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nabam (Dithane A-40) Chemical Profile 2/85


                                       nabam

      CHEMICAL NAME:      Disodium ethylene-1,2-bisdithiocarbamate (56)

      TRADE NAME(S):      Dithane D-14 (56)

      FORMULATION(S):     Dithane D-14 is a liquid formulation containing
                          22% active ingredient (56).

      TYPE:               Di-thiocarbamate fungicide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Rohm and Haas Co.
                          Independence Mall West
                          Philadelphia, PA 19105

      STATUS:             General use

      PRINCIPAL USES:  Soil or foliar chemical against a variety of
      diseases on fruits, vegetables, field crops and turf.  Combined with
      metallic sulfates for a variety of protection (48).


                                   I.  EFFICACY

           To be developed.


                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C4 H6 N2 Na2 S4 (26)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   256.3 (26)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless crystals (pure compound) (26)

      SOLUBILITY:         c. 200 g (as anhydrous salt)/l water (pure compound)
                          (26)


                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  NA

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA

      TOXICOLOGY

           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               ORAL:  LD50 = 395 mg/kg (rat) (26)

           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:

           A goitrogenic effect was noted in rats receiving 1000-2500 mg/kg
      diet for 10 days (26).


                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

           Hazardous to fish and wildlife.  Phytotoxic to plant foliage when
      used alone (48).


                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES

           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.

      SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING

           Thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates - Itching, redness, and
      eczematoid DERMATITIS have resulted when predisposed individuals have
      come into contact with these agents.  Inhaled sprays and dusts have
      caused NASAL STUFFINESS, hoarseness, cough, and, rarely, pneumonitis.
      Repeated contact may produce sensitization.  Ingestion of large amounts
      may produce nausea, VOMITING, and DIARRHEA.  HYPOTHERMIA and ataxia are
      characteristic of poisoning.  Muscle WEAKNESS and/or ascending
      paralysis may progress to respiratory paralysis if absorbed dosages are
      equivalent to those tested in experimental animals.
           The reaction to beverage alcohol that may follow exceptional
      absorption of thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates is characterized
      by FLUSHING, HEADACHE, SWEATING, warm sensations, weakness, nasal
      congestion, labored breathing, tightness in the chest, tachycardia,
      palpitation, and hypotension.  Extreme dosages may result in shock,
      convulsions, respiratory depression, and/or unconsciousness.  Reactions
      are not likely to occur unless the absorbed dose is extraordinary (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash contaminating chemical from skin and hair with
      soap and water (25).

           INGESTION:  If vigorous emesis has not already occurred and
      victim is fully alert, give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of
      water to induce vomiting (adults 12 years and older:  30 ml; children
      under 12:  15 ml) (25).

           EYE CONTACT:  Flush contaminant from eyes with fresh water for
      10-15 minutes (25).

      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:

      1.   If THIRAM or METALLO DITHIOCARBAMATE compounds have been ingested:
           A.  If vigorous emesis has not already occurred and victim is
               fully alert, give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of
               water to induce vomiting (adults, 12 years and older:  30 ml;
               children under 12:  15 ml).
               CAUTION:   OBSERVE victim closely AFTER administering IPECAC.
                          If CONSCIOUSNESS level declines or vomiting has not
                          occurred in 15 minutes, empty the stomach by
                          INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE.
           B.  IF consciousness level or respiration is DEPRESSED, empty the
               stomach by INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE, using all
               available means to avoid aspiration of vomitus:  left lateral
               Trendelenburg position, frequent aspiration of the pharynx
               and, in unconscious victims, tracheal intubation (using a
               cuffed tube) prior to gastric intubation.
               After aspiration of the stomach and washing with isotonic
               saline or sodium bicarbonate, instill 30-50 gm of ACTIVATED
               CHARCOAL in 3-4 ounces of water through the stomach tube to
               limit absorption of remaining toxicant.
           C.  If the irritant properties of the toxicant fail to produce a
               bowel movement in 4 hours, administer SODIUM or MAGNESIUM
               SULFATE as a cathartic:  0.25 gm/kg body weight in 1-6 ounces
               of water.
           D.  Administer glucose-containing fluids intravenously to
               accelerate excretion of toxicant.
           E.  For adults and children over 12 years, inject 1.0 gm ASCORBIC
               ACID (Vitamin C) intravenously at a rate not exceeding 0.2
               gm/minute.  For children under 12, give 10-20 mg/kg body
               weight.  As a hydrogen-donor, ascorbic acid may have
               significant antidotal action against absorbed, but unreacted,
               dithiocarbamate compounds.
           F.  The victim must AVOID consumption of any ALCOHOLIC beverage
               for 3 weeks.  Gastrointestinal absorption of these substances
               is slow, and the enzyme inhibition which they cause is slowly
               reversed.
      2.   Management of a reaction to ETHANOL, following absorption of a
           DITHIOCARBAMATE:
           A.  Administer 100% OXYGEN as long as the reaction continues.
               Oxygen usually gives substantial relief from the distressing
               symptoms of vasodilation and hypotension.
               CAUTION:   If respiration is depressed, administer oxygen by
                          an intermittent positive pressure breathing device
                          and observe the victim closely to maintain
                          pulmonary ventilation mechanically in case of
                          apnea.
           B.  Gastric evacuation, charcoal administration, catharsis,
               intravenous fluids, and ascorbic acid administration (1
               A,B,C,D, and E) may be appropriate, depending on the amount of
               dithiocarbamate absorbed, the time interval between exposure
               and treatment, and the severity of symptoms.
           C.  If the victim has suffered from arteriosclerosis, myocardial
               insufficiency, diabetes, neuropathy, cirrhosis, or other
               severe chronic disease, OBSERVE him CAREFULLY for 48 hours to
               insure that complications (especially myocardial infarction,
               toxic, psychosis, and neuropathy) are treated promptly.
      3.   If an ETHYLENE BIS DITHIOCARBAMATE, or (mono) thiocarbamate have
           been ingested:
           A.  Give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water, to
               induce vomiting (adults:  30 ml; children under 12 years:  15
               ml).  Following emesis, administer 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
               to bind toxicant remaining in the gut.
           B.  Follow charcoal with SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg,
               to remove toxicant from the gut by catharsis (25).


                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           To be developed.


                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Incompatible with lime sulfur and soluble or emulsive spray oils
      (48).


                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

           To be developed.


                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC


                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of
               pesticide poisonings, 3rd ed.  U. S. Environmental Protection
               Agency, Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      26.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 6th ed.  1979.  C. R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  655 pp.

      48.  Harding, W.C.  1979-80.  Pesticide profiles, part two:  fungicides
               and nematicides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Service Bull.
               283, 22 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      2/1/85