Ferbam - Chemical Profile 2/85
CHEMICAL name: Ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate (56)
TRADE name(S): Carbamate, Ferbam (56)
FORMULATION(S): Wettable powders containing 76% and 95% ferbam (56)
TYPE: Carbamate fungicide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): FMC Corp.
Agricultural Chemical Group
2000 Market St.
Philadelphia, PA 19103
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: Foliar protectant against scab, rust, mold and many
fungus diseases on fruits, vegetables, melons and ornamentals. Also
works as a repellent toward Japanese beetles (48).
Principal uses are in the control of apple scab and cedar apple
rust, peachleaf curl, tobacco blue mold, and cranberry diseases (56).
To be developed.
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C9 H18 Fe N3 S6 (26)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 416.5 (26)
PHYSICAL STATE: Black powder (pure compound) (26)
MELTING POINT: Decomposes at >180 C (pure compound) (26)
VAPOR PRESSURE: Negligible at room temperature (pure compound) (26)
SOLUBILITY: 130 mg/l water at room temperature (pure compound)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: 15 mg/m3 averaged over an eight-hour work shift (14)
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 10 mg/m3; STEL
(Short Term Exposure Limit) = 20 mg/m3 (15a).
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
ORAL: LD50 = >4000 mg/kg (rat) (26)
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
In 2-year feeding trials the "no effect" level was: for rats 250
mg/kg diet; for dogs 5 mg/kg daily. It is not stored in the body
Rats tolerated 0.01% in their diet for 30 days without effect,
whereas 0.5% was required to kill them. Dogs were not injured by 25
mg/kg per day fed for six months (15b).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Some hazard to fish. Relatively nonhazardous to honey bees.
Considered nonphytotoxic (48).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING
Thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates - Itching, redness, and
eczematoid DERMATITIS have resulted when predisposed individuals have
come into contact with these agents. Inhaled sprays and dusts have
caused NASAL STUFFINESS, hoarseness, cough, and, rarely, pneumonitis.
Repeated contact may produce sensitization. Ingestion of large amounts
may produce nausea, VOMITING, and DIARRHEA. HYPOTHERMIA and ataxia are
characteristic of poisoning. Muscle WEAKNESS and/or ascending
paralysis may progress to respiratory paralysis if absorbed dosages are
equivalent to those tested in experimental animals.
The reaction to beverage alcohol that may follow exceptional
absorption of thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates is characterized
by FLUSHING, headACHE, SWEATING, warm sensations, weakness, nasal
congestion, labored breathing, tightness in the chest, tachycardia,
palpitation, and hypotension. Extreme dosages may result in shock,
convulsions, respiratory depression, and/or unconsciousness. Reactions
are not likely to occur unless the absorbed dose is extraordinary (25).
SKIN CONTACT: If ferbam or liquids containing ferbam get on the
skin, promptly wash the contaminated skin using soap or mild detergent
and water. If ferbam or liquids containing ferbam penetrate through
the clothing, remove the clothing promptly and wash the skin using soap
or mild detergent and water. If irritation is present after washing,
get medical attention (14).
INGESTION: When ferbam or liquids containing ferbam have been
swallowed and the person is conscious, give the person large quantities
of water immediately. After the water has been swallowed, try to get
the person to vomit by having him touch the back of his throat with his
finger. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Get medical
attention immediately (14).
INHALATION: If a person breathes in large amounts of ferbam,
move the exposed person to fresh air at once (14).
EYE CONTACT: If ferbam or liquids containing ferbam get into the
eyes, wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water, lifting the
lower and upper lids occasionally. If irritation is present after
washing, get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not
be worn when working with this chemical (14).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
1. If THIRAM or metaLLO DITHIOCARBAMATE compounds have been
A. If vigorous emesis has not already occurred and victim is fully
alert, give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to
induce vomiting (adults, 12 years and older: 30 ml; children
under 12: 15 ml).
CAUTION: OBSERVE victim closely AFTER administering IPECAC. If
CONSCIOUSNESS level declines or vomiting has not
occurred in 15 minutes, empty the stomach by INTUBATION,
ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE.
B. IF consciousness level or respiration is DEPRESSED, empty the
stomach by INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE, using all available
means to avoid aspiration of vomitus: left lateral Trendelenburg
position, frequent aspiration of the pharynx and, in unconscious
victims, tracheal intubation (using a cuffed tube) prior to
After aspiration of the stomach and washing with isotonic saline
or sodium bicarbonate, instill 30-50 gm of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in
3-4 ounces of water through the stomach tube to limit absorption
of remaining toxicant.
C. If the irritant properties of the toxicant fail to produce a bowel
movement in 4 hours, administer SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE as a
cathartic: 0.25 gm/kg body weight in 1-6 ounces of water.
D. Administer glucose-containing fluids intravenously to accelerate
excretion of toxicant.
E. For adults and children over 12 years, inject 1.0 gm ASCORBIC ACID
(Vitamin C) intravenously at a rate not exceeding 0.2 gm/minute.
For children under 12, give 10-20 mg/kg body weight. As a
hydrogen-donor, ascorbic acid may have significant antidotal
action against absorbed, but unreacted, dithiocarbamate compounds.
F. The victim must AVOID consumption of any ALCOHOLIC beverage for 2
weeks. Gastrointestinal absorption of these substances is slow,
and the enzyme inhibition which they cause is slowly reversed.
2. Management of a reaction to ETHANOL, following absorption of a
A. Administer 100% OXYGEN as long as the reaction continues. Oxygen
usually gives substantial relief from the distressing symptoms of
vasodilation and hypotension.
CAUTION: If respiration is depressed, administer oxygen by an
intermittent positive pressure breathing device and
observe the victim closely to maintain pulmonary
ventilation mechanically in case of apnea.
B. Gastric evacuation, charcoal administration, catharsis,
intravenous fluids, and ascorbic acid administration (1 A,B,C,D,
and E) may be appropriate, depending on the amount of
dithiocarbamate absorbed, the time interval between exposure and
treatment, and the severity of symptoms.
C. If the victim has suffered from arteriosclerosis, myocardial
insufficiency, diabetes, neuropathy, cirrhosis, or other severe
chronic disease, OBSERVE him CAREFULLY for 48 hours to insure that
complications (especially myocardial infarction, toxic psychosis,
and neuropathy) are treated promptly (25).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
GENERAL: Temperatures above 180 C cause decomposition with formation of
toxic gases. Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fires and
explosions. Toxic gases and vapors (such as oxides of sulfur and
nitrogen and carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving
EXTINGUISHER TYPE: Water, dry powder (14).
Compatible with most pesticides. Copper compounds and lime may
reduce efficiency (48).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: It is somewhat unstable to heat and moisture and
should be kept away from ignition sources because the decomposition
products are flammable (56).
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Employees should be provided with and required to
use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and
other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or
prolonged skin contact with ferbam or liquids containing ferbam.
Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof
safety goggles where ferbam or liquids containing ferbam may contact
the eyes (14).
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: Respirators may be used when engineering and
work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls
are in the process of being installed, or when they fail and need to be
supplemented. If the use of respirators is necessary, the only
respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine
Safety and Health Administration or by the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (14).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
restricted from areas of leaks until cleanup has been completed.
If ferbam is spilled, te following steps should be taken:
1. Ventilate area of spill.
2. Collect spilled material in the most convenient and safe manner
and deposit in sealed containers for reclamation, or for disposal
in a secured sanitary landfill. Liquid containing ferbam should
be absorbed in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar
Waste disposal method:
Ferbam may be disposed of in a secured sanitary landfill (14).
X. LITERATURE CITED
14. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
for Occuptational Safety and Health. 1981. Occupational
health guidelines for chemical hazards. F. W. Mackinson, R.
S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
eds. DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123. Washington, DC.
15a. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1983.
TLVs: threshold limit values for chemical substances and
physical agents in the work environment with intended changes
for 1983-84. Cincinnati, OH. 93 pp.
15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1971.
Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977). Cincinnati,
OH. 484 pp.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of
pesticide poisonings, 3rd ed. U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Washington, DC. 120 pp.
26. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 6th ed. 1979. C. R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 655 pp.
48. Harding, W.C. 1979-80. Pesticide profiles, part two: fungicides
and nematicides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Service Bull.
283, 22 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.