

     Since initiation of the Special Review, the Agency also reassessed 
cadmium's potential as a human teratogen and fetotoxin. Although data 
from home studies link cadmium with teratogenic and fetotoxic effects in 
laboratory animals, the Agency now concludes that the composite of data 
from studies do not support the risk criteria that cadmium is 
teratogenic and fetotoxic to humans.

     Additional laboratory animal and human epidermiological studies 
that the Agency has reviewed since 1977 demonstrate that cadmium causes 
acute and chronic effects to the kidneys, including fatty body 
formation, and renal tubular degeneration, proteinuria, glucosuria and 
amino acid excretion. In comparison of the lowest effect level for 
kidney effects with the estimated applicator exposure the Agency 
concludes that there are risks of applicators developing kidney effects 
from the use of cadmium fungicides on golf courses and homelawns. The 
risk to golf course applicators is much higher than to home lawn 
applicators. Therefore, the Agency has added this hazard with 
oncogenicity for the risk criteria for this Special Review.

     The Agency examined the benefits from the uses of cadmium 
fungicides on golf courses and home lawns and the availability of 
alternate fungicides and their associated hazards. The Agency concludes 
that the benefits are low. Use of cadmium fungicides is very low in 
annual volume (30,000 lbs) and in percentage of golf course acreage 
treated (2%) as compared to the eleven alternatives. Use on home lawns 
is negligible. Some of the alternatives are as effective and some are 
more expensive. Total substitution for cadmium fungicides could annually 
cost the golf courses nationwide as much as $240,000 or $500 each. Some 
of the alternatives are associated with chronic hazards while others are 
not.

     The Agency received seven comments from the cadmium registrants 
during the comment period. These were arguments against the risk 
criteria for the initiated Special Review and additional benefits 
information. All comments and the benefits information have been 
considered and are addressed in the Technical Support Document.

     The Agency has carefully evaluated all the information and also 
considered possible measures to reduce exposure and the risks of 
oncogenicity and kidney effects. The weight of the evidence leads the 
Agency to conclude that the risks to applicators outweigh the minor 
benefits and therefore cancellation is the prudent regulatory action to 
propose.

     This proposed regulatory action along with a request for comments 
from the public, USDA and the FIFRA Science Advisory Panel will be 
published in the Federal Register in October 1986. The comment period 
will be 60 days. After that time the Agency will evaluate any received 
comments in consideration of their impact on the risk and benefit 
assessments and the proposed regulatory decision. The Agency will then 
complete the Special Review by publishing in the Federal Register a 
final decision.

                         6. CONTACT PERSON AT EPA

Valerie Meredith Bael
Product Manager Number 21
EPA
Office of Pesticide Programs
Registration Division (T5-767C)
401 M Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460

DISCLAIMER:  THE INFORMATION PRESENTED IN THIS CHEMICAL INFORMATION FACT 
SHEET IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND NOT TO BE USED TO FULFILL 
DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND REREGISTRATION.