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chlorpropham (Chloro-IPC, Furloe) Herbicide Profile 12/87

                         Pesticide Fact Sheet
Name of Chemical:  Chlorpropham
Reason for Issuance:  Registration Standard
Date Issued:  December 23, 1987
Fact Sheet Number:
                   1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL
Generic Name:  Isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate
Common Name:  Chlorpropham
Trade Names:  Beet-Kleen, Furloe, Sprout Nip, Spud-Nic, Taterpex,
              Triherbicide-CIPC, Unicrop CIPC, Chloro IPC
EPA Shaughnessy Code:  018301
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number:  101-21-3
Year of Initial Registration:  1962
Pesticide Type:  Herbicide and plant growth regulator
Pests Controlled:  Suckers on tobacco plants, sprouting in stored
                   potatoes, broadleaf weeds and grasses.
Chemical Family:  Carbamate
U.S. and Foreign Producers:  Pennwalt Holland B.V. (Netherlands), PPG
                             Industries, Inc., Chemical Div.-U.S.,
                             Universal Crop Protection Ltd.
                   2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS
- Application sites:  Terrestrial food and nonfood crop and ornamentals.
- Types and Methods of Application:  Chlorpropham is a selective
  preplant incorporated, preemergence, and postemeryence herbicide and
  plant growth regulator. Chlorpropham may be applied by ground or by
  air.
- Application Rates:  Alfalfa 1-6 pounds active ingredient per acre 
  (lb ai/A); beans (lima and snap) 4 lb ai/A; perennial grasses (seed
  crop) no rate given; flowers (annual, biennial, perennial (bulbs)) 4-6
  lb ai/A; garlic 2-4 lb ai/A; spinach 1-2 lb ai/A; clovers 2-4 lb ai/A;
  onions 4-8 lb ai/A; ornamentals 4-8 lb ai/A; safflower 3-6 lb ai/A;
  blackberries, raspberries 6 lb ai/A; blueberries 8-12 lb ai/A;
  cranberries 10-20 lb ai/A; southern peas 4-6 lb ai/A; soybeans 2-4 lb
  ai/A. sugarbeet (seed crop) 3-4 lb ai/A; and tomatoes 4 lb ai/A.
- Types of Formulations:  98% Technical Grade Active Ingredient (TGAI);
  5%, 10.3% and 20% active ingredient (ai) granule (G); 11.9% ai, 15%
  ai, 22.2% ai, 25% ai, 36% ai and 47% ai emulsifiable concentrate (EC);
  46% ai, 46.5% ai, 49.65% ai, 78.4% ai and 78.5% ai liquid ready to use
  (RTU).
- Usual Carrier:  Water
                           3. SCIENCE FINDINGS
Summary science Statement
     The current data base for chlorpropham is insufficient with 
extensive data gaps in all areas.
     Insufficient data are available to permit a reliable prediction of 
the leaching potential of chlorpropham. Taking into account 
chlorpropham's high solubility and relative stability in water, in 
addition to the known mobility of a related chemical, propham, 
chlorpropham can be expected to leach and might enter ground water.
Chemical Characteristics:  T = Technical
                           P = Pure Active Ingredient
Physical state  -  (T) fused solid
Color  -  (T) off white to light brown
Density, bulk density, or -  (T) ca. 1.2 gram/milliliter
Specific gravity             (P) 1.180 at 30 degrees C
Solubility  -  (P) 102.5 parts per million (ppm) in water, 24 degrees C
Melting point  -  (T)  37-40 degrees C
                  (P)  39 degrees C
Toxicology Characteristics
- Acute Toxicity - No acceptable data are available on the acute
  toxicity, primary eye irritation or dermal irritation.
- Chronic and Subchronic Toxicity - No available data are available on
  the subchronic toxicity, oncogenicity,,or metabolism of chlorpropham.
  The available data on teratogenicity and reproduction are acceptable.
Teratogenicity
- Rat:  Maternal Toxic No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) = 100 mg/kg/day
  This is the dose level that produces no observable effects in pregnant
  rats. Developmental Toxic NOEL = 350 mg/kg/day
- Rabbit:  Maternal Toxic NOEL = 250 mg/kg/day This is the dose level
  that produces no observable effects in the embryo or fetuses of
  rabbits. Developmental Toxic NOEL = 125 mg/kg/day
Reproduction
- Rat:  Reproductive NOEL greater than or equal to 10,000 ppm (highest
  dose tested (HDT)).  Systemic NOEL = 1000 ppm (lowest dose tested
  (LDT))
- Mutagenicity - The single acceptable mutagenicity study (gene
  mutation) was negative.
Physiological and Behavioral Characteristics
- Translocation - Chlorpropham may be translocated from the roots into
  the shoots.
- Mechanism of Pesticide Action - Chlorpropham suppresses plant
  transpiraton and respiration, and inhibits root and epicotyl growth.
- Metabolism and Persistence in Plants and Animals - The metabolism of
  chlorpropham in growing plants has been adequately described. The
  herbicide is translocated from roots into shoots and residues include
  chlorpropham, isopropyl 3-chloro-6-hydroxycarbanilate, isopropyl 3-
  chloro-4-hydroxycarbanilate, 1-hydroxy-2-propyl-3-chlorocarbanilate
  (isopropyl-OH-CIPC), isopropyl 3-chloro-2-hydroxycarbanilate, and 3-
  chloroaniline. Additional data are required regarding the metabolism
  of chlorpropham in stored potato tubers treated postharvest and in
  livestock (ruminants and poultry).
Environmental Characteristics
- Available data are insufficient to fully assess the environmental fate
  of chlorpropham. The data requirement for a hydrolysis study has been
  satisfied.
- A hydrolysis study showed that chlorpropham is relatively stable in
  sterile water in the dark. After 32 days in aqueous buffered solutions
  at pH 4, 7, and 9 held in the dark at 40 degrees C, about 90% of the
  applied chlorpropham remained undegraded.
- The remaining environmental fate studies are inadequate, but
  supplementary data indicate that chlorpropham (parent compound)
  dissipates with a half-life of <14 days in the upper 3 inches
  of silty clay loam and silt loam soils regardless of site or
  application procedure (incorporated or surface-applied).
- Fish accumulation data indicate that chlorpropham bioaccumulated in
  the skinless fillet of a bluegill sunfish to 100 times the levels in
  water.
- Supplementary data indicate that chlorpropham accumulated in
  rotational crops planted 12 months after treatment.
- Reentry data are not required because available toxicological data do
  not indicate a need for reentry data.
     The following studies are required: photodegradation in water and 
on soil, aerobic and anaerobic soil metabolism, leaching and absorption/ 
desorption, volatility (lab), field dissipation, irrigated crops and 
fish accumulation. Additional rotational crop studies (confined and 
field) are also required.
     The Agency is concerned about pesticide residues reaching ground 
water. The potential for chlorpropham to reach ground water cannot be 
assessed since no leaching data are available. Taking into consideration 
chlorpropham's high solubility and its relative stability in water and 
the mobility of a related chemical, propham, chlorpropham can be 
expected to leach and thus might enter ground water.
     Chlorpropham is the subject of a ground water DCI notification and 
additional data are needed to fully characterize the potential for it to 
enter ground water.
Ecological Characteristics
- Hazards to Fish and Wildlife - A supplementary study indicates that
  chlorpropham is practically nontoxic to water fowl (mallard median
  lethal dose (LD50) is greater than 2000 milligrams per kilogram
  (mg/kg)).
- Core studies indicate that chlorpropham is moderately toxic to
  coldwater and warmwater freshwater fishes (bluegill sunfish median
  lethal concentration (LC50) = 6.3-6.8 parts per million (ppm); rainbow
  trout LC50 = 3.02-5.7 ppm).
Tolerance Assessment
     Tolerances have been established for residues of chlorpropham in or 
on a variety of raw agricultural plant commodities, meat, milk, and eggs 
(40 CFR 180.181 and 40 CFR 180.319).
     Results of Tolerance Assessment - Due to the lack of acceptable 
plant and animal (livestock) metabolism data, storage stability data, 
and residue data, a conclusive tolerance reassessment cannot be 
conducted.
     Based on chronic effects observed in a two-generation rat 
reproduction study (slow weight gain; microscopic lesions in kidneys, 
spleen, liver and marrow; gross spleenic lesions; and organ weight 
changes in the liver and spleen) a Provisional Acceptable Daily Intake 
(PADI) has been established at 0.2 mg/kg/day based on a NOEL of 50 
mg/kg/day and an uncertainty factor of 300. [An uncertainty factor of 
100 was used to account for the inter -and intraspecies difference and a 
factor of 3 was used to account for the inadequate data base for chronic 
toxicity].
     The Theoretical Maximum Residue Contribution (TMRC) to the human 
diet was based upon published tolerances. The TMRC for 22 subgroups of 
the U.S. population ranged from 0.01820.1154 mg/kg/day which occupies 9-
58% of the PADI. Upon receipt of the requested residue chemistry and 
toxicology data, the chlorpropham tolerances will be reassessed.
Reported Pesticide Incidents
     There are no Pesticide Incident Monitoring System (PIMS) reports or 
accident reports concerning chlorpropham.
             4. SUMMARY OF REGULATORY POSITION AND RATIONALE
Warning Statements Required on Labels:
Manufacturing-Use Products
     Do not discharge effluent containing this product into lakes, 
streams, ponds, estuaries, oceans, or public waters unless this product 
is specifically identified and addressed in an NPDES permit. Do not 
discharge effluent containing this product into sewer systems without 
previously notifying the sewage treatment plant authority. For guidance, 
contact your State Water Board or Regional Office of the EPA.
End-Use Products (Terrestrial Food and Non-food Crop)
     Do not apply directly to water or wetlands (swamps, bogs, marshes, 
potholes). Do not apply where runoff is likely to occur. Do not 
contaminate water by cleaning of equipment or disposal of wastes.
                    5. SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS:
DATA                                         DUE DATE
PRODUCT CHEMISTRY                           6 to 15 Months
RESIDUE CHEMISTRY
  Nature of Residue (metabolism)            18 Months
  Residue Analytical Method                 15 Months
  Storage Stability                         18 Months
  Magnitude of the Residue for
    Each Food Use                           18 to 24 Months
  Magnitude of the Residue in
    Drinking and Irrigation water           15 Months
TOXICOLOGY
  Acute Oral Toxicity (rat)                 9 Months
  Acute Dermal Toxicity (rabbit)            9 Months
  Acute Inhalation Toxicity (rat)           9 Months
  Primary Eye Irritation                    9 Months
  Primary Dermal Irritation                 9 Months
  Dermal Sensitization                      9 Months
  90 Day Feeding (rodent)                   15 Months
                 (non-rodent)               18 Months
  21 Day Dermal ( rabbit)                   12 Months
  Smoke Inhalation                          15 Months
  Chronic Toxicity (rodent and non-rodent)  50 Months
  Oncogenicity (rat and mouse)              50 Months
  Structural Chromosomal Aberration         12 Months
  Other Mechanisms Mutagenicity             12 months
  General Metabolism                        24 months
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
  Photodegradation (water and soil)         9 Months
  Metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic soil)   27 Months
  Leaching and Adsorption/ Desorption       7 Months
  Dissipation (soil)                        27 Months
              (soil, long-term)             Reserved
  Accumulation
    Rotational Crops (confined)             39 Months
    Rotational Crops (field)                Reserved
    Irrigated Crops                         39 Months
    In Fish                                 12 Months
WILDLIFE AND AQUATIC ORGANISMS
  Residue Monitoring                        9 Months
  Acute Avian Oral Toxicity                 9 Months
  Avian Subacute Dietary                    9 Months
  Freshwater Fish Toxicity                  9 Months
  Acute Toxicity to Freshwater              9 Months
    Invertebrate
Acute Toxicity to Estuarine and
  Marine Organisms                          12 Months
Fish Early Life Stage and Aquatic
  Invertebrate Life Cycle                   15 Months
Fish Life Cycle                             27 Months
                         6. CONTACT PERSON AT EPA
Robert J. Taylor, Product Manager (25)
401 M. Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C.  20460
(703) 557-1800
DISCLAIMER: The information presented in this Pesticide Fact Sheet is 
for informational purposes only and may not be used to fulfill data 
requirements for pesticide registration and reregistration.