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ammonium sulfamate (Ammate) Herbicide Profile 3/85

                               ammonium sulfamate
      CHEMICAL NAME:      Ammonium sulfamate (58)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Ammate (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Water-soluble crystals (56); 95% crystals (8b).
      TYPE:               Herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc.
                          1007 Market St.
                          Wilmington, DE 19898
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Used primarily to control woody plant speices:  it
      may also be used for short-term weed control.  Useful where vapor
      hazards of other herbicides might cause crop damage.  Cleared for
      poison ivy control in apple and pear orchards (50).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  (a) As foliar spray; (b) as crystals or
      concentrated solution to cut surfaces (frills, notches, or cups cut in
      bark, or freshly cut stumps) (58).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
           Effective in killing most woody plants including hardwood and
      coniferous species such as alder, ash, birch, cedar, elm, gum, hickory,
      maple, oak, pine, willow, and poison ivy.  Also is an effective contact
      spray for control of herbaceous perennials such as leafy spurge, bitter
      dock, goldenrod, perennial ragweed, milkweed, and blueweed, as well as
      most annual broadleaf weeds and grasses (58).
           Best control occurs when applied in the late summer or early fall.
      Retreatment may be necessary on some hard-to-kill species (8b).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  H6 N2 O3 S (58)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   14.1 (58)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Crystalline solid (pure compound) (58); yellow
                          crystalline solid (Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush
                          Killer) (31A).
      ODOR:               Odorless (pure compound) (58)
      MELTING POINT:      131 to 132 C (pure compound) (58)
      DECOMPOSITION TEMPERTURE:  Decomposes upon heating to 160 C (pure
                                 compound) (58).
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     Negligible (pure compound) (58); negligible (Ammate
                          X-NI Weed and Brush Killer) (31A).
      SOLUBILITY:         68.4 g/100 ml water (pure compound) (58); 68 g/100
                          ml water (Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush Killer) (31A).
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  15 mg/m3 averaged over an eight-hour work shift (14).
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:   TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 10 mg/m3; STEL
      (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 20 mg/m3 (deleted) (15c).
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  Repeated applications of 20% or of 50% aqueous
                          solutions of ammonium sulfate to the shaved skin of
                          rats caused no irritation, and no signs of systemic
                          toxicity (31z).
                        Repeated application of a 4% solution to the anterior
                          surface of one arm of each of five human subjects for
                          5 days caused no skin irritation (14).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 3,900 mg/kg (rat) (31A).
               EYES:    Ammonium sulfamate is not known to be an eye
                        irritant (14).
           Continous feeding of 1% (10,000 ppm) ammonium sulfamate in the
      diet of rats for 105 days produced no clinical signs of toxicity nor
      histological changes; 2% in the diet (20,000 ppm) resulted in growth
      inhibition, but no histological effects (31z).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.   Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
             From its lack of response to soil type and its behavior in
             field plots, Crafts concluded that AMS is not retained in the
             soil, but moves with soil moisture like chlorate.
             Crafts, A.S. 1945. Hilgardia 16:483.
      2.   Microbial breakdown:  Strains of Aureobasidum (Pullularia
             pullulans, Aphalosporium acremonium, and two unidentified
             species of Achromobacter and Flavobacterium used sulfamic
             acid (sodium salt) as a source of nitrogen.  Both the fungi
             and the bacteria converted the sulfamate to sulfate in
             approximately equimolar proportion to the amount of nitrogen
             Jensen, H.L. 1963. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 26:253.
      4.   Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  Under humid
             eastern conditions, 3 lb of AMS per 1000 sq ft inhibited the
             germination of a large percentage of weed seeds, but
             phytotoxicity in the soil, as measured by the growth of
             various grasses and crops, disappeared after 6 to 8 weeks.
             DeFrance, H.A. 1943. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 43:336-342 (58).
      General toxicity to wildlife:  Deer that were provided AMS in
           crystalline form or were fed treated foliage of sweet gum,
           post oak, water oak, persimmon, and black cherry suffered no
           ill effects from the diet.  Results indicate that the use of
           AMS weed and brush killer in weeding out trees does not endanger
             Haugen, A.O. 1953. J. Wildlife Manage. 17:33-36.
           LD50 of ammonium sulfamate to quail is 3,000 mg/kg.  In 14 days
      continuous administration to quail in feed, 150 and 590 mg/kg per day
      produced no change in body weight or any other noticeable changes.
      The fertility of quail was not affected by two periods of 10 days
      continuous administration of mixed feed containing ammonium sulfamate
      at the rate of 150 mg/kg per day.  Median tolerance limit (48 hr) to
      young carp is  1,000 to 2,000 ppm (no deaths at 500 ppm).
             Maki, S. 1973. Forest, Forest Chem. 44:11-14 (Japanese) (58).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      EFFECTS OF OVEREXPOSURE:  There are no known effects (14).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Promptly wash the contaminated skin using soap or
      mild detergent and water (14).
           INGESTION:  When ammonium sulfamate or liquids containing ammonium
      sulfamate have been swallowed and the person is conscious, give the
      person large quantities of water immediately.  After the water has been
      swallowed, try to get the person to vomit by having him touch the back
      of his throat with his finger.  Do not make an unconscious person
      vomit.  Get medical attention immediately (14).
           INHALATION:  If a person breathes in large amounts of ammonium
      sulfamate, move the exposed person to fresh air at once.  If breathing
      has stopped, perform artificial respiration.  Keep the affected person
      warm and at rest.  Get medical attention as soon a possible (14).
           EYE CONTACT:  Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water,
      lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally.  If irritation is
      present after washing, get medical attention.  Contact lenses should
      not be worn when working with this chemical (14).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      GENERAL:  Non-flammable (has fire retardant properties) (Ammate X-NI
      Weed and Brush Killer) (31A).
           Toxic gases and vapors (such as oxides of nitrogen and sulfur and
      carbon monoxide) may be released when ammonium sulfamate decomposes
      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Conventional methods (water spray, CO2 or foam).
      Wear self-contained breathing apparatus (Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush
      Killer) (31A).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Solutions are corrosive to some metals (56).
           Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fires and explosions.
      Contact with hot water may cause formation of large amounts of steam
           Equipment should be washed thoroughly after use to reduce
      corrosion.  Use as oil-water emulsion minimizes corrosion of
      equipment.  Protection of commercial equipment with asphaltic base
      paint recommended; coating surfaces with oil when equipment is not in
      use also reduces corrosion (58).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Ammonium sulfamate is hygroscopic; keep
      containers closed and protect from moisture.  Avoid prolonged contact
      of skin with strong solutions.  In case of contact, wash off with
      plenty of water.  Keep out of reach of children (31z).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Use good sanitary practices (56).
               Respiratory Protection for Ammonium Sulfamate (Ammate)
                                         Minimum Respiratory Protection*
               Condition                     Required Above 15 mg/m3
      Particulate Concentration
      75 mg/m3 or less               Any dust and mist respirator.
      150 mg/m3 or less              Any dust and mist respirator, except
                                     single-use or quarter-mask respirator.
                                     Any high efficiency particulate filter
                                     Any supplied-air respirator
                                     Any self-contained breathing apparatus.
      750 mg/m3 or less              A high efficiency particulate filter
                                     respirator with a full facepiece.
                                     Any supplied-air respirator with a full
                                     facepiece, helmet, or hood.
                                     Any self-contained breathing apparatus
                                     with a full facepiece.
      5000 mg/m3 or less             A powered air-purifying respirator with
                                     a high efficiency particulate filter.
                                     A Type C supplied-air respirator
                                     operated in pressure-demand or other
                                     positive pressure or continous-flow
      Greater than 5000 mg/m3 or     Self-contained breathing apparatus with
      entry and escape from          a full facepiece operated in
      unknown concentrations         pressure-demand or other positive
                                     pressure mode.
                                     A combination respirator which includes
                                     a Type C supplied-air respirator with a
                                     full facepiece operated in
                                     pressure-demand or other positive
                                     pressure or continuous-flow mode and an
                                     auxiliary self-contained breathing
                                     apparatus operated in pressure-demand or
                                     other positive pressure mode.
      Fire Fighting                  Self-contained breathing apparatus with
                                     a full facepiece operated in
                                     pressure-demand or other positive
                                     pressure mode.
      Escape                         Any dust and mist respirator, except
                                     Any escape self-contained breathing
      *Only NIOSH-approved or MSHA-approved equipment should be used (14).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
           Clean up promptly.  Do not flush with water; pick up dry by vacuum
      or other effective means (Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush Killer) (31A).
           Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.
           If ammonium sulfamate is spilled, the following steps should be
      1.   Ventilate area of spill.
      2.   Collect spilled material in the most convenient and safe manner
           and deposit in sealed containers for reclamation or for disposal
           in a secured sanitary landfill.  Liquid containing ammonium
           sulfamate should be absorbed by vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a
           similar material (14).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.
      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.
      31z. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., Biochemicals Department.
               1972.  Technical data sheet:  ammonium sulfamate.
               Wilmington, DE.
      31A. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., Biochemicals Department.
               1977.  Material safety data sheet for Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush
               Killer.  Wilmington, DE.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.