nabam (Dithane A-40) Chemical Profile 2/85
CHEMICAL NAME: Disodium ethylene-1,2-bisdithiocarbamate (56)
TRADE NAME(S): Dithane D-14 (56)
FORMULATION(S): Dithane D-14 is a liquid formulation containing
22% active ingredient (56).
TYPE: Di-thiocarbamate fungicide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Rohm and Haas Co.
Independence Mall West
Philadelphia, PA 19105
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: Soil or foliar chemical against a variety of
diseases on fruits, vegetables, field crops and turf. Combined with
metallic sulfates for a variety of protection (48).
To be developed.
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C4 H6 N2 Na2 S4 (26)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 256.3 (26)
PHYSICAL STATE: Colorless crystals (pure compound) (26)
SOLUBILITY: c. 200 g (as anhydrous salt)/l water (pure compound)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: NA
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
ORAL: LD50 = 395 mg/kg (rat) (26)
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
A goitrogenic effect was noted in rats receiving 1000-2500 mg/kg
diet for 10 days (26).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Hazardous to fish and wildlife. Phytotoxic to plant foliage when
used alone (48).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING
Thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates - Itching, redness, and
eczematoid DERMATITIS have resulted when predisposed individuals have
come into contact with these agents. Inhaled sprays and dusts have
caused NASAL STUFFINESS, hoarseness, cough, and, rarely, pneumonitis.
Repeated contact may produce sensitization. Ingestion of large amounts
may produce nausea, VOMITING, and DIARRHEA. HYPOTHERMIA and ataxia are
characteristic of poisoning. Muscle WEAKNESS and/or ascending
paralysis may progress to respiratory paralysis if absorbed dosages are
equivalent to those tested in experimental animals.
The reaction to beverage alcohol that may follow exceptional
absorption of thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates is characterized
by FLUSHING, HEADACHE, SWEATING, warm sensations, weakness, nasal
congestion, labored breathing, tightness in the chest, tachycardia,
palpitation, and hypotension. Extreme dosages may result in shock,
convulsions, respiratory depression, and/or unconsciousness. Reactions
are not likely to occur unless the absorbed dose is extraordinary (25).
SKIN CONTACT: Wash contaminating chemical from skin and hair with
soap and water (25).
INGESTION: If vigorous emesis has not already occurred and
victim is fully alert, give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of
water to induce vomiting (adults 12 years and older: 30 ml; children
under 12: 15 ml) (25).
EYE CONTACT: Flush contaminant from eyes with fresh water for
10-15 minutes (25).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
1. If THIRAM or METALLO DITHIOCARBAMATE compounds have been ingested:
A. If vigorous emesis has not already occurred and victim is
fully alert, give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of
water to induce vomiting (adults, 12 years and older: 30 ml;
children under 12: 15 ml).
CAUTION: OBSERVE victim closely AFTER administering IPECAC.
If CONSCIOUSNESS level declines or vomiting has not
occurred in 15 minutes, empty the stomach by
INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE.
B. IF consciousness level or respiration is DEPRESSED, empty the
stomach by INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE, using all
available means to avoid aspiration of vomitus: left lateral
Trendelenburg position, frequent aspiration of the pharynx
and, in unconscious victims, tracheal intubation (using a
cuffed tube) prior to gastric intubation.
After aspiration of the stomach and washing with isotonic
saline or sodium bicarbonate, instill 30-50 gm of ACTIVATED
CHARCOAL in 3-4 ounces of water through the stomach tube to
limit absorption of remaining toxicant.
C. If the irritant properties of the toxicant fail to produce a
bowel movement in 4 hours, administer SODIUM or MAGNESIUM
SULFATE as a cathartic: 0.25 gm/kg body weight in 1-6 ounces
D. Administer glucose-containing fluids intravenously to
accelerate excretion of toxicant.
E. For adults and children over 12 years, inject 1.0 gm ASCORBIC
ACID (Vitamin C) intravenously at a rate not exceeding 0.2
gm/minute. For children under 12, give 10-20 mg/kg body
weight. As a hydrogen-donor, ascorbic acid may have
significant antidotal action against absorbed, but unreacted,
F. The victim must AVOID consumption of any ALCOHOLIC beverage
for 3 weeks. Gastrointestinal absorption of these substances
is slow, and the enzyme inhibition which they cause is slowly
2. Management of a reaction to ETHANOL, following absorption of a
A. Administer 100% OXYGEN as long as the reaction continues.
Oxygen usually gives substantial relief from the distressing
symptoms of vasodilation and hypotension.
CAUTION: If respiration is depressed, administer oxygen by
an intermittent positive pressure breathing device
and observe the victim closely to maintain
pulmonary ventilation mechanically in case of
B. Gastric evacuation, charcoal administration, catharsis,
intravenous fluids, and ascorbic acid administration (1
A,B,C,D, and E) may be appropriate, depending on the amount of
dithiocarbamate absorbed, the time interval between exposure
and treatment, and the severity of symptoms.
C. If the victim has suffered from arteriosclerosis, myocardial
insufficiency, diabetes, neuropathy, cirrhosis, or other
severe chronic disease, OBSERVE him CAREFULLY for 48 hours to
insure that complications (especially myocardial infarction,
toxic, psychosis, and neuropathy) are treated promptly.
3. If an ETHYLENE BIS DITHIOCARBAMATE, or (mono) thiocarbamate have
A. Give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water, to
induce vomiting (adults: 30 ml; children under 12 years: 15
ml). Following emesis, administer 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
to bind toxicant remaining in the gut.
B. Follow charcoal with SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg,
to remove toxicant from the gut by catharsis (25).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
To be developed.
Incompatible with lime sulfur and soluble or emulsive spray oils
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
To be developed.
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of
pesticide poisonings, 3rd ed. U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Washington, DC. 120 pp.
26. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 6th ed. 1979. C. R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 655 pp.
48. Harding, W.C. 1979-80. Pesticide profiles, part two: fungicides
and nematicides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Service Bull.
283, 22 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.