chlorpropham (Chloro-IPC, Furloe) Herbicide Profile 12/87
Pesticide Fact Sheet
Name of Chemical: Chlorpropham
Reason for Issuance: Registration Standard
Date Issued: December 23, 1987
Fact Sheet Number:
1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL
Generic Name: Isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate
Common Name: Chlorpropham
Trade Names: Beet-Kleen, Furloe, Sprout Nip, Spud-Nic, Taterpex,
Triherbicide-CIPC, Unicrop CIPC, Chloro IPC
EPA Shaughnessy Code: 018301
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number: 101-21-3
Year of Initial Registration: 1962
Pesticide Type: Herbicide and plant growth regulator
Pests Controlled: Suckers on tobacco plants, sprouting in stored
potatoes, broadleaf weeds and grasses.
Chemical Family: Carbamate
U.S. and Foreign Producers: Pennwalt Holland B.V. (Netherlands), PPG
Industries, Inc., Chemical Div.-U.S.,
Universal Crop Protection Ltd.
2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS
- Application sites: Terrestrial food and nonfood crop and ornamentals.
- Types and Methods of Application: Chlorpropham is a selective
preplant incorporated, preemergence, and postemeryence herbicide and
plant growth regulator. Chlorpropham may be applied by ground or by
- Application Rates: Alfalfa 1-6 pounds active ingredient per acre
(lb ai/A); beans (lima and snap) 4 lb ai/A; perennial grasses (seed
crop) no rate given; flowers (annual, biennial, perennial (bulbs)) 4-6
lb ai/A; garlic 2-4 lb ai/A; spinach 1-2 lb ai/A; clovers 2-4 lb ai/A;
onions 4-8 lb ai/A; ornamentals 4-8 lb ai/A; safflower 3-6 lb ai/A;
blackberries, raspberries 6 lb ai/A; blueberries 8-12 lb ai/A;
cranberries 10-20 lb ai/A; southern peas 4-6 lb ai/A; soybeans 2-4 lb
ai/A. sugarbeet (seed crop) 3-4 lb ai/A; and tomatoes 4 lb ai/A.
- Types of Formulations: 98% Technical Grade Active Ingredient (TGAI);
5%, 10.3% and 20% active ingredient (ai) granule (G); 11.9% ai, 15%
ai, 22.2% ai, 25% ai, 36% ai and 47% ai emulsifiable concentrate (EC);
46% ai, 46.5% ai, 49.65% ai, 78.4% ai and 78.5% ai liquid ready to use
- Usual Carrier: Water
3. SCIENCE FINDINGS
Summary science Statement
The current data base for chlorpropham is insufficient with
extensive data gaps in all areas.
Insufficient data are available to permit a reliable prediction of
the leaching potential of chlorpropham. Taking into account
chlorpropham's high solubility and relative stability in water, in
addition to the known mobility of a related chemical, propham,
chlorpropham can be expected to leach and might enter ground water.
Chemical Characteristics: T = Technical
P = Pure Active Ingredient
Physical state - (T) fused solid
Color - (T) off white to light brown
Density, bulk density, or - (T) ca. 1.2 gram/milliliter
Specific gravity (P) 1.180 at 30 degrees C
Solubility - (P) 102.5 parts per million (ppm) in water, 24 degrees C
Melting point - (T) 37-40 degrees C
(P) 39 degrees C
- Acute Toxicity - No acceptable data are available on the acute
toxicity, primary eye irritation or dermal irritation.
- Chronic and Subchronic Toxicity - No available data are available on
the subchronic toxicity, oncogenicity,,or metabolism of chlorpropham.
The available data on teratogenicity and reproduction are acceptable.
- Rat: Maternal Toxic No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) = 100 mg/kg/day
This is the dose level that produces no observable effects in pregnant
rats. Developmental Toxic NOEL = 350 mg/kg/day
- Rabbit: Maternal Toxic NOEL = 250 mg/kg/day This is the dose level
that produces no observable effects in the embryo or fetuses of
rabbits. Developmental Toxic NOEL = 125 mg/kg/day
- Rat: Reproductive NOEL greater than or equal to 10,000 ppm (highest
dose tested (HDT)). Systemic NOEL = 1000 ppm (lowest dose tested
- Mutagenicity - The single acceptable mutagenicity study (gene
mutation) was negative.
Physiological and Behavioral Characteristics
- Translocation - Chlorpropham may be translocated from the roots into
- Mechanism of Pesticide Action - Chlorpropham suppresses plant
transpiraton and respiration, and inhibits root and epicotyl growth.
- Metabolism and Persistence in Plants and Animals - The metabolism of
chlorpropham in growing plants has been adequately described. The
herbicide is translocated from roots into shoots and residues include
chlorpropham, isopropyl 3-chloro-6-hydroxycarbanilate, isopropyl 3-
(isopropyl-OH-CIPC), isopropyl 3-chloro-2-hydroxycarbanilate, and 3-
chloroaniline. Additional data are required regarding the metabolism
of chlorpropham in stored potato tubers treated postharvest and in
livestock (ruminants and poultry).
- Available data are insufficient to fully assess the environmental fate
of chlorpropham. The data requirement for a hydrolysis study has been
- A hydrolysis study showed that chlorpropham is relatively stable in
sterile water in the dark. After 32 days in aqueous buffered solutions
at pH 4, 7, and 9 held in the dark at 40 degrees C, about 90% of the
applied chlorpropham remained undegraded.
- The remaining environmental fate studies are inadequate, but
supplementary data indicate that chlorpropham (parent compound)
dissipates with a half-life of <14 days in the upper 3 inches
of silty clay loam and silt loam soils regardless of site or
application procedure (incorporated or surface-applied).
- Fish accumulation data indicate that chlorpropham bioaccumulated in
the skinless fillet of a bluegill sunfish to 100 times the levels in
- Supplementary data indicate that chlorpropham accumulated in
rotational crops planted 12 months after treatment.
- Reentry data are not required because available toxicological data do
not indicate a need for reentry data.
The following studies are required: photodegradation in water and
on soil, aerobic and anaerobic soil metabolism, leaching and absorption/
desorption, volatility (lab), field dissipation, irrigated crops and
fish accumulation. Additional rotational crop studies (confined and
field) are also required.
The Agency is concerned about pesticide residues reaching ground
water. The potential for chlorpropham to reach ground water cannot be
assessed since no leaching data are available. Taking into consideration
chlorpropham's high solubility and its relative stability in water and
the mobility of a related chemical, propham, chlorpropham can be
expected to leach and thus might enter ground water.
Chlorpropham is the subject of a ground water DCI notification and
additional data are needed to fully characterize the potential for it to
enter ground water.
- Hazards to Fish and Wildlife - A supplementary study indicates that
chlorpropham is practically nontoxic to water fowl (mallard median
lethal dose (LD50) is greater than 2000 milligrams per kilogram
- Core studies indicate that chlorpropham is moderately toxic to
coldwater and warmwater freshwater fishes (bluegill sunfish median
lethal concentration (LC50) = 6.3-6.8 parts per million (ppm); rainbow
trout LC50 = 3.02-5.7 ppm).
Tolerances have been established for residues of chlorpropham in or
on a variety of raw agricultural plant commodities, meat, milk, and eggs
(40 CFR 180.181 and 40 CFR 180.319).
Results of Tolerance Assessment - Due to the lack of acceptable
plant and animal (livestock) metabolism data, storage stability data,
and residue data, a conclusive tolerance reassessment cannot be
Based on chronic effects observed in a two-generation rat
reproduction study (slow weight gain; microscopic lesions in kidneys,
spleen, liver and marrow; gross spleenic lesions; and organ weight
changes in the liver and spleen) a Provisional Acceptable Daily Intake
(PADI) has been established at 0.2 mg/kg/day based on a NOEL of 50
mg/kg/day and an uncertainty factor of 300. [An uncertainty factor of
100 was used to account for the inter -and intraspecies difference and a
factor of 3 was used to account for the inadequate data base for chronic
The Theoretical Maximum Residue Contribution (TMRC) to the human
diet was based upon published tolerances. The TMRC for 22 subgroups of
the U.S. population ranged from 0.01820.1154 mg/kg/day which occupies 9-
58% of the PADI. Upon receipt of the requested residue chemistry and
toxicology data, the chlorpropham tolerances will be reassessed.
Reported Pesticide Incidents
There are no Pesticide Incident Monitoring System (PIMS) reports or
accident reports concerning chlorpropham.
4. SUMMARY OF REGULATORY POSITION AND RATIONALE
Warning Statements Required on Labels:
Do not discharge effluent containing this product into lakes,
streams, ponds, estuaries, oceans, or public waters unless this product
is specifically identified and addressed in an NPDES permit. Do not
discharge effluent containing this product into sewer systems without
previously notifying the sewage treatment plant authority. For guidance,
contact your State Water Board or Regional Office of the EPA.
End-Use Products (Terrestrial Food and Non-food Crop)
Do not apply directly to water or wetlands (swamps, bogs, marshes,
potholes). Do not apply where runoff is likely to occur. Do not
contaminate water by cleaning of equipment or disposal of wastes.
5. SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS:
DATA DUE DATE
PRODUCT CHEMISTRY 6 to 15 Months
Nature of Residue (metabolism) 18 Months
Residue Analytical Method 15 Months
Storage Stability 18 Months
Magnitude of the Residue for
Each Food Use 18 to 24 Months
Magnitude of the Residue in
Drinking and Irrigation water 15 Months
Acute Oral Toxicity (rat) 9 Months
Acute Dermal Toxicity (rabbit) 9 Months
Acute Inhalation Toxicity (rat) 9 Months
Primary Eye Irritation 9 Months
Primary Dermal Irritation 9 Months
Dermal Sensitization 9 Months
90 Day Feeding (rodent) 15 Months
(non-rodent) 18 Months
21 Day Dermal ( rabbit) 12 Months
Smoke Inhalation 15 Months
Chronic Toxicity (rodent and non-rodent) 50 Months
Oncogenicity (rat and mouse) 50 Months
Structural Chromosomal Aberration 12 Months
Other Mechanisms Mutagenicity 12 months
General Metabolism 24 months
Photodegradation (water and soil) 9 Months
Metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic soil) 27 Months
Leaching and Adsorption/ Desorption 7 Months
Dissipation (soil) 27 Months
(soil, long-term) Reserved
Rotational Crops (confined) 39 Months
Rotational Crops (field) Reserved
Irrigated Crops 39 Months
In Fish 12 Months
WILDLIFE AND AQUATIC ORGANISMS
Residue Monitoring 9 Months
Acute Avian Oral Toxicity 9 Months
Avian Subacute Dietary 9 Months
Freshwater Fish Toxicity 9 Months
Acute Toxicity to Freshwater 9 Months
Acute Toxicity to Estuarine and
Marine Organisms 12 Months
Fish Early Life Stage and Aquatic
Invertebrate Life Cycle 15 Months
Fish Life Cycle 27 Months
6. CONTACT PERSON AT EPA
Robert J. Taylor, Product Manager (25)
401 M. Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460
DISCLAIMER: The information presented in this Pesticide Fact Sheet is
for informational purposes only and may not be used to fulfill data
requirements for pesticide registration and reregistration.