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triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) Chemical Fact Sheet 9/84

                      CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR:



                    1.  DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL

- Generic Name:  triphenyltin hydroxide
- Common Name:  fentin hydroxide (BSI, ISO), triphenyltin hydroxide
  (USA, S. Africa)
- Trade Name:  Du-ter, Duter, Haitin, TPTH, TPTOH, Suzu H, Supertin.
- EPA Shaughnessy Code:  083601
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number:  76-87-9
- Year of Initial Registration:  1971
- Pesticide Type:  Fungicide
- Chemical Family:  Organotin
- U.S. and Foreign Producers:  M & T Chemicals (U.S.A.), Phillps-Duphar
  (Netherlands), Nitto-Kasei Co. (Japan)


- Application sites:  To control early and late blight on potatoes, leaf
  spot on sugar beets and peanuts, scab and several other diseases on
  pecans, leaf spot and Alternaria blight on carrots. and to suppress
  spider mites on peanuts.
- Types of formulations:  Wettable powders and flowable suspensions.
- Types and methods of application:  Aerial and ground sprays,
  application through irrigation systems.
- Application rates:  1.5 to 12 ounces a.i./acre
- Usual carriers:  Water, surfactants, spreaders, or stickers should not
  be used because excessive phytotoxicity can result.  Not to be used
  with oil sprays.

                       3.  SCIENCE FINDINGS

Chemical Characteristics

- Physical state:  solid, fine powder
- Color:  White to off-white
- Odor:  none
- Vapor pressure:  non-volatile
- Melting points:  118-120 degrees C (technical)
- Flammability:  400 degrees C
- Octanol/water partition coefficient:  K = 1270 and 1370
- Stability:  decomposes at about 80 degrees C to bis-triphenyltin oxide
  stable at pH values of 5, 7, and 9 for >30 days
- Solubility:  water - 8 ppm, ether - 28 g/l, 1,2-dichloromethane -
  74 g/l, methylene chloride - 171 g/l, benzene - 41 g/l, ethanol -
  10 g/l, acetone - 70 g/l
- Unusual handling characteristics:  None reported (no data on
  explodability or corrosion characteristics).

Toxicological Characteristics

- Acute Effects:
  - Acute oral LD50 - 165 mg/kg (male rats), 156 mg/kg (female rats)
    (Category II)
  - Acute dermal LD50 - 127 mg/kg (male rabbits) (Category I)
  - Dermal irritation - primary skin irritation (PSI) = 2.8
    (Category III)
  - Acute inhalation toxicity - 60.3 ug/l (Category I)
  - Primary eye irritation - Corrosive (Category I)
- Major routes of exposure:  dermal, inhalation
- Chronic Effects:
  - Oncogenicity:  Caused pathological lesions on the uteruses of
    female rats at lowest dose tested (LDT).  Controversy as to
    whether this is an oncogenic effect has not yet been resolved.
  - Teratology:  Caused hydrocephalus and hydronephrosis at <=1.25
    mg/kg (lowest level tested).  Other effects:  abortions, decreased
    body weight gain, decreased % live fetuses, decreased fetal
    weight, increased resorptions.
  - Mutagenicity:  Not a mutagen.
  - Immunotoxicity:  Affects spleen weight and IaM AFC spleen cells
    and spleen cell response to mitogens at 2.5 mg/kg/day (LDT).
    Decreased leukocyte counts were observed at most dose levels,
    including LDT.  Study does not show a No Observed Level (NOEL).
  - Subacute Inhalation:  Effects were noted at 0.0011 mg/liter (LDT),
    including alopecia, nasal discharge, red ears, ptosis,
    piloerection, and epithelial hyperplasia of the skin.  The
    histopathology report has not been completed; the effects at
    lower dose levels have not been evaluated.

Physiological and Biochemical Behavioral Characteristics

- Translocation:  Does not translocate.

Environmental Characteristics

- Absorption and leaching characteristics:  Relatively immobile in
  sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay loam soils.
- Loss from photodegradation and/or volatilization:  No information is
  available on photodegradation or volatilization.  TPTH has low
  vapor pressure, so little volatilization is expected.
- Resultant average persistence:  Half-life of 1 to 3 months in sandy
  and silt loam soils, 126 days in flooded silt loam.
- Half-life in water:  Stable to hydrolysis for 30 days at 21 degrees C,
  loss of approximately 16% at 32 degrees C.

Ecological Characteristics

- Hazards to birds:  Cannot be estimated without more data.
- Hazards to fish and aquatic invertebrates:  Any use pattern that
  would result in contamination of aquatic systems through spray drift
  or runoff could result in high risk to populations of fish and
  aquatic invertebrates, because of the very high toxicity of TPTH to
  aquatic organisms.  More data on persistence and chronic effects are
  needed to complete the hazard evaluation.
- Potential problems with endangered species:  Cannot be estimated
  without more data.  Aquatic species would presumably be at high risk
  if exposed.

Tolerance Assessment

- List of crops and tolerances:  (CFR 180.236)

                          (PPM)                               (PPM)

Beets, sugar, roots       0.1N*          Carrots              0.1N
Cattle, kidney            0.05N          Cattle, liver        0.05N
Goats, kidney             0.05N          Goats, liver         0.05N
Hogs, kidney              0.05N          Hogs, liver          0.05N
Horses, kidney            0.05N          Horses, liver        0.05N
Peanuts                   0.05N          Peanuts, hulls       0.4
Pecans                    0.05N          Potatoes             0.05N
Sheep, kidney             0.05N          Sheep, liver         0.05N

*N stands for Negligible Residues.

- List of food contact uses:  Pecans, peanuts, potatoes, carrots.
- Results of tolerance assessment:  No ADI can be set at this time.

Problems Known to Have Occurred With Use of the Chemical

   PIMS file contains eight entries, according to its index.  We cannot 
retrieve the data at this time (September, 1984).

Summary Science Statement

   TPTH is very highly toxic (Category I) when it reaches the eyes, or 
when inhaled or absorbed through the skin.  Because the major routes of 
human exposure are skin contact and inhalation, this high toxicity is 
cause for concern.  TPTH produces birth defects in laboratory animals, 
can damage the immunological systems of exposed animals, produces 
lesions in the uteruses of female rats, and has very high subacute 
inhalation toxicity.  It is not a mutagen.


- Use classification:  Reclassified (by the Registration Standard) as a
  Restricted Use chemical because of toxicity and teratogenic effects.
- Use, formulation, or geographic restrictions:  Manufacturing use
  products may only be formulated into end-use products intended for use
  as a fungicide on pecan trees,,peanuts, carrots, potatoes, sugar
  beets, and tobacco, or as anti-fouling paint, or spider mite
  suppressants on peanuts.

- Unique Label Warning Statements:
  a. Hazards to Humans Statements
  - Labels of manufacturing-use and formulated end-use products
    (EUPs) must bear the statements:
    - DANGER - Fatal if inhaled. Corrosive, causes irreversible eye
      damage. May be harmful or fatal if swallowed or absorbed
      through the skin. Do not get in eyes or on skin. Do not
      breathe dust, vapor, or spray mist. When handling either
      products containing TPTH or spray-diluted mixtures, wear
      protective clothing (long pants, long sleeve shirt, impermeable
      gloves, hat, boots, and a pesticide respirator jointly approved
      by the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration and the
      National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). When
      handling concentrated products, wear a face shield. Wash
      thoroughly with soap and water after handling and before eating
      or smoking. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before
      reuse. Do not enter treated areas for at least 24 hours after
      treatment; and
    - The United States Environmental Protection Agency has
      determined that triphenyltin hydroxide causes birth defects in
      laboratory animals. Exposure to triphenyltin hydroxide during
      pregnancy should be avoided.
  - The word POISON (in red letters) and a skull and crossbones
    must appear in close proximity to the word DANGER.
  b. Statements of Practical Treatment
  - Labels of manufacturing-use and end-use products must bear the
    - If on skin: Wash with plenty of soap and water.
    - If inhaled: Remove victim to fresh air. If not breathing,
      give artificial respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. Get
      medical attention.
    - If in eyes: Flush with plenty of water. Call a physician.
    - If swallowed: Do not induce vomiting. Drink promptly a large
      quantity of milk, egg whites, gelatin solution, or if these
      are not available, drink large quantities of water. Call a
      physician or Poison Control Center.
  c. Environmental Hazard Statement
  - The following specific statements must appear on the labels of
    all manufacturing use products:
    - This pesticide is toxic to fish and wildlife. Do not
      discharge into lakes, streams, ponds, estuaries, oceans, or
      public waters unless this product is specifically identified
      and addressed in an NPDES permit. Do not discharge effluent
      containing this product to sewer systems without previously
      notifying the sewage treatment plant authority. For guidance
      contact your State Water Board or Regional Office of the EPA.
  - All labels of EUPs intended for outdoor use must bear this
    - This pesticide is toxic to fish and wildlife. Do not apply
      directly to water or wetlands. Drift or runoff from treated
      areas may be hazardous to aquatic organisms in neighboring
      areas. Cover or incorporate spills. Do not contaminate water
      by cleaning of equipment or disposal of wastes.
  d. Disposal Statements
  -  All labels of manufacturing-use or formulated end-use products
     (EUPs) must bear this statement, under the heading STORAGE AND
  - Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage or
    disposal.  Pesticide wastes are acutely hazardous.  Improper
    disposal of excess pesticide, spray mixture, or rinsate is a
    violation of Federal law.  If these wastes cannot be disposed
    of by use according to label instructions, contact your State
    Pesticide or Environmental Control Agency, or the Hazardous
    Waste representative at the nearest EPA Regional Office for
  - The statements required by this standard must appear on the
    labels of all MUPs and EUPs released for shipment after March 30,
    1984.  After review of data to be submitted under this standard,
    the Agency may impose additional label requirements.
- Summary of risk/benefit analysis:  No risk/benefit analysis per se has
  been done.  The Agency has determined that TPTH meets the risk
  criteria in 40 CFR 162.11(a), primarily because TPTH has produced
  teratogenic effects in laboratory animals.  TPTH will be placed in the
  Special Review process, during which there will be an analysis of its
  risks and benefits.

Summary of Major Data Gaps

Dates when major data gaps are due to be filled:

Data Requested                                    Due Date

Description of manufacturing process            April 1 1985*
Discussion of formation of unintentional        April 1 1985*
Preliminary analysis                            April 1, 1985*
Certification of limits                         April 1, 1985*
Analytical methods and data for enforcement     April 1, 1985*
   of limits
Vapor pressure                                  April 1, 1985
Plant residues                                  April 1, 1985
Animal residues                                 April 1, 1985
Storage stability data                          April 1, 1985*
Magnitude of the residue for each food use      April 1, 1985
Photodegradation                                April 1, 1985
Metabolism studies in lab                       November 1, 1986

Mobility studies                                April 1, 1985
Dissipation studies in field                    November 1, 1986
Accumulation studies in rotational crops        November 1, 1986
Accumulation studies in fish                    April 1, 1985
Reentry protection                              November 1, 1986
90-day feeding (rodent)                         January 1, 1986
90-day feeding (non-rodent)                     January 1, 1986
21-day dermal                                   April 1, 1985
90-day inhalation                               April 1, 1985**
Chronic toxicity                                April 1, 1985**
Oncogenicity                                    April 1, 1985***
Teratogenicity                                  April 1, 1985****
Reproduction (2-generation)                     September 1, 1986
Chromosomal aberration                          September 1, 1986
Other genotoxic effects                         September 1, 1986
General metabolism                              February 1, 1986
Avian dietary toxicity                          April 1, 1985
Avian reproduction                              April 1, 1985
Coldwater fish acute toxicity                   April 1, 1985
Density, bulk density, or specific gravity      April 1, 1985*

Oxidizing/reducing action                       April 1, 1985*
Explodability                                   April 1, 1985*
Corrosion                                       April 1, 1985*

*Product-specific data required for manufacturing-use products
  containing TPTH.
**If the registrant commits to conducting new studies, the deadline is 
January 1, 1986.
***If the registrant commits to conducting new studies, the deadline is 
November 1, 1988.
****If the registrant commits to conducting new studies, the deadline is 
November 1, 1985.

                 6.  CONTACT PERSON AT EPA

Henry Jacoby
Environmental Protection Agency, TS-767C
401 M Street. SW
Washington, DC  20460
(709) 557-1900