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cadmium compounds EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet 4/91

                        EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet

Name of Chemical:  Cadmium Chloride
Reason for Issuance:  Announcement of the termination of the Cadmium
                      Chloride Special
Date Issued:  4/1/91
Fact Sheet Number:  220


                  1. Description of Chemical

- Chemical name:  cadmium chloride
- Common name:   cadmium chloride
- Trade name:  CADDY, Liquid Cadmium Turf Fungicide
- EPA Shaughnessy code:  012902
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number:  135
- Year of Initial Registration:  1952
- Pesticide type:  Fungicide
- Chemical family:  cadmium salts
 -U.S. producers:  There are no remaining U.S. producers.  W.A.Cleary
  Chemical Corporation requested voluntary cancellation of the only
  remaining cadmium chloride pesticide registration on July 9, 1990.
  Cancellation became effective on August 19, 1990 .


                2. Use Patterns and formulations

- Application sites:  Golf course tees and greens.
- Types of formulations:  soluble concentrate/solid;
- Types and methods of application:  cart-drawn boom spray equipment
  (mini-boom).


                    3. Science Findings


Physical and Chemical Characteristics:

- Physical state:  solid
- Boiling point:  765 degrees C
- Melting point:  321 degrees C


Human Toxicology Characteristics:

- Acute toxicity:

  Moderate to moderately high (Toxicity Categories III and II); specific
  values are unavailable for this compound since there are no technical
  registrations and there are data gaps on formulated products.

  Acute effects to kidneys are formation of fatty bodies in the kidneys
  and degeneration of renal tubules.

- Chronic toxicity:

  Cadmium chloride is carcinogenic, as demonstrated in laboratory animal
  and human epidemiological studies:

  - Rat chronic inhalation study -- LOEL 12.5 ug Cd chloride/cubic meter
    (lowest dose tested) for lung tumors.

  - Rat chronic injection study -- 3.6% Cd chloride (lowest concen-
    tration tested) caused testicular and pancreatic islet tumors.

  - Epidemiological studies of factory workers -- chronic exposure to
    cadmium oxide and dust has shown statistically significant increases
    in the incidence of lung tumors.

  Kidney effects of proteinuria, glucosuria, excretion of amino acids
  and decreased renal function:

  - Rat drinking water study (24 wks) -- NOEL 10 mg/L (lowest dose
    tested) for proteinuria.

  - Epidemiological study of factory workers exposed to cadmium oxide
    dust (50 yrs) -- LOEL 2 ug/m for renal tubular proteinuria.

  Mutagenic effects from 36 studies on various cadmium compounds are
  equivocal; depending on protocol and end point examined, results vary.

  Developmental, fetotoxic and reproductive effects have been shown in
  laboratory animal studies; however, the data are inadequate to support
  that cadmium would produce these types of effects in humans. Further,
  the data suggest that these effects are dependent on routes of admini-
  stration which may not be analogous to human exposures from the
  pesticidal use.


            4. Summary of Regulatory Position and Rationale

     On August 19, 1987, EPA issued its Final Determination and Notice 
of Intent to Cancel all uses of cadmium chloride except application on 
golf course tees and greens.  This action was based on the determination 
that risks associated with the use of this product outweighed its minor 
benefits.  Risks (kidney and carcinogenic effects to applicators), 
together with the lack of satisfactory risk reduction measures, and the 
number of effective, registered alternatives, outweighed the estimated 
minor economic impact of cadmium chloride cancellation.

     Continued use of cadmium chloride on golf course tees and greens 
was permitted, with label changes(1), while an applicator exposure study 
was being conducted.  The study was required because comments received 
from the registrant in response to the Proposed Cancellation (PD 2/3 
issued Oct. 10, 1986) stated that EPA had calculated exposure for the 
wrong application method.  The Agency had calculated applicator exposure 
as if they applied cadmium chloride to tees and greens by hand-held 
spray guns, but commenters pointed out that most cadmium chloride was 
applied to tees and greens by cart-drawn boom sprayers (mini-booms).  
Because the Agency did not have sufficient data in its surrogate data 
base to recalculate exposure levels for the primary application method, 
a Data Call-In Notice was issued in July 1987 to acquire this 
information.

     EPA completed its review of the mini-boom exposure study in 
September 1989.  As anticipated, exposure from mini-boom application was 
lower than exposure from hand-held spray guns; however, EPA determined 
that the reduced exposure was not significant enough to alleviate 
applicator risk.

     In a meeting between the registrant and the Agency, EPA explained 
its review of the mini-boom study, the impact of the study on the 
Cadmium Chloride Special Review, the registrant's reregistration 
responsibilities, and the possibility of a voluntary cancellation.  
Subsequently, on July 9, 1990, EPA received a request from W.A. Cleary 
Chemical Corporation for voluntary cancellation of its product 
registration.

     A notice was published in the Federal Register on August 1, 1990, 
announcing the Agency's receipt of the voluntary cancellation request, 
and specifying the existing stocks provisions to be allowed following 
cancellation.  After the comment period expired, the cancellation became 
effective on August 11, 1990.

     Voluntary cancellation of this product was requested by the 
registrant because the Agency had determined that continued cadmium 
chloride use on golf course tees and greens would result in unreasonable 
adverse effects to applicators.  Cancellation of this product would 
eliminate the risks to applicators.  Because cadmium chloride risk is 
chronic, the limited, continued use of this product for a short period 
does not pose a risk to applicators.  Furthermore, because cadmium 
chloride is applied in small amounts, continued use does not pose a risk 
to golfers, pets or wildlife who might cross tees and greens.  Although 
cadmium chloride was considered effective and was less expensive than 
most of its substitutes, there are a number of effective, registered 
alternatives(2) which do not pose similar risk concerns.

     Under the existing stocks provision, no cadmium chloride product 
may be sold, distributed, or released for shipment by the registrant 
after July 31, 1991, and no cadmium chloride product may be sold or 
distributed by a retailer, dealer, or any person after December 31, 
1991.  Golf courses or end-users may not obtain or take possession of 
cadmium chloride product after December 31, 1991; supplies in their 
possession as of December 31, 1991 may be used until exhausted.

     On November 30, 1990, EPA published a notice in the Federal 
Register proposing to terminate the Cadmium Chloride Special Review 
based on the registrant's request for voluntary cancellation of the 
Agency's last cadmium chloride registration.  This Notice also initiated 
a 30-day comment period.

     EPA received no comments during the comment period. Thus, EPA is 
announcing that it has terminated the Cadmium Chloride Special Review.


                      5. Contact person

Ann Sibold, Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide 
Programs, Special Review and Reregistration Division (H7508C), 401 M 
Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20460. telephone (703) 308-8034.

____________________

(1) Label changes included the following stipulations:  that cadmium 
chloride be applied by mini-boom sprayer only, that protective clothing 
be worn during application (including chemical resistant gloves, long 
sleeve shirt, long legged pants), and that a chemical resistant apron be 
worn during mixing and loading.  Cadmium chloride's classification was 
also changed to "Restricted Use" pesticide.

(2) Anilazine, chlorothalonil, chloroneb, fenamirol, iprodione, 
propiconizole, thiram, triadimefon, and vinclozolin.