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cacodylic acid (Rad-E-Cate) Herbicide Profile 3/85

                                   cacodylic acid
      CHEMICAL NAME:      Hydroxydimethylarsine oxide (58)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Rad-E-Cate 25, Phytar 560, Bolls-Eye (58).
      FORMULATION(S):     3.25, 2.48 and 5.7 lb active liquid/gal, 65% water
                          soluble powder (8b).
      TYPE:               Organic arsenical herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Vertac Chemical Corp.   Vineland Chemical Co., Inc.
                          5100 Poplar             1611 W. Wheat Rd.
                          Memphis, TN 38137       Vineland, NJ 08360
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Cacodylic acid is a contact herbicide which will
      defoliate or desiccate a wide variety of plant species.  The phytotoxic
      properties of this herbicide are quickly inactivated on contact with
      the soil.  Current experimental uses include:  weed control in crops
      and in nut, fruit, and citrus orchards, and weed control in new
      seedling areas.  Commercial uses include:  cotton defoliation, lawn
      renovation, general weed control in noncrop areas such as around
      buildings, near perennial ornamentals, along fence runs, and spot
      control of noxious weeds and forest management practices (58).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Used as a directed spray, postemergence (58).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
      Important Weeds Controlled:  Nutgrass, dallisgrass, crabgrass,
      Johnsongrass, Bermudagrass, spurge, pigweed, purslane, lambsquarters,
      morningglory, Russian thistle, puncture vine, dodder, and many others.
           Effectively used to kill grass under trees since it is not
      root-absorbed.  The higher the temperatures, the greater the activity
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C2 H7 AS O2 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   138.0 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless crystals (pure compound).  The technical
                          grade is 65% pure, sodium chloride being one
                          impurity (62).
      MELTING POINT:      192-198 C (pure compound) (62); 200 C (pure
                          chemical) (58).
      SOLUBILITY:         2 kg/kg water at 25 C (pure compound) (62).
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  None established
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  Primary dermal irritation index-rabbits-0.3.
                        Essentially nonirritating to the skin when
                        accidently applied topically.  The skin irritation
                        of these various arsenicals vary from very mild to
                        none, depending on the acidity or alkalinity of
                        each formulation, and the skin sensitivity of the
                        exposed individual (58).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 1350 mg tech./kg (62); 830 mg/kg (young male
                        and female albino rats) (58).
               EYES:    Ocular irritation score-rabbits-2.0.  Essentially
                        nonirritating to the eye when accidently exposed (58).
           Ten rats each at 226, 118, and 54 mg/kg over a feeding period of 3
      weeks.  The 226-mg/kg level showed evidence of reduced activity of
      spermatogenia cells with some atrophic changes of the seminiferous
      tubules.  The findings were observed in animals of this group and not
      in the control or 118-mg/kg group (58).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.   Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
           Almost completely inactivated in soil by surface adsorption and
           ion exchange.
      2.   Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  None.
      3.   Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  The
           phytotoxic properties of this herbicide are quickly inactivated on
           contact with the soil (58).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      SYMPTOMS:  The symptoms of subacute poisoning with arsenicals are
      usually a salty taste, a burning in the throat, and colicky pains in
      the stomach and intestines.  A garlicky odor of the breath and skin is
      frequently present.  The symptoms of acute poisoning are headache,
      vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, stupor, convulsions, general paralysis,
      and death.  The dose of arsenicals required to give these acute
      symptoms is from about 30 to 450 g (1 oz to 1 lb) of active material for
      a normal-sized adult (58).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Flush contaminated HAIR and SKIN with copious
      amounts of fresh water.  WASH SKIN and HAIR with soap and water (25).
           INGESTION:  If accidental oral ingestion occurs, the stomach
      should be emptied by vomiting and lavage with water, followed by a
      saline cathartic, such as sodium sulfate (58).
           EYE CONTACT:  Flush contaminated EYES with copious amounts of
      fresh water (25).
      1.   In poisonings by INGESTED ARSENICALS
           A.   INTUBATE the stomach, ASPIRATE, and LAVAGE with 3 liters of
                isotonic saline or 5% sodium bicarbonate.  Use all possible
                precautions to avoid aspiration of vomitus:
                (1)  If victim is unconscious or obtunded, insert an
                     ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE (cuffed, if available) prior to
                     gastric intubation.
                (2)  Keep victim's HEAD BELOW LEVEL OF THE STOMACH during
                     intubation (Trendelenburg, or left lateral decubitus,
                     with head of table tipped downward).  Keep victim's head
                     turned to the left.
                (3)  ASPIRATE pharynx as regularly as possible to remove
                     gagged or vomited stomach contents.
           B.   After lavage, INSTILL 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in the
                smallest amount of water necessary to deliver the charcoal
                through the tube.
           C.   If diarrhea or colic has not ensued within an hour of gastric
                lavage and charcoal administration, give SODIUM SULFATE as a
                carthartic 0.25 gm/kg body weight in 1-6 ounces of water.
      2.   An ABDOMINAL X-RAY film is useful in detecting concretions of the
           less soluble arsenicals (As2O3 and lead arsenate) in the gut.  If
           not removed these may become a repository of slowly absorbed
      3.   Administer INTRAVENOUS ELECTROLYTE and GLUCOSE solutions to
           maintain hydration and to accelerate toxicant excretion, COMBAT
           SHOCK with TRANSFUSIONS of WHOLE BLOOD, and by inhalation of 100%
           CAUTION:  Monitor urine flow via catheter.  Monitor fluid balance,
                     body weight, and/or central venous pressure to guard
                     against fluid overload that may result if tubular
                     necrosis (anuria) supervenes.
      4.   Administer DIMERCAPROL (BAL) and PENICILLAMINE to accelerate
           arsenic excretion.
           A.   Give dimercaprol, 3-5 mg/kg q4h intramuscularly until
                abdominal pain and diarrhea subside and patient is regularly
                passing administered charcoal in the feces.  IF victim is
                ALLERGIC to PENICILLIN, continue dimercaprol therapy at 3-5
                mg/kg q6h x 4 doses, then q12h x 2 doses, then q24h x 10
                doses, monitoring urine arsenic excretion periodically to
                judge effectiveness.
                CAUTION:  DIMERCAPROL can cause troublesome side effects
                          (hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, headache,
                          paresthesiae and pain, lacrimation, sweating,
                          anxiety, and restlessness).  Although usually not
                          so severe as to preclude treatment, they may
                          require antihistaminic therapy.
           B.   IF victim is NOT ALLERGIC to PENICILLIN, oral d-PENICILLAMINE
                is the therapy of choice and should REPLACE dimercaprol
                treatment as soon as the feces are laden with charcoal,
                limiting gut absorption of arsenic.  Adult dosage is 0.5 gm
                four times daily (2 gm/day), given before meals, for 5 days.
                Dosage for children is 0.025 gm/kg four times daily, not to
                exceed 2 gm/day for 5 days.
                CAUTION:  Although oral d-penicillamine therapy is usually
                          better tolerated than intramuscular dimercaprol,
                          serious reactions to it have occurred:  the most
                          common has been maculopapular rash, with fever,
                          leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia,
                          arthralgia and lymphadenopathy.  It has also
                          induced the nephrotic syndrome on occasion, and has
                          caused thrombophlebitis, cheilosis, angioneurotic
                          edema, and even fatal agranulocytosis in particular
                          patients given the drug over long periods for
                          conditions unrelated to arsenic poisoning.
                          Penicilin sensitive individuals are likely to be
                          sensitive to d-penicillamine.
                (a)  A single 5-day course of d-penicillamine therapy is
                     usually sufficient.  However, if symptoms recur after
                     treatment, additional d-penicillamine should be given at
                     a dosage just sufficient to abolish symptoms.
      5.   Intense abdominal pain may require morphine (adults, 12 years and
           older:  4-15 mg; children under 12 years:  0.1 - 0.2 mg/kg).
      6.   Severe poisoning (especially when renal function is impaired) may
           require HEMODIALYSIS to remove arsenic combined with dimercaprol
           from the blood, and to control extracellular fluid composition.
           HEMOPERFUSION may be useful, but its effectiveness has not been
           reported (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Nonflammable (58).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Compatible with hard waters.  Mildly corrosive (58).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Completely stable in storage (58).  Keep out of
      reach of children.  Harmful if swallowed.  Avoid inhalation of spray
      mist.  Avoid spray drift to desirable plants.  Do not store near
      fertilizers, seeds, insecticides, or fungicides (56).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Rubber gloves, goggles or face shield for eye
      protection, rubber apron (56).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.