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Trichoderma (Binab T) - EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet 7/89

                       EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet

Name of Chemical:  Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma polysporum
Reason for Issuance:  Registration of New Biological Pesticide
Date Issued:  July 1989
Fact Sheet Number:  203

                           1. DESCRIPTION

Generic Names:  Trichoderma harzianum (ATTC 20476) and Trichoderma
  polysporum (ATTC 20475)
Trade Name:  Binab T
EPA Shaughnessy Codes:  128903 and 128902, respectively
Year of Initial Registration:  1989
Pesticide Type:  Biofungicide

U.S. and Foreign Producers:  Binab USA, Inc.
                             c/o E.R. Butts International, Inc.
                             555 Clinton Avenue
                             P.0. Box 3337
                             Bridgeport, CT 06605-0337


Application sites:  Mixtures of Trichoderma harzianum and T. polysporum
are proposed for use in the control of internal decay of wood utility
poles, playground structures, and fence posts and for use in the control
of decay of pruning wounds of ornamental, shade, and forest trees.

Types of formulations:  28% pelleted end-use product (14% each active
ingredient) and 33.2% wettable powder end-use product (16.6% each active

Types and methods of application:  Pellets are placed in holes drilled
into wooden members followed by sealing of the holes with a vented
plastic plug.  Wettable powder formulation is mixed with water (1:2 v/v)
and applied to pruning wounds of trees with a paint brush, followed by
application of a wound sealant.

Application rates:  For pellets:  Three pellets/hole. Holes are 3/8"
diameter, 4 1/2" deep, spaced 4" apart and placed 2-4" above ground
level.  Product contains approximately 1,400 pellets/pound.  For
wettable powder:  Apply 1:2 mixture of product with water (v/v) to cover
pruning wound.

                           3. SCIENCE FINDINGS

Summary Science Statement

     The toxicological data which were submitted for these active
ingredients included reports of acute oral and hypersensitivity studies
and a request for waiver of all other toxicological data requirements
was made based on the contention that Trichoderma species are widespread
in the environment and are innocuous. The acute oral toxicity/
infectivity study and hypersensitivity study were classified as Core-
minimum and as such support registration of the active ingredients.

     The species Trichoderma does not grow at temperatures above 28
degrees C and is not capable of growth in warm blooded animals or birds.
The proposed use patterns for the products would not expose aquatic
wildlife to the fungi. The fungi are not pathogenic to plants or
insects. Trichoderma species are naturally occurring in soils throughout
the world. The proposed application sites and application rates would
not cause a detectable increase over naturally occurring background
levels. There would be no increased exposure to any non-target wildlife
of ecological concern. The proposed uses do not pose a "may effect"
situation to any endangered or threatened animal or plant species.

     Data for environmental fate are not triggered under current
requirements for the proposed products since the organisms are naturally
occurring species and the results of initial (Tier I) tests did not
trigger the need for additional testing.

Chemical Characteristics

   Color:  greyish beige
   Physical State:  powdered solid or pellet
   Odor:  moldy flour
   Density:  171 grams/liter (WP);
             650 grams/liter (Pellets)
   pH:  5.4

Toxicological Characteristics

Acute effects:

- Acute oral toxicity (mice):  The acute oral LD50 toxicity of TUF (an
  extract from the Trichoderma strains) was greater than 4,000 mg/kg
  after 1 and 14 days. The acute oral and subcutaneous LD50 toxicities
  of trichodermin (antibiotic) in mice were greater than 1,000 mg/kg and
  500-1,000 mg/kg respectively.
- Hypersensitivity study (Guinea pig):  No sensitization occurred when
  Guinea pigs were dermally exposed to Trichoderma spores.
- Other Toxicity Testing:  Additional toxicity testing was waived based
  upon submission of data or information:
  1. which indicated that the fungi do not grow at or near the body
     temperatures of mammals or birds.
  2. which demonstrated that no toxins or antibiotics were produced in
     simulated use situations.
  3. which showed that exposure to Trichoderma strains has occurred in
     personnel working with the fungi for times of up to 18 years with
     no adverse toxicological effects.
  4. which provides the criteria used to determine the extent to which
     formulated preparations are free from contaminating microorganisms.
  5. which confirmed the exempt status of certain inert ingredients.

Ecological Characteristics

     Data on the ecological characteristics of the products were waived
based upon the fact that the fungi will not grow at or near body
temperatures of mammals or birds, that the fungi are ubiquitous in
nature and that the use patterns are unlikely to result in additional
exposure of aquatic organisms or other non-target wildlife of ecological

                            4.  BENEFITS

     The use of Binab T pellets will control internal decay of wood in
utility poles, playground structures, and fence posts and may replace
chemical treatments for these uses to some extent. The use of Binab T
Wettable Powder will control decay of pruning wounds of ornamental,
shade, and forest trees aiding in the maintenance of plant health and
esthetic value of trees.

                       5. TOLERANCE ASSESSMENT

     The products will not be used in situations where tolerances are
required. Trees to be treated are limited to those which will not be

used for food or feed production.

                 6.  SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS

     No major data gaps exist for these active ingredients.

Contact Person at EPA

Susan T. Lewis
Acting Product Manager (21)
Fungicide-Herbicide Branch
Registration Division (H-7505C)
Environmental Protection Agency
401 M St., SW.,
Washington, D.C.  20460

DISCLAIMER:  The information presented in this Pesticide Fact Sheet is
for informational purposes only and may not be used to fulfill data
requirements for pesticide registration and reregistration.