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gliocladium virens GL-21 (WRC-GL-21) EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet 11/90

                         EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet


Name of Chemical:  Gliocladium virens GL-21

Reason for Issuance:  Registration of New Biological Pesticide

Date Issued:  November 1990

Fact Sheet Number:  217


                       1. Description

- Generic Name:  Gliocladium virens GL-21
- Trade Names:   WRC-GL-21 and WRC-AP-1
- EPA Shaughnessy Code:  128900-8
- Year of Initial Registration:  1990
- Pesticide Type:  Biofungicide
- U.S. and Foreign Producers:  W.R. Grace & Co., 7379 Route 32
                               Columbia, MD 21044


                 2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS

- Application sites:  The manufacturing use product (MP) is for use only
  in the formulation of fungicides. The end-use product (EP) is for use
  in the control of damping-off diseases, particularly those caused by
  Pythium and Rhizoctonia, of greenhouse ornamental and food crops.
- Types of formulations:  A liquid MP Containing 20% active ingredient
  and a granular EP containing 12% active ingredient.
- Types and methods of application:  The EP is blended with soil or
  soilless plant growing media at least 3 days prior to planting or
  incorporated into the media surface in plant beds prior to or at
  planting.
- Application rate:  The EP is applied at the rate of 1 - 1 1/4
  ounces/cubic foot of media when blended or at the rate of 3/4 -
  1 ounce/square foot of bed surface.


                          3. SCIENCE FINDINGS

Summary Science Statement:

   The toxicological data which were submitted for this active 
ingredient included reports of an acute oral toxicity/pathogenicity 
study, an acute pulmonary toxicity/pathogenicity study and an acute 
intravenous toxicity/pathogenicity study.  The studies were performed 
using rats.  All studies were classified as acceptable.  The review of 
these studies indicates that the biofungicide is not toxic to, infective 
in, or pathogenic to rats by oral or pulmonary routes of exposure and 
not infective or pathogenic to rats by intravenous injection.  Mycelium 
of the fungus was used for the injections and was found to be acutely 
toxic and lethal to test animals due to mechanical clogging of 
capillaries, however, these mortalities were not considered to be 
relevant in this case since injection is not a normal route of exposure 
and the product consists of chlamydospores rather than mycelium.

   Acute dermal toxicity testing was not required for this biofungicide 
based on the facts that the end-use product consists of large pellets, 
the label will require that gloves be worn when handling the product and 
application will be by soil incorporation.  A primary eye irritation 
study was not required since protective eye covering must be worn.  The 
inert materials in the product have been exempted from the requirement 
for a tolerance in Section 180.1001 and no indications of toxicity were 
reported in workers following 1-2 years of working with the organism.

   Although Gliocladium strains are known to produce certain toxins, 
data were submitted which showed that only one of the known toxins 
(gliotoxin) was produced in detectable amounts.  Since gliotoxin is 
sensitive to oxidation, the levels that may exist in the product are not 
considered to be of toxicological significance since the toxin will be 
rapidly degraded.  This conclusion is supported by the demonstrated lack 
of toxicity in the oral and pulmonary studies conducted on rats.

   Data requirements for evaluating adverse effects on birds, wild 
mammals, freshwater fish, freshwater aquatic requirement for tests on 
aquatic birds was waived because it is not expected that the fungus will 
enter the aquatic environment since its only use is as a seed treatment.  
Data requirements for evaluating adverse effects on freshwater fish and 
invertebrates, estuarine and marine organisms, nontarget plants and 
insects and honey bees were waived.  The seed treatment use pattern 
makes it unlikely that Trichoderma would enter aquatic environments, 
contact nontarget plant species or that honey bees or other insects 
would be exposed to the organism.

   Because only minimal exposure, if any, to nontarget organisms may 
occur from the use of this biofungicide as a seed treatment, there is 
not expected to be a "may effect" situation with regard to endangered 
species.

   Data for environmental fate (Tier II) are not required for this 
biofungicide because no more than negligible environmental exposure 
associated with the seed treatment use is likely and the initial (Tier 
I) tests were waived or not required.


CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Property                    MP and EP
________                    __________
Color                       yellow-green
Physical state              powder
Odor                        vinegar
Density/bulk density        fluffed - 28.8 lbs/cu ft.
                            packed - 43.6 lbs/cu ft.
pH                          6.17
Storage stability           184 days at 20 degrees C
Viscosity                   N/A
Miscibility                 N/A
Corrosion characteristics   N/A


TOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

- Acute effects:  Data were submitted for acute toxicity/ pathogenicity
  as determined in oral, pulmonary and intravenous tests. Data were
  classified acceptable. The tests indicated that the product was not
  toxic to, infective in or pathogenic to rats.
- Other toxicity information:  Information was submitted which
  demonstrated that no human or animal pathogens were detected during
  the manufacturing process. Information was included on the history of
  the production process, a summary of sources of operator exposure and
  number of exposure hours for a typical employee. No hypersensitivity
  or other toxicological effects attributable to working with the
  organism were reported.


ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS:

   Data on the ecological effects of the biofungicide were included only 
for an avian oral pathogenicity/toxicity study on bob white quail.  The 
test organism was practically nontoxic to terrestrial avian species by 
ingestion.  Data requirements for all other ecological effects testing 
were waived based on the nature of the fungus and the facts that it is 
unlikely that the organism will enter aquatic environments and minimal 
exposure would be likely due to the seed treatment use pattern.


                             4. BENEFITS

   The use of the end-use product will be beneficial in the control of 
damping-off and seed rot diseases of seedling plants which may be a 
source of economic loss by reducing the stand of plants in the field. 
The availability of a biological fungicide would provide a less toxic 
alternative to the currently registered chemical seed treatments.


                      5.  TOLERANCE ASSESSMENT

   An exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for residues of 
Trichoderma harzianum Rifai Strain KRL-AG2 on beans, (green and dry), 
cabbage, corn (field and sweet), cotton, cucumbers, peanuts, potatoes, 
sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets, and tomatoes when used as a seed 
treatment in accordance with good agricultural practices was requested. 
Since testing of the biofungicide showed not evidence of effects which 
would be of toxicological concern, an exemption will be granted.


                 6. SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS

   No data gaps exist for this active ingredient.


                      7. CONTACT PERSON AT EPA

    Susan T. Lewis
    Product Manager (21)
    Fungicide-Herbicide Branch
    Registration Division (H-7505C)
    Environmental Protection Agency
    401 M St., SW.
    Washington, DC  20460


DISCLAIMER:  The information presented in this Pesticide Fact Sheet is 
for informational purposes only and may not be used to fulfill data 
requirements for pesticide registration and reregistration.