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bromoxynil (Brominal, Buctril) Herbicide Profile 2/85

      CHEMICAL NAME:      3,5-Dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Bronate, Buctril, Brominal (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Brominal and Buctril are formulations of the
                          octanoic acid ester of bromoxynil containing 2
                          pounds bromoxynil equivalent per gallon.  ME4
                          Brominal is a formulation of the octanoic and
                          butyric acid esters of bromoxynil containing
                          4 pounds bromoxynil equivalent/gallon (56).
      TYPE:               Herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Rhone-Poulenc, Inc.
                          Agricultural Division
                          P.O. Box 125
                          Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
                          Union Carbide Agr. Products Co., Inc.
                          P.O. Box 17610
                          7825 Baymeadows Way
                          Jacksonville, FL 32216
      STATUS:             Restricted use as of 5/89
                          [See separate item (Number 2) under the
                           bromoxynil profile selection]
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Registered for use in wheat, barley, oats, rye, flax,
      garlic, onions, sweet and field corn (triticale), annual canarygrass,
      grass for sod seed production, seedling turf, established turf, and
      noncrop areas (industrial sites, vacant lots, roadsides, etc.) for
      postemergent control of common cocklebur, common ragweed, seedling
      broadleaf weeds such as blue (purple) mustard, corn gromwell,
      cowcockle, fiddleneck, field pennycress, green smartweed, groundsel,
      jimsonweed, lambsquarters, London rocket, nightshade, shepherdspurse,
      tartary buckwheat, tarweed, tumble mustard, wild buckwheat,
      velvetleaf, volunteer sunflower, and wild mustard (56).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
      Susceptible Weeds When Treated at the Proper Stage:
      Annual sowthistle         Kochia                  Shepherdspurse
      Black mustard             Lambsquarters           Silver leaf night-
      Blue (purple) mustard     London rocket             shade
      Bristley star bur         Mare's-tail             Smallseeded false
      Bullthistle               Miners lettuce            flax
      Bur buttercup             Morningglory (annual)   Southern giant curl
      Cocklebur                 Nettleleaf goosefoot      mustard
      Corn chamomile            Nightshade              Sunflower
      Corn gromwell             Nodding thistle         Tansy mustard
      Cow cockle                Parthenium ragweed      Tartary buckwheat
      Dog fennel (Mayweed)      Pennsylvania            Tarweed
      Dyers wood                  smartweed             Treacle mustard
      Fiddleneck                Pepperweed              Tumble (Jim Hill)
      Field pennycress,         Pigweed                   mustard
        fanweed                 Popcorn flower          Velvetleaf
      Fivehooked bassia         Prickly (Chinese)       Wild buckwheat
      Fumitory                    lettuce               Wild mustard
      Green smartweed           Puncture vine           Wild radish
      Groundsel                 Ragweed                 Winter vetch
      Henbit                    Red maids rock          Yellow rocket
      Jimsonweed                  purslane              Yellow star thistle
      Knawel (German moss)      Russian thistle
                                                        (Brominal) (32b)
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C7 H3 Br2 NO (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   276.9 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless solid (pure compound), the technical
                          grade is c. 95% pure (62).
      ODOR:               Odorless when pure (54)
      MELTING POINT:      194-195 C (pure compound); 188-192 C
                          (technical grade) (62).
      SOLUBILITY:         130 mg/l water at 25 C (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = for rats >2000 mg a.i./kg, >2000 mg octanoate
                          /kg; for rabbits, 3660 mg a.i./kg, 1675 mg tech.
                          octanoate/kg (62).
                        Mild irritation on abraded skin of rabbits;
                          no effect with a 10% solution of the
                          formulation on rabbit skin for 3 days (54).
               ORAL:    LD50 = for rats 190 mg a.i./kg, 130 mg formulated
                          salt/kg, 365 mg formulated octanoate/kg; for
                          mice 110 mg a.i./kg, 100 mg formulated salt/kg,
                          306 mg formulated octanoate/kg (62).
               INHALATION:  10% solution inhaled 6 hr a day for 5 days
                            produced no significant effect (rabbit) (54).
               EYES:    Mild and temporary conjunctival reaction,
                        irrigation of the eye reduced the severity of
                        the response (rabbit) (54).
           Rats fed 1000 ppm over a 3-month period had no significant
      abnormalities (54).
           In 90-day feeding trials NEL was: for rats 16.6 mg bromoxynil-
      potassium/kg daily, 15.6 mg bromoxynil-octanoate/kg daily; for dogs
      5 mg bromoxynil octanoate/kg daily (62).
           A subchronic (13-week) dog feeding study established a
      no-observable-effect-level (NOEL) of 5 mg/kg/day (200 ppm/day); a
      subchronic (13-week) rat feeding study established a NOEL of 312
      ppm/day (53a).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           Residues of Bromoxynil were not detected in milk or feces of
      lactating cows (52).
           This product (Brominal) is toxic to fish.  Do not apply directly
      to water.  Do not apply when weather conditions favor drift from
      treated areas.  Do not contaminate water used for irrigation or
      domestic purposes by cleaning of equipment or disposal of waste (32b).
           Pheasant chicks - 8 day LC50 4400 ppm
           Quail - LD50 100-125 mg/kg
           Mallard duck - LD50 200 mg/kg
           Fish Species                                 LC50
           ____________                                 ____
           Daphnia                                      0.011 ppm
           Rainbow Trout                                0.050 ppm
           Goldfish                                     0.170 ppm
           Catfish                                      0.023 ppm (54)
           LC50 (48hr) is: for harlequin fish 5.0 mg bromoxynil-
      potassium/l; for rainbow trout 0.15 mg bromoxynil octanoate/l; for
      goldfish 0.46 mg/l; for catfish 0.063 mg/l.  Sprays of 2.2 g
      bromoxynil-potassium/l or 3.4 g bromoxynil octanoate/l showed no
      contact toxicity to honeybees (62).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash immediately with soap and water and remove
      contaminated clothing (Brominal X) (32b).
           INGESTION:  Induce vomiting (56).
      Drink promptly large quantities of milk, egg white, gelatin solution
      or if these are not available, drink large quantities of water.  Avoid
      alcohol.  Get medical attention (Brominal) (32b).
           EYE CONTACT:  Rinse thoroughly with water and get medical
      attention (Brominal) (32b).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Ester formulation flash above 82 C (54).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Salts are suitable for use in hard water to 600 ppm hardness.
      Should not be mixed with other pesticides without first making a
      compatibility test.  Ester formulations are not affected by hard water.
      Noncorrosive to spray equipment (54).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING: Handle carefully.  Avoid contact with fish and
      wildlife.  Do not use or store near heat or open flame.  Store at
      temperatures above 3 F.  If allowed to freeze, remix before using.  Do
      not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage or disposal of this
      chemical (56).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Wear rubber gloves when handling concentrate (56).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                                  (800) 424-9300
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
      32b. Union Carbide Agricultural Products Company, Inc.  Product
               bulletin:  Brominal broadleaf herbicide.  Research
               Triangle Park, NC.
      53a. U.S. Government Printing Office.  1982.  Federal Register.
               47(3):651-652.  Superintendant of Documents.  Washington,
      54.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1979.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society
               of America, 4th ed.  Weed Science Society of America,
               Champaign, IL.  479 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.