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dicloran (Botran) Chemical Fact Sheet 1/84


                         CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR:
                      2,6-DICHLOR0-4-NITROANILINE(DCNA)

FACT SHEET NUMBER:  13

DATE ISSUED:  JANUARY 9, 1984


                      1.  DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL

- Generic Name:  2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline
- Common Name:  dicloran
- Trade Name(s):  DCNA, Botran, Ditranil, Allisan, and Resisan
- EPA Shaughnessy Code:  031301
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number:  99-30-9
- Year of Initial Registration:  1961
- Pesticide Type:  Fungicide
- Chemical Family:  Nitroaniline
- U.S. and Foreign Producer:  Upjohn Company


                   2.  USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS

- Application sites:  DCNA is used to control a variety of pre- and
  post-harvest diseases on fruit and vegetable crops.  Current major use
  sites include peaches, grapes, lettuce, and celery. It is a protectant
  to ornamentals and vegetable seeds.  It is also registered for use on
  cotton, a number of ornamentals, a seed-piece dip for sweet potatoes,
  a peanut seed treatment, and in greenhouses on cucumbers, lettuce,
  rhubarb, and tomatoes.
- Types of formulations:  Formulated products are 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12,
  15, 20, 30, 35, or 50% dusts; 48.8 or 75% wettable powders; 9 or 30%
  flowable concentrates; as 0.5 or 3% ready-to-use liquids; a 3%
  formulation in fruit wax; and a 0.2% impregnated fruit wrap. DCNA may
  be formulated with other pesticides such as captan, benomyl, and
  parathion.  It is not compatible with some oil-based pesticides.
- Types and methods of application:  DCNA may be applied as preharvest
  and post-harvest uses on fruit and vegetable crops; seed and
  ornamental protectant.  In the field, DCNA can be applied by ground
  and aircraft.  DCNA can be applied as a post-harvest dip, spray, or
  dust to some fruits and vegetables, and as a protectant to ornamental
  crops prior to storage and shipment.
- Application rates:  1.5 to 30 lb/A.
- Usual carriers:  Either water or wax as diluent.


                         3.  SCIENCE FINDINGS


Chemical Characteristics

- DCNA is a yellow, crystalline powder.  The solubility of DCNA in
  ethanol is 0.2% at 20 C, and its melting point is 192-194 C.  The
  chemical does not present any unusual handling hazards.


Toxicological Characteristics

- Acute toxicology studies:
  - Acute oral LD50 in rats:  >10,000 mg/kg, Toxicity Category IV
  - Acute dermal LD50 in rabbits:  >2.0 g/kg, Toxicity Category III
  - Acute inhalation LC50 in rats:  >2 mg/l, Toxicity Category III
  - DCNA does not induce skin or eye irritation - Toxicity Category
    III
  - DCNA was found to be a skin sensitizer and may induce
    phototoxicity due to the presence of aniline in its composition.

- Chronic toxicology studies:
  - There is insufficient data to assess the subchronic dermal or
    subchronic inhalation hazard.
  - Chronic toxicity in rats:  NOEL = 100 ppm; LEL = 3000 ppm
  - Oncogenicity study in rats:  No tumors at 3000 ppm
  - Teratogenicity in rabbits:  No abnormalities at 1000 ppm
  - Reproduction in rats:  NOEL = 100 ppm

- Major routes of exposure:  Subchronic dermal or respiratory contact


Physiological and Biochemical Behavioral Characteristics

- Mechanism of pesticidal action:  Thought to be a non-specific
  inhibitor of cell division and can affect nuclear stability.
- General metabolism in rats:  1.7 and 8 mg/kg body weight were
  absorbed; no body tissue accumulation was detected.


Environmental Characteristics

- Data are insufficient to fully assess the environmental fate of DCNA.


Ecological Characteristics

- Hazards to fish and wildlife:
  - Avian dietary LC50:  Mallard duck - 9500 ppm; Bobwhite quail -
    2120 ppm
  - Fish LC50:  >1.08 ppm
  - Aquatic invertebrates LC50:  2.3 ppm
- Potential problems for endangered species:  Will be reassessed after
  review of environmental fate data.


Tolerance Assessment

- List of crops and tolerances (in ppm):  apricots (pre and post H)
  20, snapbeans 20, blackberries 15, boysenberries 15, carrots (post
  H) 10, celery 15, sweet cherries (pre and post H) 20, cottonseed
  0.1, cucumbers 5, endive 10, garlic 5, grapes 10, kiwifruit (post H)
  20, lettuce 10, nectarines (pre and post H) 20, onions 5, peaches
  (pre and post H) 20, plums (fresh prunes) (pre and post H) 15,
  potatoes 0.25, raspberries 15, rhubarb 10, sweet potatoes (post H)
  10, tomatoes 5.
- Tolerance reassessment:  Due to the absence of pertinent data, the
  Agency is unable to complete its reassessment of DCNA tolerances.


Summary Science Statement

- There are extensive data gaps for DCNA.  No human toxicological
  hazards of concern, other than inducement of skin photosensitivity
  and possible ocular toxicity, have been identified in studies reviewed
  by the Agency for this standard.  ,he Agency has no information that
  indicates continued use will result in any unreasonable adverse
  effects to man or his environment during the time required to develop
  the data.


            4.  SUMMARY OF REGULATORY POSITION AND RATIONALE

- Use classification:  general use
- Unique label warning statements:  Manufacturing-use labels must
  contain the statements: Do not discharge into lakes, streams, ponds or
  public waters unless in accordance with NPDES permit.  For guidance,
  contact your regional office of EPA.


                  5.  SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS

- Product chemistry:  data due 7/84
  - Identity of ingredients
  - Statement of composition
  - Discussion on formation of contaminants
  - Preliminary analysis
  - Certification of limits
  - Analytical methods
  - Odor
  - Density, bulk density, or specific gravity
  - Solubility
  - Vapor pressure
  - Dissociation constant
  - Octanol/water partition coefficient

- Toxicology: studies due 1/88
  - Ocular toxicity
  - Photosensitization
  - 21-day subchronic dermal
  - Oncogenicity in mouse (in progress)

  - Teratogenicity (in progress)
  - Mutagenicity testing

- Wildlife and aquatic organisms:  studies due 1/88
  - Single-dose oral LD50 on one avian species
  - Acute 48-hour toxicity study on a freshwater invertebrate
  - Fish embryo-larvae and/or aquatic field studies may be required
    depending on environmental fate data

- Environmental fate:  studies due 1/88
  - Hydrolysis studies
  - Photodegradation studies in water
  - Photodegradation studies on soil
  - Aerobic soil metabolism study
  - Anaerobic soil metabolism study
  - Leaching and adsorption/desorption studies
  - Laboratory volatility studies
  - Terrestrial field dissipation studies
  - Long-term field dissipation studies
  - Confined accumulation studies on rotational crops
  - Laboratory studies of pesticide accumulation in fish

- Reentry protection:
  - Data requirement pending results of toxicological testing

- Residue chemistry:  studies due 1/88
  - Nature of residue for plants and animals
  - Residue analytical method for animals
  - Storage stability data
  - Crop field trials for potatoes. sweet potatoes, onions, apricots
    cherries, nectarines, peaches, plums, blackberries, boysenberries,
    raspberries, kiwi
  - Processed food/feed for potatoes, tomatoes, cottonseed


                     6.  CONTACT PERSON AT EPA

Mr. Henry M. Jacoby
Environmental Protection Agency
Fungicide-Herbicide Branch (TS-767C)
401 M St., SW
Washington, DC  20460
(703) 557-1900


DISCLAIMER:
THE INFORMATION PRESENTED IN THIS CHEMICAL INFORMATION FACT SHEET
IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND NOT TO BE USED TO FULFILL
DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND REREGISTRATION.