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benefin (Balan, Balfin) Herbicide Profile 3/85

                                      benefin
      CHEMICAL NAME:      N-Butyl-N-ethyl-a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-p-
                          toluidine (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Balan, Balfin (58)
      FORMULATION(S):     Concentrate 10%, 20% (Pel-Tech).  Liquid (1.5
                          lb/gal) for agricultural purposes; 2.5% granular
                          for turf (56).
      TYPE:               Dinitrotoluidine herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Elanco Products Co.
                          Div. of Eli Lilly and Co.
                          740 South Alabama St.
                          Indianapolis, IN 46285
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  For control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds
      in direct-seeded lettuce, established turf, seeded alfalfa, red clover,
      birdsfoot trefoil, and ladino clover (56).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S): Benefin is a preemergence herbicide and must be
      soil incorporated within 4 hours (western United States) or 8 hours
      (eastern United States) after application with equipment that breaks up
      large clods and mixes the soil thoroughly; e.g., PTO-driven cultivators,
      hoes or tillers; double disc, rolling cultivator, or bed conditioner.
      Application and incorporation can be preplanting or postplanting.
      Surface applications of benefin 2.5G for weed control in established
      turfgrassses are also registered (58).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
           Grass and broadleaf weeds controlled are:  annual bluegrass (Poa
      annua), barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli), crabgrasses (Digitaria
      sp.), crowfootgrass (Dactylocetenium aegyptium), fall panicum (Panicum
      dichotomiflorum), foxtails (Setaria sp.), goosegrass (Eleusine indica),
      seedling johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), junglerice (Echinochloa
      colonum), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), sandbur (Cenchrus incertus),
      Texas panicum (Panicum texanum), carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata),
      chickweed (Stellaria media), knotweed (Polygonum aviculare),
      lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), pigweeds (Amaranthus sp.), purslane
      (Portulaca oleracea), redmaids (Calandrinia ciliata), and Florida
      pusley (Richardia scabra) (58).
           Will not control established weeds (56).
           Tolerant weeds include nightshade, mallows, nutgrass, cocklebur,
      groundsel, and ragweed (8b).
           Incorporation less than 2 inches deep may result in erratic weed
      control.  Do not use on muck or peat soils (8b).
           Season-long control can be expected.  Kills weed seeds as they
      germinate.  Rainfall is not required to activate the chemical.  Shallow
      cultivations will not reduce the effectiveness (8b).
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C13 H16 F3 N3 O4 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   335.3 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Yellow-orange crystalline solid (pure compound) (62)
      ODOR:               No appreciable odor (pure compound) (58)
      MELTING POINT:      65-66.5 C (pure compound) (62)
      BOILING POINT:      121-122 C at 0.5 mmHg (pure compound) (58)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     52 mPa at 30 C (pure compound) (62)
      SOLUBILITY:         <1 mg/l water at 25 C (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  NA
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  No apparent toxicity to skin for technical benefin.
                        Solvent system in liquid concentrate may be irritating
                        to skin (58).
               ORAL:    LD0 = >10,000 mg/kg (adult rat), >2,000 mg/kg (dog,
                          chicken, rabbit) (technical benefin) (58).
                        LD50 = 800 mg/kg (newborn rat, technical benefin) (58).
                        LD50 = 5,000* mg/kg (adult rat, Balan LC; * 5 ml/kg,
                          toxicity due entirely to solvent system) (58).
               INHALATION:  No apparent danger through inhalation of
                            technical benefin (58).
               EYES:    Solvent system in liquid concentrate may be irritating
                        to eyes (58).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
      Safe levels after 3 months feeding:
           Rats - 1,250 ppm in diet.
           Dogs - 500 ppm (12.5 mg/kg in capsule administered daily) (58).
      In 2-yr feeding trials NEL for rats was 1,000 mg/kg diet.  LC50 for
      bluegill fingerlings is 0.37 mg/l (62).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1. Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
           Benefin is strongly adsorbed on soil and shows negligible
           leaching.  Organic matter and clay content of the soil influence
           the application rate for herbicidal activity.
      2. Microbial breakdown:  No direct evidence is available that
           microorganisms are responsible for the degradation and
           disappearance of benefin.  Indirect evidence suggest that
           microorganisms do play a role in the disappearance of benefin
           from soil.
      3. Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Benefin is
           slightly volatile.  Material remaining on the soil surface can
           be subject to photodecomposition.
      4. Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  Recommended
           application rates give season long weed control.  Fall-seeded
           grain crops planted in soil that received benefin applications
           the preceding spring have not been injured under warm, moist
           conditions.
                                     References
      Golab, T., R.J. Herberg, J.V. Gramlick, A.P. Raun, and G.W. Probst.
           1970.  Fate of benefin in soils, plants, artificial rumen fluid
           and the ruminant animal.  J. Agr. Food Chem. 18:838-844.
      Probst, G.W., Golab, T., Wright, W.L.: in "Herbicides", Vol. 1, 2nd ed.
           Kearney, P.C. Kaufman, D.D., Ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1975,
           pp. 453-500.
      Parka, S.J. and Q.F. Soper.  1977.  The physiology and mode of action
           of the dinitroaniline herbicides.  Weed Sci. 25:79-87 (58).
           Acute oral LD50 = >2,000 mg/kg (bobwhite quail, mallard duck);
      LC50 for bluegill fingerlings is 0.37 mg/l (62).
           No hazard to mammals and birds; toxic to fish if placed directly
      in water.  Physical properties of compound (strong adsorption on soil)
      and application  methods (soil incorporation) preclude possibility of
      hazard to fish in recommended usage (58).
                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      KNOWN OR SUSPECTED ADVERSE EFFECTS:  Slightly to moderately
      irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.  These agents do not
      uncouple oxidative phosphorylation (25).
           SKIN CONTACT: WASH contaminated SKIN with soap and water (25).
           INGESTION:  INGESTIONS of SMALL amounts (less than 10 mg/kg body
                       weight) occurring less than an hour before treatment,
                       are probably best treated by:
                       A. SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water.
                          Dose for adults and children over 12 years: 30 ml.
                          Dose for children under 12 years: 15 ml.
                       B. ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
                          Administer 30-50 gm as a slurry in tap water, after
                          vomiting stops.
                       C. SODIUM OR MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water,
                          as a cathartic (25).
           EYE CONTACT:  FLUSH contaminated EYES with copious amounts of fresh
                         water for 15 minutes (25).
      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
      INGESTIONS of LARGE amounts (more than 10 mg/kg) occurring less than an
      hour before treatment, should probably be treated by gastric lavage:
      A.   INTUBATE stomach and ASPIRATE contents.
      B.   LAVAGE stomach with slurry of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IN 0.9% saline.
           Leave 30-50 gm activated charcoal in the stomach before
           withdrawing tube.
      C.   SODIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a cathartic.
           CAUTION:  Hydrocarbons (kerosene, petroleum distillates) are
                     included in some formulations of these chemicals.
                     Ingestion of very LARGE AMOUNTS may cause CNS
                     depression.  In this case, IPECAC IS CONTRAINDICATED.
                     Also, gastric intubation incurs a risk of HYDROCARBON
                     PNEUMONITIS.  For this reason observe the following
                     precautions:
                     (1)  If the victim is unconscious or obtunded and
                          facilities are at hand, insert an ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE
                          (cuffed, if available) prior to gastric intubation.
                     (2)  Keep victim's HEAD BELOW LEVEL OF STOMACH during
                          intubation and lavage (Trendelenburg, or left
                          lateral decubitus, with head of table tipped
                          downward).  Keep victim's head turned to the left.
                     (3)  ASPIRATE PHARYNX as regularly as possible to remove
                          gagged or vomited stomach contents.
      INGESTIONS occurring MORE THAN an HOUR before treatment are probably
      best treated only by ACTIVATED CHARCOAL, 30-50 gm, and SODIUM or
      MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, as described above.
      There are no specific antidotes for these chemicals.  Because
      manifestations of toxicity do occasionally occur in peculiarly
      predisposed individuals, MAINTAIN CONTACT with victim for at least 72
      hours so that unexpected adverse effects can be treated promptly (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Technical material is not flammable.  For the emulsifiable
      concentrates, use ordinary precautions for volatile solvents (58).
      Flash point is 78 F (Balan) (56).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           No incompatibilities have been experienced with hard water or other
      pesticides.  The emulsifiable concentrates can be successfully
      impregnated on granular fertilizers.  Benefin is not corrosive (58).
      Corrosive (Balan) (56).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Avoid freezing; store above 40 F.  Do not store
      near heat or flame.  Do not get in eyes.  Wear goggles or face shield
      when handling concentrate.  Do not contaminate foodstuffs or feed.
      Keep out of reach of children (56).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
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