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copper sulfate (Bluestone) Herbicide Profile 3/86

                             CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR:
                                  Copper Sulfate
FACT SHEET NUMBER: 87
DATE ISSUED: MARCH 21, 1986
                         1.  DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL
- Generic name:  Copper sulfate
- Common name:  Copper sulfate
- Trade names:  Copper sulfate, Bluestone
- EPA Shaughnessy code:  008101 (basic copper sulfate)
                         024401 (pentahydrate)
                         024402 (monohydrate)
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number: 1344-73-6/7758-98-7
- Year of initial registration:  Missing
- Pesticide type:  Herbicide, fungicide
- Chemical family:  Copper sulfate
- U.S. producers:  The Anaconda Co., Cities Service Co., Inc., C.P.
                   Chemicals, Inc., Engelhard Minerals & Chemical Corp.,
                   Liquid Chemical Corp., Madison Industries, Inc.
                   Mallinckrodt, Inc., Phelps Dodge Corp., Southern
                   California Chemical Co., Inc., Transvaal, Inc.,
                   Univar Corp., Gulf Chemical & Metallurgical Co.,
                   Pesticide Service Consultants.
                        2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS
- Application sites:  Primary use is to control algae growths in
  impounded waters, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and irrigation and
  irrigation drainage conveyance systems.  Other sites include foliar
  applications for control of foliar pathogens on fruit, nut, vegetable,
  and field crops, ornamentals, and agricultural and home garden uses.
  Copper sulfate is also registered for use as a weed seed treatment,
  for treatment of tree wounds, for control of fungi and fungal/
  bacterial slimes occurring in wood, and in water systems, including
  sewer pumps and force mains, pulp and paper mills, cooling towers and
  spray ponds.
- Types of formulations:  Basic copper sulfate is formulated as
  crystalline solids, 12.75 and 53.0 percent wettable powders, 30.0
  percent liquid concentrate, and 2.0 and 52.0 percent dusts.
- Types and methods of application:  In imounded waters, lakes, ponds,
  reservoirs and irrigation systems, copper sulfate can be applied by
  spraying or dusting the water surface, large crystals can be placed in
  a burlap bag and towed behind a boat, or dumped in directly, or finer
  crystals can be metered in continuously.
- Application rates:  From 0.0013 to 10.0 ppm for aquatic uses and from
  0.24 to 21.2 lb a.i /A for terrestrial uses.
- Usual carriers:  Water, or no carrier.
                             3. SCIENCE FINDINGS
Chemical Characteristics
- Physical state:  Solid. crystalline
- Color:           Blue-green
- Odor:            None
- Boiling point:   N/A
- Melting Point:   N/A
- Flash point:     N/A
- Unusual handling characteristics:  None
Toxicological Characteristics
- Acute effects:
  - Acute oral toxicity - Toxicity Category II
  - Acute dermal toxicity - Toxicity Category II
  - Dermal irrigation - Toxicity Category I
  - Dermal sensitization - copper sulfate is a dermal sensitizer.
  - Acute inhalation toxicity - N/A
  - Primary eye irritation - Toxicity Category I
- Chronic effects:
  - Oncogenicity - N/A (Data not required)
  - Teratology - N/A
  - Reproductive effects - N/A
  - Mutagenicity - N/A
  - Feeding studies - N/A
  - Major routes of exposure:  Dermal, ocular, and inhalation.
Physiological and Biochemical Behavioral Characteristics
- Foliar absorption:  N/A
- Translocation: N/A
- Mechanism of pesticidal action:  Inactivation of enzyme systems in
  fungus and algae.
- Metabolism and persistence in plants and animals:  No build-up of
  copper occurs in plants.  Because of the exemption from tolerance
  requirements, no further data will be required for plant and animal
  metabolism and persistence.
Environmental Characteristics
- Adsorption and leaching in basic soil types:  Data gap
- Microbial breakdown: N/A
- Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization: N/A
- Bioaccumulation:  N/A
- Resultant average persistence:  As a naturally occurring substance,
  copper persists indefinitely.
- Half-life in water: N/A
Ecological Characteristics
- Hazards to birds:  Minimal hazards
- Hazards to aquatic invertebrates:  Toxic to aquatic invertebrates
- Hazards to fish:  Toxic to fish.  Field studies have been required,
- Potential problems with endangered species:  Biological opinions
  from DES have stated that there may be hazards to the slackwater
  darter, freshwater mussels, and Solano grass.  Statements will be
  required on all EP labels requiring the applicator to consult a
  specific Agency Bulletin before applying copper sulfate in certain
  counties.
Tolerance Reassessment
- List of crops and tolerances:  Copper sulfate is exempted from
  tolerances.
- List of food contact uses:  Copper sulfate is exempted from all
  tolerances.
- Results of tolerance reassessment:  Exemption was found to be valid.
- Problems known to have occurred from use:  No specific problems
  requiring regulatory action.
Summary Science Statement
- Copper sulfate is exempt from the requirements of a tolerance when
  it is applied to growing crops.  There is also a specific exemption
  from the requirement of a tolerance for copper in meat, milk,
  poultry, eggs, fish, shellfish, and irrigated crops when copper
  sulfate pentahydrate is used as an algicide or herbicide in ponds,
  reservoirs, or other bodies of water.  These exemptions are well
  founded.  No additional toxicology studies are required.  Copper
  sulfate is in Toxicity Category I as an eye and dermal irritant.
  Copper sulfate is toxic to fish and may present a hazard to aquatic
  organisms, especially when used as an algicide or molluscicide.
               4. SUMMARY OF REGULATORY POSITION AND RATIONALE
- Use classification:  None
- Use, formulation or geographic restrictions:  In certain counties, the
  user must consult a specific Agency Bulletin on endangered species
  before applying copper sulfate.
- Unique Label warning statements:
  - Labels for manufacturing-use copper sulfate products must bear
    statements reflecting the compound's acute human toxicity.  Copper
    sulfate is in Toxicity Category I by eye and dermal irritation
    routes of exposure.
  - The following human hazard statement, based on data reviewed by the
    Agency, must appear on all MP labels, and on the labels of all EPs
    in the 99D/o a.i. crystalline form:
         DANGER - Causes severe eye and skin irritation.  Harmful if
         adsorbed through the skin or inhaled.  May cause skin
         sensitization reactions in certain individuals.  Avoid contact
         with the skin, eyes, or clothing.  Avoid breathing dust.
         Protective clothing, including goggles, should be worn.  Wash
         thoroughly with soap and water after handling.  Remove
         contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.
- One of the following statements of practical treatment, based on
  data reviewed by the Agency, must appear on all MP labels, and on
  the labels of all EPs in the 99% a.i. crystalline form, under a
  heading that reads either "Practical Treatment" or "First Aid":
    IF IN EYES, flush with plenty of water.  Call a physician.  IF ON
    SKIN, wash with plenty of soap and water.  Get medical attention.
    IF SWALLOWED, call a physician or Poison Control Center.  Drink 1
    or 2 glasses of water and induce vomiting by touching the back of
    throat with finger.  Do not induce vomiting or give anything by
    mouth to an unconscious person.
    or
    IF IN EYES, flush with plenty of water.  Call a physician.  IF ON
    SKIN, wash with plenty of soap and water.  Get medical attention.
    IF SWALLOWED, call a physician or Poison Control Center.  Drink 1
    or 2 glasses of water and induce vomiting by touching back of
    throat with finger, or, if available by administering syrup of
    ipecac.  Do not induce vomiting or give anything by mouth to an
    unconscious person.
- The following revised environmental hazard statement must appear on
  all MP labels:
    This pesticide is toxic to fish and aquatic organisms.  Do not
    discharge effluent containing this product into lakes, streams,
    ponds, estuaries, oceans, or public water unless this product is
    specifically identified and addressed in an NPDES permit.  Do not
    discharge effluent containing this product into sewer systems
    without previously notifying the sewage treatment plant authority
    For guidance contact your State Water Board or Regional Office of
    the EPA.
- The following statements must appear on all EP labels:
    May cause skin sensitization in certain individuals.
    and
    ENDANGERED SPECIES RESTRICTIONS:
    It is a violation of Federal laws to use any pesticide in a
    manner that results in the death of an endangered species or
    adverse modification of their habitat.
    The use of this product may pose a hazard to certain Federally
    designated endangered species known to occur in specific areas
    within the following counties:
       California:  Solano County
         Solano Grass (EPA/EX-85-13
       Tennessee:  Lawrence, Wayne, and Hancock Counties
         Slackwater Darter (EPA/E5-85-04)
       Tennessee:  Claiborne, Hawkins, and Sullivan Counties
         Freshwater Mussels (EPA/E5-85-07)
       Alabama:  Lauderdale, Limestone, and Madison Counties
         Slackwater Darter (EPA/E5-85-05)
       Virginia:  Grayson, Smyth, Scott, Lee, and Washington Counties
         Freshwater Mussels (EPA/E5-85-06)
    Before using this product in the above counties you must obtain
    the EPA Bulletin specific to your area.  This Bulletin identifies
    areas within these counties where the use of this pesticide is
    prohibited, unless specified otherwise.  The EPA Bulletin is
    available from either your County Agricultural Extension Agent,
    the Endangered Species Specialist in your State Wildlife Agency
    Headquarters, or the appropriate Regional Office of the U.S. Fish
    and Wildlife Service.  THIS BULLETIN MUST BE REVIEWED PRIOR TO
    PESTICIDE USE.
- All copper sulfate products intended for direct application to water
  must bear the following statements:
    This pesticide is toxic to fish.  Direct application of copper
    sulfate to water may effect a significant reduction in populations
    of aquatic invertebrates, plants and fish.
    Do not treat more than one-half of lake or pond at one time in
    order to avoid depletion of oxygen from decaying vegetation.
    Allow 1 to 2 weeks between treatment for oxygen levels to recover.
    Trout and other species of fish may be killed at application rates
    recommended on this label, especially in soft or acid waters.
    However, fish toxicity generally decreases when the hardness of
    water increases.
    Do not contaminate water by cleaning of equipment or disposal
    of wastes.
    Consult your State Fish and Game Agency before applying this
    product to public waters.  Permits may be required before treating
    such waters.
- All copper sulfate products intended for end use applications to
  water where there is likelihood of effluent reaching natural waters,
  i.e. cooling towers, paper or pulp mills, spray ponds, sewer pumps,
  force mains, algicide and molluscicide uses, must bear the following
  statement:
    This pesticide is toxic to fish and aquatic organisms.  Do not
    discharge effluent containing this product into lakes, streams,
    ponds, estuaries, oceans, or public waters unless this product is
    specifically identified and addressed in an NPDES permit.  Do not
    discharge effluent containing this product to sewer systems
    without previously notifying the sewage treatment plant authority.
    For guidance contact your State Water Board or Regional Office of
    the EPA.
- All copper sulfate products intended for end use on terrestrial
  sites must bear the following statement:
    This pesticide is toxic to fish and aquatic organisms.  Do not
    apply directly to water.  Drift and runoff from treated areas may
    be hazardous to fish and aquatic organisms in adjacent aquatic
    sites.  Do not contaminate water by cleaning of equipment or
    disposal of wastes.
                       5. SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS
Data Requirement:                                  Data Due Date:
Product identity and disclosure of ingredients          6 months
Discussion of formation of impurities                   6 months
Preliminary analysis                                   12 months
Certification of ingredient limit                      12 months
Analytical methods and data for enforcement of limits  12 months
Aerobic soil metabolism                                27 months
Anaerobic soil metabolism                              27 months
Anaerobic aquatic metabolism                           27 months
Aerobic aquatic metabolism                             27 months
Leaching and adsorption/desorption                     12 months
Soil dissipation - field                               27 months
Aquatic dissipation - field                            27 months
Acute toxicity to freshwater fish
  (on typical EP for aquatic food and non-food uses)    9 months
Acute toxicity to freshwater invertebrates
  (on typical EP for aquatic food and non-food uses)    9 months
Acute toxicity to estuarine and marine organisms
  (on typical EP for aquatic food and non-food uses)   12 months
Fish early life stage                                  15 months
Invertebrate life-cycle                                15 months
Field testing - aquatic organisms                      24-18 months
                            6. CONTACT PERSON AT EPA
Richard Mountfort T5-767-C
Product Manager (23)
401 M Street SW
Washington, DC 20460
(703) 557-1700
DISCLAIMER:  THE INFORMATION PRESENTED IN THIS CHEMICAL INFORMATION FACT 
SHEET IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND NOT TO BE USED TO FULFILL
DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND REREGISTRATION.