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Ferbam - Chemical Profile 2/85


      CHEMICAL name:      Ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate (56)

      TRADE name(S):      Carbamate, Ferbam (56)

      FORMULATION(S):     Wettable powders containing 76% and 95% ferbam (56)

      TYPE:               Carbamate fungicide

                          Agricultural Chemical Group
                          2000 Market St.
                          Philadelphia, PA 19103

      STATUS:             General use

      PRINCIPAL USES:  Foliar protectant against scab, rust, mold and many
      fungus diseases on fruits, vegetables, melons and ornamentals.  Also
      works as a repellent toward Japanese beetles (48).
           Principal uses are in the control of apple scab and cedar apple
      rust, peachleaf curl, tobacco blue mold, and cranberry diseases (56).

                                   I.  EFFICACY

           To be developed.

                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C9 H18 Fe N3 S6 (26)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   416.5 (26)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Black powder (pure compound) (26)

      MELTING POINT:      Decomposes at >180 C (pure compound) (26)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:     Negligible at room temperature (pure compound) (26)

      SOLUBILITY:         130 mg/l water at room temperature (pure compound)

                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  15 mg/m3 averaged over an eight-hour work shift (14)


      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 10 mg/m3; STEL
                                (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 20 mg/m3 (15a).


           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               ORAL:  LD50 = >4000 mg/kg (rat) (26)


           In 2-year feeding trials the "no effect" level was:  for rats 250
      mg/kg diet; for dogs 5 mg/kg daily.  It is not stored in the body
      tissues (26).
           Rats tolerated 0.01% in their diet for 30 days without effect,
      whereas 0.5% was required to kill them.  Dogs were not injured by 25
      mg/kg per day fed for six months (15b).

                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

           Some hazard to fish.  Relatively nonhazardous to honey bees.
      Considered nonphytotoxic (48).


           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.


           Thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates - Itching, redness, and
      eczematoid DERMATITIS have resulted when predisposed individuals have
      come into contact with these agents.  Inhaled sprays and dusts have
      caused NASAL STUFFINESS, hoarseness, cough, and, rarely, pneumonitis.
      Repeated contact may produce sensitization.  Ingestion of large amounts
      may produce nausea, VOMITING, and DIARRHEA.  HYPOTHERMIA and ataxia are
      characteristic of poisoning.  Muscle WEAKNESS and/or ascending
      paralysis may progress to respiratory paralysis if absorbed dosages are
      equivalent to those tested in experimental animals.
           The reaction to beverage alcohol that may follow exceptional
      absorption of thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates is characterized
      by FLUSHING, headACHE, SWEATING, warm sensations, weakness, nasal
      congestion, labored breathing, tightness in the chest, tachycardia,
      palpitation, and hypotension.  Extreme dosages may result in shock,
      convulsions, respiratory depression, and/or unconsciousness.  Reactions
      are not likely to occur unless the absorbed dose is extraordinary (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  If ferbam or liquids containing ferbam get on the
      skin, promptly wash the contaminated skin using soap or mild detergent
      and water.  If ferbam or liquids containing ferbam penetrate through
      the clothing, remove the clothing promptly and wash the skin using soap
      or mild detergent and water.  If irritation is present after washing,
      get medical attention (14).

           INGESTION:  When ferbam or liquids containing ferbam have been
      swallowed and the person is conscious, give the person large quantities
      of water immediately.  After the water has been swallowed, try to get
      the person to vomit by having him touch the back of his throat with his
      finger.  Do not make an unconscious person vomit.  Get medical
      attention immediately (14).

           INHALATION:  If a person breathes in large amounts of ferbam,
      move the exposed person to fresh air at once (14).

           EYE CONTACT:  If ferbam or liquids containing ferbam get into the
      eyes, wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water, lifting the
      lower and upper lids occasionally.  If irritation is present after
      washing, get medical attention immediately.  Contact lenses should not
      be worn when working with this chemical (14).


      1.  If THIRAM or metaLLO DITHIOCARBAMATE compounds have been

      A.   If vigorous emesis has not already occurred and victim is fully
           alert, give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to
           induce vomiting (adults, 12 years and older:  30 ml; children
           under 12:  15 ml).
           CAUTION:  OBSERVE victim closely AFTER administering IPECAC.  If
                     CONSCIOUSNESS level declines or vomiting has not
                     occurred in 15 minutes, empty the stomach by INTUBATION,
                     ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE.

      B.   IF consciousness level or respiration is DEPRESSED, empty the
           stomach by INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE, using all available
           means to avoid aspiration of vomitus:  left lateral Trendelenburg
           position, frequent aspiration of the pharynx and, in unconscious
           victims, tracheal intubation (using a cuffed tube) prior to
           gastric intubation.
           After aspiration of the stomach and washing with isotonic saline
           or sodium bicarbonate, instill 30-50 gm of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in
           3-4 ounces of water through the stomach tube to limit absorption
           of remaining toxicant.
      C.   If the irritant properties of the toxicant fail to produce a bowel
           movement in 4 hours, administer SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE as a
           cathartic:  0.25 gm/kg body weight in 1-6 ounces of water.
      D.   Administer glucose-containing fluids intravenously to accelerate
           excretion of toxicant.
      E.   For adults and children over 12 years, inject 1.0 gm ASCORBIC ACID
           (Vitamin C) intravenously at a rate not exceeding 0.2 gm/minute.
           For children under 12, give 10-20 mg/kg body weight.  As a
           hydrogen-donor, ascorbic acid may have significant antidotal
           action against absorbed, but unreacted, dithiocarbamate compounds.
      F.   The victim must AVOID consumption of any ALCOHOLIC beverage for 2
           weeks.  Gastrointestinal absorption of these substances is slow,
           and the enzyme inhibition which they cause is slowly reversed.
           2.  Management of a reaction to ETHANOL, following absorption of a
      A.   Administer 100% OXYGEN as long as the reaction continues.  Oxygen
           usually gives substantial relief from the distressing symptoms of
           vasodilation and hypotension.
           CAUTION:  If respiration is depressed, administer oxygen by an
                     intermittent positive pressure breathing device and
                     observe the victim closely to maintain pulmonary
                     ventilation mechanically in case of apnea.
      B.   Gastric evacuation, charcoal administration, catharsis,
           intravenous fluids, and ascorbic acid administration (1 A,B,C,D,
           and E) may be appropriate, depending on the amount of

           dithiocarbamate absorbed, the time interval between exposure and
           treatment, and the severity of symptoms.
      C.   If the victim has suffered from arteriosclerosis, myocardial
           insufficiency, diabetes, neuropathy, cirrhosis, or other severe
           chronic disease, OBSERVE him CAREFULLY for 48 hours to insure that
           complications (especially myocardial infarction, toxic psychosis,
           and neuropathy) are treated promptly (25).

                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

      GENERAL: Temperatures above 180 C cause decomposition with formation of
      toxic gases.  Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fires and
      explosions.  Toxic gases and vapors (such as oxides of sulfur and
      nitrogen and carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving
      ferbam (14).

      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Water, dry powder (14).

                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Compatible with most pesticides.  Copper compounds and lime may
      reduce efficiency (48).

                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  It is somewhat unstable to heat and moisture and
      should be kept away from ignition sources because the decomposition
      products are flammable (56).

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Employees should be provided with and required to
      use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and
      other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or
      prolonged skin contact with ferbam or liquids containing ferbam.
      Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof
      safety goggles where ferbam or liquids containing ferbam may contact
      the eyes (14).

      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  Respirators may be used when engineering and
      work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls
      are in the process of being installed, or when they fail and need to be
      supplemented.  If the use of respirators is necessary, the only
      respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine
      Safety and Health Administration or by the National Institute for
      Occupational Safety and Health (14).

                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                                  (800) 424-9300

      Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of leaks until cleanup has been completed.

      If ferbam is spilled, te following steps should be taken:
      1.   Ventilate area of spill.
      2.   Collect spilled material in the most convenient and safe manner
           and deposit in sealed containers for reclamation, or for disposal
           in a secured sanitary landfill.  Liquid containing ferbam should
           be absorbed in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar

      Waste disposal method:

           Ferbam may be disposed of in a secured sanitary landfill (14).

                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.

      15a. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1983.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment with intended changes
               for 1983-84.  Cincinnati, OH.  93 pp.

      15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1971.
               Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
               workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
               changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977).  Cincinnati,
               OH.  484 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of
               pesticide poisonings, 3rd ed.  U. S. Environmental Protection
               Agency, Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      26.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 6th ed.  1979.  C. R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  655 pp.

      48.  Harding, W.C.  1979-80.  Pesticide profiles, part two:  fungicides
               and nematicides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Service Bull.
               283, 22 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.