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pentachlorophenol Chemical Profile 2/85

                                 pentachlorophenol

      CHEMICAL NAME:      Pentachlorophenol (56)

      TRADE NAME(S):      Dowicide 7, PCP, Penta (48)

      FORMULATION(S):     Pills, pellets, liquid, and concentrate.  Also
      blockform.  Penta Concentrate contains 9.7 pound/ gallon PCP.  Penta
      Ready, equivalent to 5.3% technical PCP; Penta WR, equivalent to 5.0%
      technical PCP (water repellent).  Solution concentrates are designed
      for use in formulating ready-to-use products by manufacturers; and for
      use by large consumers.  Usually applied to wood products after
      dilution to a 5% solution with solvents such as mineral spirits, No. 2
      fuel oil or kerosene (56).

      TYPE:               Organic fungicide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Los Angeles Chemical Co.
                          4545 Ardine Street
                          P.O. Box 1987
                          South Gate, CA 90280

                          Vulcan Chemicals, Div. of Vulcan Materials Co.
                          P.O. Box 7689
                          Birmingham, AL 35253

                          Witco Chemical Corp.
                          520 Madison Ave.
                          New York, NY 10022

      STATUS:  General use.  RPAR issued 10/18/78, comment period closed
      2/12/79.  Criteria possibly met or exceeded:  oncogenicity,
      fetotoxicity, teratogenicity.  Final decision being developed (22).

      PRINCIPAL USES:  Wood preservative against rots, molds, soil-borne
      diseases and wood-staining fungi (48).  Used as a wood preservative,
      protecting from fungus decay and termite or Lyctus beetle attack (56).


                                   I.  EFFICACY

           Long residual effects (48).


                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C6 H Cl5 O (26)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   266.3 (26)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless crystals (pure compound); dark gray
                          powder or flakes (technical product) (26).

      ODOR:               Phenolic odor (pure compound) (26)

      MELTING POINT:      191 C (pure compound); 187-189 C (technical
                          product) (26).

      VAPOR PRESSURE:     0.12 mmHg at 100 C (pure compound) (26)

      SOLUBILITY:         20 mg/l water at 30 C (pure compound) (26)


                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  0.5 mg/m3 averaged over an eight-hour work shift (14).

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 0.5 mg/m3;
                                STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 1.5
                                mg/m3.  Skin notation (15a).

      TOXICOLOGY

           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  A 0.04% solution can cause pain and inflammation at
               point of contact.  Chloracne, a skin disorder, has
               been observed in workers in pentachlorophenol
               manufacturing plants and wood preserving operations.  Profuse
               sweating and elevated temperature are symptoms of poisoning
               due to prolonged contact.  Excessive skin exposure has
               caused human death (34g).

               ORAL:  LD50 = 210 mg/kg (rat) (26)
                      LD50 = 50-140 mg/kg (rat) (56)

               INHALATION:  Levels of 0.09 ppm can cause severe irritation of
               the nose, throat, and lungs.  Breathing dust or
               particulates tainted with pentachlorophenol can give rise to
               sneezing (34g).

               EYES:  Levels of 0.09 ppm may be irritating and excessive
               contact can lead to loss of sight due to cornea damage (34g).

           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:

           In feeding trials dogs and rats receiving 3.9-10 mg/kg daily for
      70-196 days suffered no fatality (26).
           Irritation of eyes, throat, nose and upper lungs have been
      reported by individuals using pentachlorophenol as an insecticide for
      periods of a few years.  Chemical acne has been associated with
      prolonged exposure to this compound (34g).


                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

           Hazardous to fish.  Extremely phytotoxic on contact.  Drift
      should be avoided (48).
           The LC50 (48 hr) for rainbow and brown trout is 0.17 mg sodium
      pentachlorophenoxide (26).
           Sunlight will decompose pentachlorophenol to a number of toxic
      chemicals (34g).


                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES

           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.

      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING

           IRRITATION of nose, throat, eyes, and skin is the most common
      symptom of exposure to PCP.  Severe or protracted exposure may result
      in CONTACT DERMATITIS.  Intensive occupational exposure has resulted in
      chloracne.
           PROFUSE SWEATING, HEADACHE, WEAKNESS, and NAUSEA are the most
      consistent presenting symptoms of systemic poisoning by absorbed PCP.
      FEVER is usually present but may be minimal or absent.  TACHYCARDIA,
      TACHYPNEA, and PAIN in the CHEST and ABDOMEN are often prominent.
      THIRST is usually intense, but may be masked by nausea and vomiting.
      DECLINING MENTAL ALERTNESS may progress to stupor and/or convulsions.
      Protracted exposure may result in WEIGHT LOSS from increased basal
      metabolic rate (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Promptly remove contaminated clothing.  Wash
      affected area with soap and water for at least 5 minutes.  Seek medical
      attention if necessary (34g).

           INGESTION:  When pentachlorophenol or liquids containing
      pentachlorophenol have been swallowed and the person is conscious, give
      the person large quantities of water immediately.  After the water has
      been swallowed, try to get the person to vomit by having him touch the
      back of his throat with his finger.  Do not make an unconscious person
      vomit.  Get medical attention immediately (14).

           INHALATION:  Remove victim from exposure.  Give artificial
      respiration or oxygen as necessary.  Seek medical attention (34g).

           EYE CONTACT:  Wash eyes immediately with water for at least 15
      minutes.  Seek medical attention (34g).

      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:   Use emetic or gastric lavage (34g).


                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

      GENERAL:  Nonflammable by itself but may be found in commercial
      mixtures with flammable solvents.  Breaks down when heated to give off
      toxic chloride fumes (34g).


                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Will cause rapid deterioration of rubber (48).


                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Protect against physical damage.  Store in cool,
      dry, well ventilated location away from direct sunlight and sources of
      ignition.  Outside or detached storage is preferred (34g).

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:   Wear rubber gloves, chemical goggles and
      impermeable clothing (34g).

      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  For levels up to 0.225 ppm wear a chemical
      cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge, full facepiece, and
      a dust, mist and fume filter; a supplied-air respirator; or a
      self-contained breathing apparatus.  For levels up to 2.25 ppm wear the
      above with full facepiece.  For levels up to 13.5 ppm wear either a
      powered air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge, high
      efficiency filter and full facepiece, or a Type C supplied-air
      respirator with full facepiece operated in pressure demand, positive
      pressure or continuous flow mode.  For escape from a contaminated area
      use either a self-contained breathing apparatus or gas mask with an
      organic vapor canister and particulate filter (34g).


                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC

      Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.

      If pentachlorophenol is spilled, the following steps should be taken:

      1.   Ventilate area of spill.
      2.   Collect spilled material in the most convenient and safest manner
           and deposit in sealed containers for reclamation or for disposal
           in a secured sanitary landfill.  Liquid containing
           pentachlorophenol should be absorbed in vermiculite, dry sand,
           earth, or a similar material.

      Waste disposal method:

      Pentachlorophenol may be disposed of in sealed containers in a secured
      sanitary landfill (14).


                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.

      15a. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1983.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment with intended changes
               for 1983-84.  Cincinnati, OH.  93 pp.

      22.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide
               Programs.  1983.  June 1983 status report on rebuttable
               presumption against registration (RPAR) or special review
               process, registration standards and the data call in
               programs.  Washington, DC.  45 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of
               pesticide poisonings, 3rd ed.  U. S. Environmental Protection
               Agency, Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      26.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 6th ed.  1979.  C. R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  655 pp.

      34g. New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Toxic Substances
               Management.  1981.  Chemical fact sheet:  pentachlorophenol.
               Albany, NY.

      48.  Harding, W.C.  1979-80.  Pesticide profiles, part two:  fungicides
               and nematicides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Service Bull.
               283, 22 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      2/1/85