ziram (Milbam) Chemical Profile 2/85
CHEMICAL NAME: Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (56)
TRADE NAME(S): Vancide MZ-96 (48)
FORMULATION(S): Wettable powder 76%, 88% and 96%, flowable, 4
pounds/gallon. Technical 98%, 85% and 90% WP (56).
TYPE: Carbamate fungicide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): FMC Corporation
Agricultural Chemical Group
2000 Market St.
Philadelphia, PA 19103
1630 East Shaw Ave., Suite 179
Fresno, CA 93710
R.T. Vanderbilt Co., Inc.
30 Winfield St.
Norwalk, CT 06855
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: Foliar chemical used against a wide variety of
diseases on fruits and some vegetables (48).
Ziram is a protective fungicide for use on fruit and vegetable
crops against Alternaria and Septoria spp. It is also used as a
repellent to birds and rodents (26).
Used extensively on almond and peaches to control shot hole, brown
rot, and peachleaf curl (56).
To be developed.
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C6 H12 N2 S4 Zn (26)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 305.8 (26)
PHYSICAL STATE: Colorless powder (pure compound) (26)
MELTING POINT: 240 C (pure compound); 240-244 C (technical
VAPOR PRESSURE: Negligible at room temperature (pure compound) (26)
SOLUBILITY: 65 mg/l water at 25 C (pure compound) (26)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: NA
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: May cause skin irritation (26)
ORAL: LD50 = 1400 mg/kg (rat) (26)
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
In 1-year feeding trials rats receiving 5 mg ai/kg daily showed no
effect, neither did weanling rats receiving 100 mg/kg diet for 30 days
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Nonphytotoxic except to zinc-sensitive crops (48).
It is the most stable of the metallic dithiocarbamates. It does
not build up in the soil and is rapidly decomposed by weathering (56).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING
Thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates - Itching, redness, and
eczematoid DERMATITIS have resulted when predisposed individuals have
come into contact with these agents. Inhaled sprays and dusts have
caused NASAL STUFFINESS, hoarseness, cough, and, rarely, pneumonitis.
Repeated contact may produce sensitization. Ingestion of large amounts
may produce nausea, VOMITING, and DIARRHEA. HYPOTHERMIA and ataxia are
characteristic of poisoning. Muscle WEAKNESS and/or ascending
paralysis may progress to respiratory paralysis if absorbed dosages are
equivalent to those tested in experimental animals.
The reaction to beverage alcohol that may follow exceptional
absorption of thiram and metallo bis dithiocarbamates is characterized
by FLUSHING, HEADACHE, SWEATING, warm sensations, weakness, nasal
congestion, labored breathing, tightness in the chest, tachycardia,
palpitation, and hypotension. Extreme dosages may result in shock,
convulsions, respiratory depression, and/or unconsciousness. Reactions
are not likely to occur unless the absorbed dose is extraordinary (25).
SKIN CONTACT: Wash contaminating chemical from skin and hair with
soap and water (25).
INGESTION: If vigorous emesis has not already occurred and
victim is fully alert, give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of
water to induce vomiting (adults, 12 years and older: 30 ml; children
under 12: 15 ml) (25).
EYE CONTACT: Flush contaminant from eyes with fresh water for
10-15 minutes (25).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
1. If THIRAM or METALLO DITHIOCARBAMATE compounds have been INGESTED:
A. If vigorous emesis has not already occurred and victim is
fully alert, give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of
water to induce vomiting (adults, 12 years and older: 30 ml;
children under 12: 15 ml).
CAUTION: OBSERVE victim closely AFTER administering IPECAC.
If CONSCIOUSNESS level declines or vomiting has not
occurred in 15 minutes, empty the stomach by
INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE.
B. If consciousness level or respiration is DEPRESSED, empty the
stomach by INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE, using all
available means to avoid aspiration of vomitus: left lateral
Trendelenburg position, frequent aspiration of the pharynx
and, in unconscious victims, tracheal intubation (using a
cuffed tube) prior to gastric intubation.
After aspiration of the stomach and washing with isotonic
saline or sodium bicarbonate, instill 30-50 gm of ACTIVATED
CHARCOAL in 3-4 ounces of water through the stomach tube to
limit absorption of remaining toxicant.
C. If the irritant properties of the toxicant fail to produce a
bowel movement in 4 hours, administer SODIUM or MAGNESIUM
SULFATE as a cathartic: 0.25 gm/kg body weight in 1-6 ounces
D. Administer glucose-containing fluids intravenously to
accelerate excretion of toxicant.
E. For adults and children over 12 years, inject 1.0 gm ASCORBIC
ACID (Vitamin C) intravenously at a rate not exceeding 0.2
gm/minute. For children under 12, give 10-20 mg/kg body
weight. As a hydrogen-donor, ascorbic acid may have
significant antidotal action against absorbed, but unreacted,
F. The victim must AVOID consumption of any ALCOHOLIC beverage
for 3 weeks. Gastrointestinal absorption of these substances
is slow, and the enzyme inhibition which they cause is slowly
2. Mangement of a reaction to ETHANOL, following absorption of a
A. Administer 100% OXYGEN as long as the reaction continues.
Oxygen usually gives substantial relief from the distressing
symptoms of vasodilation and hypotension.
CAUTION: If respiration is depressed, administer oxygen by
an intermittent positive pressure breathing device
and observe the victim closely to maintain
pulmonary ventilation mechanically in case of
B. Gastric evacuation, charcoal administration, catharsis,
intravenous fluids, and ascorbic acid administration (1
A,B,C,D, and E) may be appropriate, depending on the amount of
dithiocarbamate absorbed, the time interval between exposure
and treatment, and the severity of symptoms.
C. If the victim has suffered from arteriosclerosis, myocardial
insufficiency, diabetes, neuropathy, cirrhosis, or other
severe chronic disease, OBSERVE him CAREFULLY for 48 hours to
insure that complications (especially myocardial infarction,
toxic psychosis, and neuropathy) are treated promptly (25).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
To be developed.
Incompatible with iron, copper, calcium arsenate, mercury, TEPP or
lime compounds (48).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
To be developed.
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of
pesticide poisonings, 3rd ed. U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Washington, DC. 120 pp.
26. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 6th ed. 1979. C. R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 655 pp.
48. Harding, W.C. 1979-80. Pesticide profiles, part two: fungicides
and nematicides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Service Bull.
283, 22 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.