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dinocap (Karathane) Chemical Profile 2/89

                                      dinocap

      CHEMICAL NAME:  A mixture of 2,4-dinitro-6-octylphenyl crotonates and
      2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonates, octyl here being a mixture of the
      1-methylheptyl-1-ethylhexyl-and 1-propylpentyl-isomers (26).

      TRADE NAME(S):  Karathane (1)

      FORMULATION(S): Wettable powder, liquid concentrate, dust (56).

      TYPE:           Dinitro miticide-fungicide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Rohm and Haas Co.
                          Independence Mall West
                          Philadelphia, PA 19105

      STATUS:  General use.  Rohm and Haas has discovered that
      Karathane causes birth defects in the off-spring of rabbits that are
      dosed orally during pregnancy.  The company has agreed to submit
      further studies to EPA by March 1, 1985.  Until then, Rohm and Haas
      has voluntarily suspended sales of Karathane and Dikar until further
      toxicological and exposure data are generated and then reviewed by EPA.
      The EPA review is expected sometime in April, 1985.  The company has
      offered to repurchase unopened containers of Karathane products
      destined for home and garden use.  Rohm and Haas has recommended that
      Karathane-containing products not be used until the above issue has been
      resolved.

      On February 6, 1989, EPA issued a Notice of Intent to Cancel
      registrations and to deny applications for registrations for all
      pesticide products that contain dinocap as the active ingredient unless
      the changes specified in the Notice are made to the registrations or
      applications for registration.  The Agency will require:

      1.  Dinocap labels to bear the statement, "Use of this product may be
          hazardous to your health.  This product has been determined to
          cause birth defects in laboratory animals."

      2.  The EPA will lower the rate of application of liquid formulations
          of dinocap for use on pears to 0.47 lbs./acre.

      3.  For use od dinocap as a wettable powder on apples, the Agency will
          require mixer/loaders and applicators to use additional protective
          clothing and equipment not currently required.  When warm weather
          conditions make the use of certain protective clothing impractical
          applications for this use will be from a vehicle with a closed cab.

      4.  For the use of dinocap as a wettable powder on pears, or as a liquid
          or wettable powder on grapes and field cucurbits, the Agency will
          require mixer/loaders and applicators to use additional protective
          and equipment not currently required, and will require that they
          make all applications of dinocap for these uses from a vehicle
          with a closed cab.

      A complete copy of this 2/6/89 Federal Register Notice can be obtained
      from the Chemicals-Pesticides Program.

      PRINCIPAL USES: As foliage miticide on fruit and vegetable crops.
      Nonsystemic.  Good for phosphate resistant mites (1).
           Currently being used on various fruit and vegetable crops and
      ornamentals for control of powdery mildew diseases and certain species
      of mites (56).

                                   I.  EFFICACY

           Mites controlled/suppressed:

           citrus red
           clover
           European red
           peach silver
           plum nursery
           red spider (two-spotted) (43a)


                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C18 H24 N2 O6 (26)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   364.3 (26)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Dark brown liquid (pure compound) (26)

      BOILING POINT:      138-140 C/0.05 mmHg (pure compound) (26)

      SOLUBILITY:         Insoluble in water (pure compound) (26)


                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  NA

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA

      TOXICOLOGY

           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:    LD50 = >9000 mg/kg (1)

               ORAL:      LD50 = 980-1190 mg/kg (rat) (26)
                          LD50 = 980 mg tech./kg (rat) (56)

           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:

           In 1-yr. feeding trials dogs receiving 50 mg/kg diet suffered no
      loss in weight; but cataracts were produced in white Pekin ducks at
      this dose level (26).


                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

           Little or no hazard to birds, fish and beneficial insects.
      Relatively nonhazardous to honey bees.  Biological magnification
      unlikely (1).

      Approximate Residual Period:  1-2 weeks on plants (1).


                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES

           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.

      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING

           YELLOW STAINING of skin and hair often signify contact with a
      nitrophenolic chemical.  Staining of the sclerae and urine indicate
      absorption of potentially toxic amounts.  PROFUSE SWEATING, HEADACHE,
      THIRST, MALAISE, and LASSITUDE are the common early symptoms of
      poisoning.  WARM, FLUSHED SKIN, TACHYCARDIA, and FEVER characterize a
      serious degree of poisoning.  APPREHENSION, restlessness, anxiety,
      manic behavior, or unconsciousness reflect severe cerebral injury.
      CONVULSIONS occur in the most severe poisonings.  Cyanosis, tachypnea
      and dyspnea result from stimulation of metabolism, pyrexia, and tissue
      anoxia.  Weight loss occurs in persons chronically poisoned at low
      dosages (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash contaminated skin and hair promptly with soap
      and water or with water alone if soap is not available (25).

           INGESTION:     If victim is alert and respiration is not
      depressed, give Syrup of Ipecac followed by 1-2 glasses of water to
      induce vomiting (adults 12 years and older:  30 ml; children under 12:
      15 ml) (25).

           EYE CONTACT:   Flush chemical from eyes with copious amounts of
      clean water (25).

      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:

           IN EVENT OF SYSTEMIC POISONING:

             REDUCE ELEVATED BODY TEMPERATURE BY PHYSICAL MEANS.  Administer
             sponge baths and cover victim with low-temperature blankets.  In
             fully conscious patients, administer cold, sugar-containing
             liquids by mouth as tolerated.
             Administer OXYGEN continuously by mask to minimize tissue
             anoxia.

             Unless there are manifestations of cerebral edema, administer
             INTRAVENOUS FLIUDS at maximum tolerated rates to enhance urinary
             excretion of toxicant and to support physiologic mechanisms for
             heat loss.  IN the presence of CEREBRAL EDEMA, intravenous
             FLUIDS must be administered very CAUTIOUSLY to avoid increasing
             the cerebral injury.  Monitor fluid balance, blood electrolytes
             and sugar, adjusting IV infusions to stablize electrolyte
             concentrations.  Follow urine contents of albumin and cells.
             Follow serum alkaline pohosphatase, GOT, and LDH to evaluate
             liver injury.

             Administer SEDATIVES, if necessary, to control apprehension,
             excitement, and/or convulsions.  Although not previously used in
             this type of poisoning, DIAZEPAM (Valium) should help:  adult
             dose 5-10 mg slowly IV, or IM (deep); child's dose, 0.1 mg/kg.
             Repeat every 2-4 hours as needed.  Amobarbital or pentobarbital
             may be needed.  Dose in adults:  200 mg, IM or slowly IV, every
             4-6 hours; child's dose:  up to 5 mg/kg.

             CAUTION:  Be prepared to counteract respiratory depression and
                       hypotension which may follow administration of
                       anticonvulsants and sedatives.

           If toxicant has been INGESTED evacuate the stomach and intestine.

             If victim is alert and respiration is not depressed, give SYRUP
             OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water, to induce vomiting
             (adults 12 years and older:  30 ml; children under 12:  15 ml).

             CAUTION:  OBSERVE victim closely AFTER administering IPECAC.  If
                       consciousness level declines, or if vomiting has not
                       occurred in 15 minutes, immediately INTUBATE,
                       ASPIRATE, and LAVAGE the stomach.

             Following emesis, have victim drink a suspension of 30-50 gm
             ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 3-4 ounces of water to bind toxicant
             remaining in the gastrointestinal tract.

             IF VICTIM IS NOT FULLY ALERT, empty the stomach immediately by
             INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE, using isotonic saline or 5%
             sodium bicarbonate.  Because these pesticides are usually
             dissolved in petroleum distillates, emesis and intubation of the
             stomach involve serious risk that solvent will be aspirated,
             leading to chemical pneumonitis.  For this reason:

           (a)  If victim is unconscious or obtunded and facilities are at
                hand, insert an ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE (cuffed, if available)
                prior to gastric intubation.
           (b)  Keep victim's HEAD BELOW LEVEL OF THE STOMACH and turned to
                the left, during intubation and lavage (Trendelenburg, or
                left lateral decubitus, with head of table tipped downward).
           (c)  ASPIRATE PHARYNX as regularly as possible to remove gagged or
                vomited stomach contents.
           (d)  After aspiration of gastric contents and washing of stomach,
                instill 30-50 gm of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 3-4 ounces of water
                through the stomach tube to limit absorption of remaining
                toxicant.  Do NOT instill cream, milk, or other materials
                containing vegetable or animal fats, as these are likely to
                enhance absorption.

           If bowel movement has not occurred in 4 hours, and if patient is
           fully conscious, give SODIUM SULFATE as a cathartic:  0.25 gm/kg
           body weight in 1-6 ounces of water.  Magnesium sulfate and citrate
           are equally suitable unless renal function is impaired; retention
           of magnesium may depress CNS function and alter myocardial
           irritability.

      DO NOT administer atropine, aspirin, or other antipyretics to control
      fever.  Animal tests indicate that aspirin enhances, rather than
      reduces, the toxicity of nitrophenolic and nitrocresolic compounds
      (25).

                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           To be developed.


                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Generally compatible, but do not combine with oil or materials
      with petroleum-solvent base (1).


                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

           To be developed.


                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC


                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of
               pesticide poisonings, 3rd ed.  U. S. Environmental Protection
               Agency, Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      26.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 6th ed.  1979.  C. R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  655 pp.

      43a. Rohm and Haas Co.  1977.  Karathane leaflet.  Philadelphia, PA.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

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