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acrolein (Aqualin, Magnacide) Herbicide Profile 3/85

                                      acrolein
      CHEMICAL NAME:      Z-propenal (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Aqualin (product discontinued by Shell Chemical
                          Co., Chemical Intermediates) (56); Magnacide H
                          Herbicide (58).
      FORMULATION(S):     92% acrolein, 0.78 kg ai/l (6.5 lb ai/gal) (58).
      TYPE:               Aquatic herbicide, biocide, slimicide (56).
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Magna Corp./Arjay Div.
                          7505 Fannin St.
                          Houston, TX 77054
      STATUS:             Restricted use
      PRINCIPAL USES:     For control of submersed weeds (Potamogeton, Najas,
                          Zannichellia, Ceratophyllum, Spirogyra, and others)
                          and floating weed (water cress, water hyacinth and
                          water primrose) in irrigation canals and ditches.
                          It is also an algicide.  Not phytotoxic to common
                          field crops when used as directed by product label
                          (58).
      APPLICATION METHODS:  Applied directly to the water (58).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
      Important Weeds Controlled: Used to control submerged and floating
      aquatics as well as algae.  Also kills snails.  Toxic to seeds.  Some
      fungicidal effects (8b).
           Fast acting.  Control has been obtained for up to 15 miles of ditch.
      Cattails and tule are not materially damaged.  Toxic to most plants
      which it comes in contact with.  Remains in the water for 2-3 days
      depending upon the temperature.  Control should last the entire season
      (8b).
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C3 H4 O (58)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   56.1 (58)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Liquid, colorless (pure compound) (58)
      ODOR:               Pungent (pure compound) (58)
      MELTING POINT:      -86.95 C (pure compound) (58)
      BOILING POINT:      52.69 C (pure compound) (58)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     210 mmHg at 20 C (pure compound) (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         Moderately soluble in water (at 68 F) (pure
                          compound) (58).
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  0.1 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) averaged over an eight-hour work
                      shift (14).
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average):  0.1 ppm, 0.25
                                mg/m3; STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit):  0.3
                                ppm, 0.8 mg/m3 (15c).
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = 50 mg/kg (rat); 30 mg/kg (mouse); 562 mg/kg
                        (rabbit, undiluted); 1022 mg/kg (rabbit, 10%
                        aqueous solution) (58).  Severe skin irritant.
                        Causes vesiculation and a chemical burn if not
                        removed immediately.  1 ppm of acrolein in air
                        produces detectable nose irritation in 2 to 3 min
                        and is intolerable in 5 min (58).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 46 mg/kg (rat) (56); 7.1 mg/kg (rabbit) (58).
               EYES:    Highly lachrymatory.  1 ppm of acrolein in air
                        produces detectable eye irritation in 2 to 3 min
                        and is intolerable in 5 min (58).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           No effect on rats fed water containing 200 ppm for 90 days (58).
           Chronic effects of exposure to acrolein are skin irritation and
      occasionally skin allergy appearing as hives or a rash (14).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           Field observations and laboratory datat show that fish vary
      considerably in their tolerance to acrolein.  Most fish are killed at
      less than 1 ppm (58).
           Acrolein will remain in the water for up to 6 days depending upon
      water temperature (58).
                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING:
           HEADACHE, DIZZINESS, NAUSEA, and vomiting are prominent early
      symptoms of excessive exposure to these gases.  Acrolein is a strong
      irritant causing BURNING SENSATIONS in the nose and throat, TEARING,
      COUGH, and sometimes hoarseness and wheezing.  DROWSINESS, TREMORS,
      double vision, and weakness are the common early manifestations of
      central nervous system impairment.  Tremors may progress to myoclonic
      movements, then to generalized SEIZURES, UNCONSCIOUSNESS, and death.
           Injuries to the skin by liquid fumigants may be manifest as areas
      of redness or as BLISTERS which rupture, leaving raw skin or deep
      ulcers (25).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Flush contaminating fumigant from the skin with
      copious amounts of water for at least 15 minutes.  Contact with liquid
      fumigant can cause blindness or death.  Treat injuries immediately
      (25).
           INGESTION:  Get medical attention immediately.  If medical
      attention is not immediately available, get the afflicted person to
      vomit by having him touch the back of his throat with his finger or by
      giving him Syrup of Ipecac as directed on the package.  This
      non-prescription drug is available at most drug stores and drug
      counters and should be kept with emergency medical supplies in the
      workplace.  Do not make an unconscious person vomit (14).
           INHALATION:  Remove victims of fumigant inhalation to fresh air.
      Even though initial symptoms and signs are mild, keep victim quiet, in
      a semireclining position.  Reduction in physical activity reduces the
      likelihood of pulmonary edema (25).
           EYE CONTACT:   Flush contaminating fumigant from the eyes with
      copious amounts of water for at least 15 minutes.  Contact with liquid
      fumigant can cause blindness or death.  Treat injuries immediately (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      GENERAL:  Flash point (TCC) -25 C (58).
                Flammable limitd in air, % by volume:  Lower; 2.8; Upper: 31
                (14).
      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or alcohol foam (14).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Soluble in water.  Do not contaminate with any foreign material at
      any time.  To avoid the possibility of polymerization, keep under
      oxygen-free nitrogen only.  Iron and low carbon steel are unaffected at
      room temperaure.  Slight corrosion might occur under more severe
      conditions of temperature (58).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Can be stored under oxygen-free nitrogen in dark
      glass bottles, in cylinders, or in black iron drums.  Highly reactive
      chemically and readily forms polymers.  In closed systems, this
      polymerization can proceed with explosive violence in the presence of
      alkaline materials and strong acids.  It will polymerize slowly in the
      presence of air, forming an insoluble white precipitate.  For this
      reason, it is shipped under an oxygen-free atmosphere and is inhibited
      with hydroquinone.  However, hydroquinone does not inhibit the
      polymerization catalyzed by alkalies and strong acids.  Therefore,
      contamination with any foreign materials should be avoided (58).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Employees should be provided with and required to
      use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and
      other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent any
      possibility of skin contact with liquid acrolein.  Employees should be
      provided with and required to use splash-proof safety goggles where
      there is any possibility of liquid acrolein contacting the eyes (14).
      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  Safety goggles where there is any possibility of
      liquid acrolein contacting the eyes (14).
                        RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR ACROLEIN
                                         Minimum Respiratory Protection*
      Condition                              Required Above 0.1 ppm
      _______________________________________________________________________
      Vapor Concentration
      5 ppm or less              A chemical cartridge respirator with a full
                                 facepiece and an organic vapor cartridge(s).
                                 A gas mask with a chin-style or a front- or
                                 back-mounted organic vapor canister.
                                 Any supplied-air respirator with a full
                                 facepiece, helmet, or hood.
                                 Any self-contained breathing apparatus with
                                 a full facepiece.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      Greater than 5 ppm** or    Self-contained breathing apparatus with a
      entry and escape from      full facepiece operated in pressure-demand
      unknown concentrations     or other positive pressure mode.
                                 A combination respirator which includes a
                                 Type C supplied-air respirator with a full
                                 facepiece operated in pressure-demand or
                                 other positive pressure or continuous-flow
                                 mode and an auxiliary self-contained
                                 breathing apparatus operated in
                                 pressure-demand or other positive pressure
                                 mode.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      Fire Fighting              Self-contained breathing apparatus with a
                                 full facepiece operated in pressure-demand
                                 or other positive pressure mode.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      Escape                     Any gas mask with a full facepiece providing
                                 protection against organic vapors.
                                 Any escape self-contained breathing
                                 apparatus with a full facepiece.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      *    Only NIOSH-approved or MSHA-approved equipment should be used.
      **   Use of supplied-air suits may be necessary to prevent skin contact
           while providing respiratory protection from airborne
           concentrations of acrolein; however, this equipment should be
           selected, used and maintained under the immediate supervision of
           trained personnel.  Where supplied-air suits are used above a
           concentration of 5 ppm, an auxiliary self-contained breathing
           apparatus operated in positive pressure mode should also be worn
           (14).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
           Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been
      completed.
           If acrolein is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be
      taken:
      1.   Remove all ignition sources.
      2.   Ventilate area of spill or leak.
      3.   For small quantities, absorb on paper towels.  Evaporate in a safe
           place (such as a fume hood).  Allow sufficient time for
           evaporating vapors to completely clear the hood ductwork.  Burn
           the paper in a suitable location away from combustible materials.
           For large quantities, cover with sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3), add a
           small amount of water and mix.  Then, after one hour, flush with
           large amounts of water and wash the site with soap solution.
           Liquid acrolein should not be allowed to enter a confined space,
           such as a sewer, because of the possibility of an explosion.
           Waste disposal methods:
      Acrolein may be disposed of:
      1.   By absorbing it in vermiculite, dry sand, earth or a similar
           material and disposing in a secured sanitary landfill.
      2.   For small quantities, by absorbing it in vermiculite, dry sand,
           earth, or a similar material and disposing of in a suitable
           combustion chamber.
      3.   For large quantities, by mixing with a flammable liquid (such as
           acetone) and atomizing in a suitable combustion chamber (14).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.
      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      3/5/85