ammonium sulfamate (Ammate) Herbicide Profile 3/85
CHEMICAL NAME: Ammonium sulfamate (58)
TRADE NAME(S): Ammate (56)
FORMULATION(S): Water-soluble crystals (56); 95% crystals (8b).
BASIC PRODUCER(S): E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc.
1007 Market St.
Wilmington, DE 19898
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: Used primarily to control woody plant speices: it
may also be used for short-term weed control. Useful where vapor
hazards of other herbicides might cause crop damage. Cleared for
poison ivy control in apple and pear orchards (50).
APPLICATION METHOD(S): (a) As foliar spray; (b) as crystals or
concentrated solution to cut surfaces (frills, notches, or cups cut in
bark, or freshly cut stumps) (58).
Effective in killing most woody plants including hardwood and
coniferous species such as alder, ash, birch, cedar, elm, gum, hickory,
maple, oak, pine, willow, and poison ivy. Also is an effective contact
spray for control of herbaceous perennials such as leafy spurge, bitter
dock, goldenrod, perennial ragweed, milkweed, and blueweed, as well as
most annual broadleaf weeds and grasses (58).
Best control occurs when applied in the late summer or early fall.
Retreatment may be necessary on some hard-to-kill species (8b).
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: H6 N2 O3 S (58)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 14.1 (58)
PHYSICAL STATE: Crystalline solid (pure compound) (58); yellow
crystalline solid (Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush
ODOR: Odorless (pure compound) (58)
MELTING POINT: 131 to 132 C (pure compound) (58)
DECOMPOSITION TEMPERTURE: Decomposes upon heating to 160 C (pure
VAPOR PRESSURE: Negligible (pure compound) (58); negligible (Ammate
X-NI Weed and Brush Killer) (31A).
SOLUBILITY: 68.4 g/100 ml water (pure compound) (58); 68 g/100
ml water (Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush Killer) (31A).
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: 15 mg/m3 averaged over an eight-hour work shift (14).
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 10 mg/m3; STEL
(Short Term Exposure Limit) = 20 mg/m3 (deleted) (15c).
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: Repeated applications of 20% or of 50% aqueous
solutions of ammonium sulfate to the shaved skin of
rats caused no irritation, and no signs of systemic
Repeated application of a 4% solution to the anterior
surface of one arm of each of five human subjects for
5 days caused no skin irritation (14).
ORAL: LD50 = 3,900 mg/kg (rat) (31A).
EYES: Ammonium sulfamate is not known to be an eye
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
Continous feeding of 1% (10,000 ppm) ammonium sulfamate in the
diet of rats for 105 days produced no clinical signs of toxicity nor
histological changes; 2% in the diet (20,000 ppm) resulted in growth
inhibition, but no histological effects (31z).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Behavior In Or On Soils
1. Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
From its lack of response to soil type and its behavior in
field plots, Crafts concluded that AMS is not retained in the
soil, but moves with soil moisture like chlorate.
Crafts, A.S. 1945. Hilgardia 16:483.
2. Microbial breakdown: Strains of Aureobasidum (Pullularia
pullulans, Aphalosporium acremonium, and two unidentified
species of Achromobacter and Flavobacterium used sulfamic
acid (sodium salt) as a source of nitrogen. Both the fungi
and the bacteria converted the sulfamate to sulfate in
approximately equimolar proportion to the amount of nitrogen
Jensen, H.L. 1963. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 26:253.
4. Resultant average persistence at recommended rates: Under humid
eastern conditions, 3 lb of AMS per 1000 sq ft inhibited the
germination of a large percentage of weed seeds, but
phytotoxicity in the soil, as measured by the growth of
various grasses and crops, disappeared after 6 to 8 weeks.
DeFrance, H.A. 1943. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 43:336-342 (58).
General toxicity to wildlife: Deer that were provided AMS in
crystalline form or were fed treated foliage of sweet gum,
post oak, water oak, persimmon, and black cherry suffered no
ill effects from the diet. Results indicate that the use of
AMS weed and brush killer in weeding out trees does not endanger
Haugen, A.O. 1953. J. Wildlife Manage. 17:33-36.
LD50 of ammonium sulfamate to quail is 3,000 mg/kg. In 14 days
continuous administration to quail in feed, 150 and 590 mg/kg per day
produced no change in body weight or any other noticeable changes.
The fertility of quail was not affected by two periods of 10 days
continuous administration of mixed feed containing ammonium sulfamate
at the rate of 150 mg/kg per day. Median tolerance limit (48 hr) to
young carp is 1,000 to 2,000 ppm (no deaths at 500 ppm).
Maki, S. 1973. Forest, Forest Chem. 44:11-14 (Japanese) (58).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan, which have been
footnoted. This information has been provided in this form for your
convenience and general guidance only. In specific cases, further
consultation and reference may be required and is recommended. This
information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
EFFECTS OF OVEREXPOSURE: There are no known effects (14).
SKIN CONTACT: Promptly wash the contaminated skin using soap or
mild detergent and water (14).
INGESTION: When ammonium sulfamate or liquids containing ammonium
sulfamate have been swallowed and the person is conscious, give the
person large quantities of water immediately. After the water has been
swallowed, try to get the person to vomit by having him touch the back
of his throat with his finger. Do not make an unconscious person
vomit. Get medical attention immediately (14).
INHALATION: If a person breathes in large amounts of ammonium
sulfamate, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing
has stopped, perform artificial respiration. Keep the affected person
warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon a possible (14).
EYE CONTACT: Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water,
lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally. If irritation is
present after washing, get medical attention. Contact lenses should
not be worn when working with this chemical (14).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
GENERAL: Non-flammable (has fire retardant properties) (Ammate X-NI
Weed and Brush Killer) (31A).
Toxic gases and vapors (such as oxides of nitrogen and sulfur and
carbon monoxide) may be released when ammonium sulfamate decomposes
EXTINGUISHER TYPE: Conventional methods (water spray, CO2 or foam).
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus (Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush
Solutions are corrosive to some metals (56).
Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fires and explosions.
Contact with hot water may cause formation of large amounts of steam
Equipment should be washed thoroughly after use to reduce
corrosion. Use as oil-water emulsion minimizes corrosion of
equipment. Protection of commercial equipment with asphaltic base
paint recommended; coating surfaces with oil when equipment is not in
use also reduces corrosion (58).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Ammonium sulfamate is hygroscopic; keep
containers closed and protect from moisture. Avoid prolonged contact
of skin with strong solutions. In case of contact, wash off with
plenty of water. Keep out of reach of children (31z).
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Use good sanitary practices (56).
Respiratory Protection for Ammonium Sulfamate (Ammate)
Minimum Respiratory Protection*
Condition Required Above 15 mg/m3
75 mg/m3 or less Any dust and mist respirator.
150 mg/m3 or less Any dust and mist respirator, except
single-use or quarter-mask respirator.
Any high efficiency particulate filter
Any supplied-air respirator
Any self-contained breathing apparatus.
750 mg/m3 or less A high efficiency particulate filter
respirator with a full facepiece.
Any supplied-air respirator with a full
facepiece, helmet, or hood.
Any self-contained breathing apparatus
with a full facepiece.
5000 mg/m3 or less A powered air-purifying respirator with
a high efficiency particulate filter.
A Type C supplied-air respirator
operated in pressure-demand or other
positive pressure or continous-flow
Greater than 5000 mg/m3 or Self-contained breathing apparatus with
entry and escape from a full facepiece operated in
unknown concentrations pressure-demand or other positive
A combination respirator which includes
a Type C supplied-air respirator with a
full facepiece operated in
pressure-demand or other positive
pressure or continuous-flow mode and an
auxiliary self-contained breathing
apparatus operated in pressure-demand or
other positive pressure mode.
Fire Fighting Self-contained breathing apparatus with
a full facepiece operated in
pressure-demand or other positive
Escape Any dust and mist respirator, except
Any escape self-contained breathing
*Only NIOSH-approved or MSHA-approved equipment should be used (14).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
Clean up promptly. Do not flush with water; pick up dry by vacuum
or other effective means (Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush Killer) (31A).
Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.
If ammonium sulfamate is spilled, the following steps should be
1. Ventilate area of spill.
2. Collect spilled material in the most convenient and safe manner
and deposit in sealed containers for reclamation or for disposal
in a secured sanitary landfill. Liquid containing ammonium
sulfamate should be absorbed by vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a
similar material (14).
X. LITERATURE CITED
8b. Thomson, W.T. 1981. Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
herbicides. Revised ed. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
14. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
for Occuptational Safety and Health. 1981. Occupational
health guidelines for chemical hazards. F. W. Mackinson, R.
S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
eds. DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123. Washington, DC.
15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1984.
TLVs: threshold limit values for chemical substances and
physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
indices with intended changes for 1984-85. Cincinnati, OH.
31z. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., Biochemicals Department.
1972. Technical data sheet: ammonium sulfamate.
31A. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., Biochemicals Department.
1977. Material safety data sheet for Ammate X-NI Weed and Brush
Killer. Wilmington, DE.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
58. Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
1983. Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
America, 5th ed. Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
IL. 515 pp.