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ametryn (Evik) Herbicide Profile 3/85

                                      ametryn
      CHEMICAL NAME:      2-ethylamino-4-(isopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s
                          triazine (58)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Evik 80W (58)
      FORMULATION(S):     50 and 80% WP (8b)
      TYPE:               Triazine herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Ciba-Geigy Corp.
                          P.O. Box 18300
                          Greensboro, NC 27419
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Ametryn is a selective herbicide for control of
      broadleaf and grass weeds in pineapple, sugarcane, bananas and
      plantains.  It can also be used as a post-directed spray in corn and as
      a potato vine desiccant.  In addition, it can be used for total
      vegetation control (58).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Applications may be made preemergence,
      postemergence, and post-directed, depending upon the crop.  Ametryn has
      considerable contact activity; therefore, postemergence treatments must
      be directed on most crops.  Under dry conditions a shallow
      incorporation may increase the degree of weed control (58).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
      Important Weeds Controlled:  Crotalaria, mustard, Dallisgrass,
      cocklebur, lambsquarters, morningglory, velvetleaf, ragweed, panicum,
      smartweed, shattercane, nutgrass, wiregrass, goosegrass, crabgrass, sow
      thistle, purslane, pigweed, foxtail, and many others (8b).
           Absorbed through the weed's root system as they germinate.
      Therefore, weeds will emerge before dying.  Considerable activity through
      foliage contact.  Mature weeds of certain species will be controlled by
      post-emergence applications.  Looks promising as an aquatic herbicide
      (8b).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C9 H19 N5 S (58)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   227.3 (58)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     White, crystalline (pure compound) (58)
      ODOR:               Odorless (24p)
      MELTING POINT:      84 to 85 C (pure compound) (58)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     8.4 x 10-7 mmHg at 20 C (pure compound) (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         Soluble in water to 185 ppm at 20 C (56).
                          185 pmw water at 20 C (pure compound) (58).
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  None established
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = >10.2 gm/kg (ametryn 80% WP) (58).
                        Moderate skin irritation (rabbit, Evik 80W) (56).
                        LD50 = >3,100 mg/kg (rat); slight irritant to skin
                          of rabbits (62).
                        LD50 = >2,010 mg/kg (rabbit, Evik 80W) (24p).
                        Not a skin sensitizer (guinea pig, Evik 80W) (24p).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 1,750 mg/kg (rat, 80% WP) (58).
                        LD50 = 1,750 mg/kg (rat, technical ametryn) (56).
                        LD50 = 1,100 mg tech/kg (rat) (62).
                        LD50 = 1,950 mg/kg (rat, Evik 80W) (24p).
               INHALATION:  No deaths were recorded or untoward effects noted
                              among a group of albino rats exposed to ametryn
                              aerosol at >27 mg/l during a 4-hr exposure period
                              (58).
                            LC50 = >2.2 mg/l for 4 hours (rat, Evik 80W) (56).
               EYES:    Undiluted ametryn was mildly irritating to the eye of
                          the rabbit (58).
                        Nonirritant to rabbit eyes (62).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           In 2-yr feeding studies NEL:  for rats 1,000 mg/kg diet (67 mg/kg
      daily); for dogs 1,000 mg/kg diet (33 mg/kg daily) (62).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.   Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
             Ametryn is more readily adsorbed on muck or clay soils than
             in soils of low clay or organic matter content, and is seldom
             found below the upper few inches.  The downward movement of
             leaching is limited by its adsorption to certain soil
             constituents and its comparatively rapid dissipation.  The
             adsorption of ametryn in soils is greater than with most
             other commercial triazine herbicides, although this
             adsorption is readily reversible under most conditions.  It
             has little lateral movement in soil except from erosion with
             soil particles.
      2.   Microbial breakdown:  Microbial action probably accounts for the
             major breakdown of ametryn in the soil.  Several soil
             microorganisms have been reported to utilize it as a source
             of energy and nitrogen.  The effect of ametryn on these and
             other organisms appears to be small, if at all.
      3.   Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:
             Photodecomposition and/or volatilization of ametryn have not
             been evaluated under field conditions, but it would be
             expected to compare with prometryn in these respects.
      4.   Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  Research
             results from most of the continental United States indicate
             that the persistence of ametryn in soils compares quite
             closely to prometryn.  Under more tropical conditions of
             Hawaii and Puerto Rico, however, ametryn not only gives
             better postemergence and preemergence control of a wider
             range of weeds, but its residual life in the soil is often
             extended to several months, and may persist as long as
             atrazine.
                             Selected References
             Esser, H.O., G. Dupuis, E. Ebert, C. Vogel, and G.J. Marco.
                  1975. S-triazines. In Herbicides. Chemistry,
                  Degradation, and Mode of Action. Ed. by P.C. Kearney and
                  D.D. Kaufman. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
             Gunther, F.A. and J.D. Gunther (Eds.) 1970. The triazine
                  herbicides. Residue Reviews. Vol. 32. 413 pp (58).
      General toxicity to wildlife and fish:  Toxicological
             investigations concluded with bobwhite, quail, mallard ducks,
             goldfish, Rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish and oyster have
             shown ametryn to have a very low toxicity to these species (58).
           Fish and wildlife - ametryn technical
                Fish species                    96-hr LC50 (ppm)
                Rainbow trout                       8.8
                Bluegill sunfish                    4.1
                Oyster                             >1.0
                Bird Species                   8-day Dietary LC50 (ppm)
                Bobwhite quail                    30,000
                Mallard duck                      23,000 (58).
                       V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      KNOWN OR SUSPECTED ADVERSE EFFECTS:  Some triazines are mildly
      irritating to skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract.  Systemic
      toxicity is unlikely unless very large amounts have been ingested (25).
           No cases of poisoning in man have been reported from ingestion of
      ametryn.  Ataxia, dyspnea, muscular weakness, salivation, and loss of
      reflexes in rats (58).
           Irritation of eyes, skin, nose or throat may result from
      overexposure to Evik 80W (24p).
           SKIN CONTACT:  WASH contaminated SKIN with soap and water (25).
           INGESTION:  INGESTIONS of SMALL amounts (less than 10 mg/kg body
      weight) occurring less than an hour before treatment, are probably best
      treated by:
           A.   SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water.  Dose for
                adults and children over 12 years:  30 ml.  Dose for children
                under 12 years:  15 ml.
           B.   ACTIVATED CHARCOAL - Administer 30-50 gm as a slurry in tap
                water, after vomiting stops.
           C.   SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a
                cathartic (25).
           INHALATION:  Remove from contaminated atmosphere. If symptoms
      appear or person is unconscious, get medical attention (Evik 80W)
      (24p).
           EYE CONTACT:  FLUSH contaminated EYES with copious amounts of
      fresh water for 15 minutes (25).
      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
           Evik 80W in an s-triazine herbicide.  There is no specific
      antidote if Evik 80W is ingested.  If a large amount has been swallowed
      and vomiting has not occurred, induce emesis or lavage stomach.  After
      lavage, a slurry of 30 to 50 gm activated charcoal in water can be left
      in the stomach (24p).
      INGESTIONS of LARGE amounts (more than 10 mg/kg) occurring less than an
      hour before treatment, should probably be treated by gastric lavage:
      A.   INTUBATE stomach and ASPIRATE contents.
      B.   LAVAGE stomach with slurry of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IN 0.9% saline.
           Leave 30-50 gm activated charcoal in the stomach before
           withdrawing tube.
      C.   SODIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a cathartic.
           CAUTION:  Hydrocarbons (kerosene, petroleum distillates) are
                     included in some formulations of these chemicals.
                     Ingestion of very LARGE AMOUNTS may cause CNS
                     depression.  In this case, IPECAC IS CONTRAINDICATED.
                     Also, gastric intubation incurs a risk of HYDROCARBON
                     PNEUMONITIS.  For this reason observe the following
                     precautions:
                     (1)  If the victim is unconscious or obtunded and
                          facilities are at hand, insert an ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE
                          (cuffed, if available) prior to gastric intubation.
                     (2)  Keep victim's HEAD BELOW LEVEL OF STOMACH during
                          intubation and lavage (Trendelenburg, or left
                          lateral decubitus, with head of table tipped
                          downward).  Keep victim's head turned to the left.
                     (3)  ASPIRATE PHARYNX as regularly as possible to remove
                          gagged or vomited stomach contents.
      INGESTIONS occurring MORE THAN an HOUR before treatment are probably
      best treated only by ACTIVATED CHARCOAL, 30-50 gm, and SODIUM or
      MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, as described above.
      There are no specific antidotes for these chemicals.  Because
      manifestations of toxicity do occasionally occur in peculiarly
      predisposed individuals, MAINTAIN CONTACT with victim for at least 72
      hours so that unexpected adverse effects can be treated promptly (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Nonflammable (58).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Compatible with most other pesticides and fertilizers when used at
      normal rates.  Noncorrosive under normal use conditions (58).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Store in a cool, dry place.  Very stable over
      several years of shelf-life and only slight sensitivity to natural
      light and extreme temperatures (58).  Shelf life of at least 5 years
      when stored in a dry place (Evik 80W) (56).
           Keep out of reach of children.  Harmful or fatal if swallowed.
      Avoid contamination of food or feed, inhalation of dust, contact with
      eyes, contact with skin and breathing spray mist.  Do not contaminate
      domestic or irrigation water supplies or lakes, streams or ponds (58).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Skin contact with the powder should be prevented
      through the use of rubber gloves and clothing consistent with good
      pesticide handling practice.  Eye contact with powder should be avoided
      through the use of chemical safety glasses or goggles (Evik 80W) (24p).
      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  This material should be handled in a well
      ventilated area.  Where adequate ventilation is not available, wear a
      Conflo II (MSA) or other approved pesticide respirator (Evik 80W)
      (24p).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
           Make sure all personnel involved in spill cleanup follow good
      industrial hygiene practices.
           Small spills can be handled routinely.  Cover the spill with an
      absorbent material such as vermiculite or sawdust to prevent dust.
      Sweep up the material and place in an appropriate chemical waste
      container.  Seal container and dispose of in an approved landfill.
      Wash the spill area with a saturated solution of sodium carbonate and a
      strong detergent.  Flush the spill area with water to remove any
      residue.
           Do not reuse container.  Destroy by burning in a safe place.
           Disposal of material, spill residues, wash water and containers
      must be by methods consistent with local, state and federal health and
      environmental regulations (Evik 80W) (24p).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      24p. Ciba-Geigy Corporation, Agricultural Division.  1982.  Safety
               data sheet:  Evik 80W.  Greensboro, NC.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
      3/20/85