triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) Chemical Fact Sheet 9/84
CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR:
FACT SHEET NUMBER: 39
DATE ISSUED: SEPTEMBER 28, 1984
1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL
- Generic Name: triphenyltin hydroxide
- Common Name: fentin hydroxide (BSI, ISO), triphenyltin hydroxide
(USA, S. Africa)
- Trade Name: Du-ter, Duter, Haitin, TPTH, TPTOH, Suzu H, Supertin.
- EPA Shaughnessy Code: 083601
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number: 76-87-9
- Year of Initial Registration: 1971
- Pesticide Type: Fungicide
- Chemical Family: Organotin
- U.S. and Foreign Producers: M & T Chemicals (U.S.A.), Phillps-Duphar
(Netherlands), Nitto-Kasei Co. (Japan)
2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS
- Application sites: To control early and late blight on potatoes, leaf
spot on sugar beets and peanuts, scab and several other diseases on
pecans, leaf spot and Alternaria blight on carrots. and to suppress
spider mites on peanuts.
- Types of formulations: Wettable powders and flowable suspensions.
- Types and methods of application: Aerial and ground sprays,
application through irrigation systems.
- Application rates: 1.5 to 12 ounces a.i./acre
- Usual carriers: Water, surfactants, spreaders, or stickers should not
be used because excessive phytotoxicity can result. Not to be used
with oil sprays.
3. SCIENCE FINDINGS
- Physical state: solid, fine powder
- Color: White to off-white
- Odor: none
- Vapor pressure: non-volatile
- Melting points: 118-120 degrees C (technical)
- Flammability: 400 degrees C
- Octanol/water partition coefficient: K = 1270 and 1370
- Stability: decomposes at about 80 degrees C to bis-triphenyltin oxide
stable at pH values of 5, 7, and 9 for >30 days
- Solubility: water - 8 ppm, ether - 28 g/l, 1,2-dichloromethane -
74 g/l, methylene chloride - 171 g/l, benzene - 41 g/l, ethanol -
10 g/l, acetone - 70 g/l
- Unusual handling characteristics: None reported (no data on
explodability or corrosion characteristics).
- Acute Effects:
- Acute oral LD50 - 165 mg/kg (male rats), 156 mg/kg (female rats)
- Acute dermal LD50 - 127 mg/kg (male rabbits) (Category I)
- Dermal irritation - primary skin irritation (PSI) = 2.8
- Acute inhalation toxicity - 60.3 ug/l (Category I)
- Primary eye irritation - Corrosive (Category I)
- Major routes of exposure: dermal, inhalation
- Chronic Effects:
- Oncogenicity: Caused pathological lesions on the uteruses of
female rats at lowest dose tested (LDT). Controversy as to
whether this is an oncogenic effect has not yet been resolved.
- Teratology: Caused hydrocephalus and hydronephrosis at <=1.25
mg/kg (lowest level tested). Other effects: abortions, decreased
body weight gain, decreased % live fetuses, decreased fetal
weight, increased resorptions.
- Mutagenicity: Not a mutagen.
- Immunotoxicity: Affects spleen weight and IaM AFC spleen cells
and spleen cell response to mitogens at 2.5 mg/kg/day (LDT).
Decreased leukocyte counts were observed at most dose levels,
including LDT. Study does not show a No Observed Level (NOEL).
- Subacute Inhalation: Effects were noted at 0.0011 mg/liter (LDT),
including alopecia, nasal discharge, red ears, ptosis,
piloerection, and epithelial hyperplasia of the skin. The
histopathology report has not been completed; the effects at
lower dose levels have not been evaluated.
Physiological and Biochemical Behavioral Characteristics
- Translocation: Does not translocate.
- Absorption and leaching characteristics: Relatively immobile in
sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay loam soils.
- Loss from photodegradation and/or volatilization: No information is
available on photodegradation or volatilization. TPTH has low
vapor pressure, so little volatilization is expected.
- Resultant average persistence: Half-life of 1 to 3 months in sandy
and silt loam soils, 126 days in flooded silt loam.
- Half-life in water: Stable to hydrolysis for 30 days at 21 degrees C,
loss of approximately 16% at 32 degrees C.
- Hazards to birds: Cannot be estimated without more data.
- Hazards to fish and aquatic invertebrates: Any use pattern that
would result in contamination of aquatic systems through spray drift
or runoff could result in high risk to populations of fish and
aquatic invertebrates, because of the very high toxicity of TPTH to
aquatic organisms. More data on persistence and chronic effects are
needed to complete the hazard evaluation.
- Potential problems with endangered species: Cannot be estimated
without more data. Aquatic species would presumably be at high risk
- List of crops and tolerances: (CFR 180.236)
Beets, sugar, roots 0.1N* Carrots 0.1N
Cattle, kidney 0.05N Cattle, liver 0.05N
Goats, kidney 0.05N Goats, liver 0.05N
Hogs, kidney 0.05N Hogs, liver 0.05N
Horses, kidney 0.05N Horses, liver 0.05N
Peanuts 0.05N Peanuts, hulls 0.4
Pecans 0.05N Potatoes 0.05N
Sheep, kidney 0.05N Sheep, liver 0.05N
*N stands for Negligible Residues.
- List of food contact uses: Pecans, peanuts, potatoes, carrots.
- Results of tolerance assessment: No ADI can be set at this time.
Problems Known to Have Occurred With Use of the Chemical
PIMS file contains eight entries, according to its index. We cannot
retrieve the data at this time (September, 1984).
Summary Science Statement
TPTH is very highly toxic (Category I) when it reaches the eyes, or
when inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Because the major routes of
human exposure are skin contact and inhalation, this high toxicity is
cause for concern. TPTH produces birth defects in laboratory animals,
can damage the immunological systems of exposed animals, produces
lesions in the uteruses of female rats, and has very high subacute
inhalation toxicity. It is not a mutagen.
4. SUMMARY OF REGULATORY POSITION AND RATIONALE
- Use classification: Reclassified (by the Registration Standard) as a
Restricted Use chemical because of toxicity and teratogenic effects.
- Use, formulation, or geographic restrictions: Manufacturing use
products may only be formulated into end-use products intended for use
as a fungicide on pecan trees,,peanuts, carrots, potatoes, sugar
beets, and tobacco, or as anti-fouling paint, or spider mite
suppressants on peanuts.
- Unique Label Warning Statements:
a. Hazards to Humans Statements
- Labels of manufacturing-use and formulated end-use products
(EUPs) must bear the statements:
- DANGER - Fatal if inhaled. Corrosive, causes irreversible eye
damage. May be harmful or fatal if swallowed or absorbed
through the skin. Do not get in eyes or on skin. Do not
breathe dust, vapor, or spray mist. When handling either
products containing TPTH or spray-diluted mixtures, wear
protective clothing (long pants, long sleeve shirt, impermeable
gloves, hat, boots, and a pesticide respirator jointly approved
by the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration and the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). When
handling concentrated products, wear a face shield. Wash
thoroughly with soap and water after handling and before eating
or smoking. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before
reuse. Do not enter treated areas for at least 24 hours after
- The United States Environmental Protection Agency has
determined that triphenyltin hydroxide causes birth defects in
laboratory animals. Exposure to triphenyltin hydroxide during
pregnancy should be avoided.
- The word POISON (in red letters) and a skull and crossbones
must appear in close proximity to the word DANGER.
b. Statements of Practical Treatment
- Labels of manufacturing-use and end-use products must bear the
- If on skin: Wash with plenty of soap and water.
- If inhaled: Remove victim to fresh air. If not breathing,
give artificial respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. Get
- If in eyes: Flush with plenty of water. Call a physician.
- If swallowed: Do not induce vomiting. Drink promptly a large
quantity of milk, egg whites, gelatin solution, or if these
are not available, drink large quantities of water. Call a
physician or Poison Control Center.
c. Environmental Hazard Statement
- The following specific statements must appear on the labels of
all manufacturing use products:
- This pesticide is toxic to fish and wildlife. Do not
discharge into lakes, streams, ponds, estuaries, oceans, or
public waters unless this product is specifically identified
and addressed in an NPDES permit. Do not discharge effluent
containing this product to sewer systems without previously
notifying the sewage treatment plant authority. For guidance
contact your State Water Board or Regional Office of the EPA.
- All labels of EUPs intended for outdoor use must bear this
- This pesticide is toxic to fish and wildlife. Do not apply
directly to water or wetlands. Drift or runoff from treated
areas may be hazardous to aquatic organisms in neighboring
areas. Cover or incorporate spills. Do not contaminate water
by cleaning of equipment or disposal of wastes.
d. Disposal Statements
- All labels of manufacturing-use or formulated end-use products
(EUPs) must bear this statement, under the heading STORAGE AND
- Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage or
disposal. Pesticide wastes are acutely hazardous. Improper
disposal of excess pesticide, spray mixture, or rinsate is a
violation of Federal law. If these wastes cannot be disposed
of by use according to label instructions, contact your State
Pesticide or Environmental Control Agency, or the Hazardous
Waste representative at the nearest EPA Regional Office for
- The statements required by this standard must appear on the
labels of all MUPs and EUPs released for shipment after March 30,
1984. After review of data to be submitted under this standard,
the Agency may impose additional label requirements.
- Summary of risk/benefit analysis: No risk/benefit analysis per se has
been done. The Agency has determined that TPTH meets the risk
criteria in 40 CFR 162.11(a), primarily because TPTH has produced
teratogenic effects in laboratory animals. TPTH will be placed in the
Special Review process, during which there will be an analysis of its
risks and benefits.
Summary of Major Data Gaps
Dates when major data gaps are due to be filled:
Data Requested Due Date
Description of manufacturing process April 1 1985*
Discussion of formation of unintentional April 1 1985*
Preliminary analysis April 1, 1985*
Certification of limits April 1, 1985*
Analytical methods and data for enforcement April 1, 1985*
Vapor pressure April 1, 1985
Plant residues April 1, 1985
Animal residues April 1, 1985
Storage stability data April 1, 1985*
Magnitude of the residue for each food use April 1, 1985
Photodegradation April 1, 1985
Metabolism studies in lab November 1, 1986
Mobility studies April 1, 1985
Dissipation studies in field November 1, 1986
Accumulation studies in rotational crops November 1, 1986
Accumulation studies in fish April 1, 1985
Reentry protection November 1, 1986
90-day feeding (rodent) January 1, 1986
90-day feeding (non-rodent) January 1, 1986
21-day dermal April 1, 1985
90-day inhalation April 1, 1985**
Chronic toxicity April 1, 1985**
Oncogenicity April 1, 1985***
Teratogenicity April 1, 1985****
Reproduction (2-generation) September 1, 1986
Chromosomal aberration September 1, 1986
Other genotoxic effects September 1, 1986
General metabolism February 1, 1986
Avian dietary toxicity April 1, 1985
Avian reproduction April 1, 1985
Coldwater fish acute toxicity April 1, 1985
Density, bulk density, or specific gravity April 1, 1985*
Oxidizing/reducing action April 1, 1985*
Explodability April 1, 1985*
Corrosion April 1, 1985*
*Product-specific data required for manufacturing-use products
**If the registrant commits to conducting new studies, the deadline is
January 1, 1986.
***If the registrant commits to conducting new studies, the deadline is
November 1, 1988.
****If the registrant commits to conducting new studies, the deadline is
November 1, 1985.
6. CONTACT PERSON AT EPA
Environmental Protection Agency, TS-767C
401 M Street. SW
Washington, DC 20460
DISCLAIMER: THE INFORMATION PRESENTED IN THIS CHEMICAL INFORMATION FACT
SHEET IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND NOT TO BE USED TO FULFILL
DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND REREGISTRATION.