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dalapon (Dowpon, Revenge) Herbicide Profile 2/85

      CHEMICAL NAME:      2,2-Dichloropropionic acid (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Dalapon 85, Dowpon, Dowpon M, Radapon Liquid,
                          Revenge (58).
      FORMULATION(S):     Dowpon - the sodium salt of dalapon; Dowpon M -
      contains 72.5% of sodium salt and 12.0% magnesium salt of dalapon;
      Radapon Liquid - a liquid formulation of sodium salt of dalapon;
      Revenge - contains 46.7% sodium salt of dalapon, 7.8% of magnesium salt
      of dalapon, and 30.6% sodium TCA (58).
      TYPE:               Aliphatic acid herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  SDS Biotech Corp.
                          7528 Auburn Rd.
                          P.O. Box 348
                          Painesville, OH 44077
                          Vertac Chemical Corp.
                          5100 Poplar
                          Memphis, TN 38137
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:     For the control of annual and perennial grasses,
      dalapon is used in sugarcane, sugarbeets, corn, potatoes, asparagus,
      grapes, flax, new legume spring seedlings, citrus, and deciduous fruit;
      coffee, certain stone fruits, nut trees, and on noncrop lands (58).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Can be applied with conventional aerial or
      ground equipment as a foliage application.  Apply prior to crop
      emergence or postemergence.  Addition of wetting agent is usuallly
      helpful (58).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
           Effective against quackgrass, bermudagrass, johnsongrass, and
      other perennial and annual grasses as well as cattails and rushes.
      Often it is used as a preplant treatment to control established
      perennial grasses in cropland and noncropland areas and irrigation
      ditch banks in 17 western states.  It is translocated to the roots of
      most species and acts as a growth regulator (58).
      Important Weeds Controlled: Quackgrass, bluegrass, Johnsongrass,
      barnyardgrass, Bermudagrass, foxtails, crabgrass, cattails, paragrass
      and most other perennial and annual grasses (8b).
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C3 H4 Cl2 O2 (dalapon); C3 H3 Cl2 Na O2
                          (dalapon-sodium) (62).
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   143.0 (dalapon); 165.0 (dalapon-sodium) (62).
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless liquid (dalapon);  hygroscopic powder
                          (dalapon-sodium) (62).
                          Colorless liquid (pure compound); off-white
                          powder (Dowpon M - contains 72.5% of sodium salt
                          and 12% magnesium salt of dalapon) (58).
      ODOR:               Odorless (pure compound) (58)
      MELTING POINT:      166.5 C (dalapon-sodium, decomposes before melting)
                          Decomposes before melting (Dowpon M) (58)
      DECOMPOSITION TEMPERATURE:  167.7 C (Dowpon M) (58)
      BOILING POINT:      185-190 C (pure compound) (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         Very soluble in water (pure compound); 110 g/100 ml
                          of water having 100 ppm hardness (Dowpon M) (58).
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 1 ppm; 6 mg/m3
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  Moderate irritation, even a mild burn, upon repeated
                          prolonged contact.  Occasional contact not likely to
                          cause significant irritation.  Not absorbed through
                          the skin in toxic amounts (58).
                        It is corrosive to the skin (15b).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 970 mg/kg (tech a.i.), 7570 mg/kg (sodium salt)
                          (female rat) (56).
                        LD50 (mg/kg) - 9330 (male rat); 7570 (female rat);
                          >4600 (female mouse); 3860 (female guinea-pig); 3860
                          (female rabbit); 5660 (chick, mixed) (58).
               INHALATION:  Dusts may be irritating to upper respiratory
                              tract.  Not likely to cause systemic injury (58).
                            Rats exposed for 7 hours to an atmosphere saturated
                              with dalapon vapor showed no ill effects (15b).
               EYES:    Moderate irritation and transient corneal injury.
                          Healing should be complete in several days (58).
                        It can cause permanent eye injury (15b).
           In 2-year feeding trials no effect was observed in rats receiving
      15 mg/kg daily, there was a slight increase in kidney weight in rats at
      50 mg/kg daily (62).
           A 120-day diet study of rats indicated a no-ill-effect level of 15
      mg/kg/day (15b).
           Dogs - 1 year, 100 mg/kg per day - slight average kidney weight
      increase.  50 mg/kg per day - no adverse effects (58).
      Subacute toxicity:
           Heifer calf - 10 days.  1000 mg/kg per day - general nonspecific
      symptoms during last of experiment but completely recovered upon
      cessation of dosing.
           Bull calf - 10 days.  1000 mg/kg per day - no adverse effects
      during dosing.  Autopsy showed possible slight kidney involvement.
           Dogs - 80 days.  Daily doses 5 days a week:  Doses started at 50
      mg/kg per day but gradually increased to 1000 mg/kg per day.  Other
      than vomiting, dogs were not adversely affected (58).
      Occupational vapor exposures up to 2.65 ppm (TWA) have been observed;
      minimal respiratory irritation was noted at concentrations between 2
      and 7 ppm (15b).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           Goldfish mortality at the end of 24 hr of exposure was 0% at 100
      ppm and 100% at 500 ppm and above.  In static water on twelve species
      of fish including rainbow trout and coho salmon, the LC50 was greater
      than 100 ppm of dalapon which represents a very low order of toxicity
      to fish.  In short exposure tests, the no effect level of dalapon for
      snails, dragonflies, stoneflies, and several crustaceans is at least
      200 ppm (58).
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.   Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
             Leaches readily in soils.
      2.   Microbial breakdown:  Breaks down rapidly and completely in soil.
             Several organisms have been isolated and identified (58).
           LC50 (5-day) for pheasants, Japanese quail, and mallard duck was
      >500 mg dalapon-sodium/kg diet.  LC50 (96-hr) for rainbow trout,
      channel catfish and goldfish >100 mg/l (62).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      KNOWN OR SUSPECTED ADVERSE EFFECTS:  Skin and eye irritant (25).
           Symptoms are likely to be general in nature and may include a
      feeling of lassitude, vomiting, diarrhea, slowing of pulse, loss of
      appetite (58).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash contaminated skin with soap and water (25).
           INGESTION:  Ingestions of small amounts (less than 10 mg/kg body
      weight) occurring less than an hour before treatment, are probably best
      treated by:
      A.   Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water.  Dose for
           adults and children over 12 years:  30 ml.  Dose for children
           under 12 years:  15 ml.
      B.   Activated Charcoal - Administer 30-50 gm as a slurry in tap water,
           after vomiting stops.
      C.   Sodium of Magnesium Sulfate, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a
           cathartic (25).
           EYE CONTACT:  Flush contaminated eyes with copious amounts of
      fresh water for 15 minutes (25).
      1.   INGESTIONS of LARGE amounts (more than 10 mg/kg) occurring less
           than an hour before treatment, should probably be treated by
           gastric lavage:
           A.  INTUBATE stomach and ASPIRATE contents.
           B.  LAVAGE stomach with slurry of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 0.9%
               saline.  Leave 30-50 gm activated charcoal in the stomach
               before withdrawing tube.
           C.  SODIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a cathartic.
               CAUTION:  Hydrocarbons (kerosene, petroleum distillates) are
                         included in some formulations of these chemicals.
                         Ingestion of very LARGE AMOUNTS may cause CNS
                         depression.  In this case, IPECAC IS
                         CONTRAINDICATED.  Also, gastric intubation incurs a
                         risk of HYDROCARBON PNEUMONITIS.  For this reason
                         observe the following precautions:
                         (1)  If the victim is unconscious or obtunded and
                              facilities are at hand, insert an ENDOTRACHEAL
                              TUBE (cuffed, if available) prior to gastric
                         (2)  Keep victim's HEAD BELOW LEVEL OF STOMACH
                              during intubation and lavage (Trendelenburg, or
                              left lateral decubitus, with head of table
                              tipped downward).  Keep victim's head turned to
                              the left.
                         (3)  ASPIRATE PHARYNX as regularly as possible to
                              remove gagged or vomited stomach contents.
      2.   INGESTIONS occurring MORE THAN an HOUR before treatment are
           probably best treated only by ACTIVATED CHARCOAL, 30-50 gm, and
           SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, as described above.
      3.   There are no specific antidotes for these chemicals.  Because
           manifestations of toxicity do occasionally occur in peculiarly
           predisposed individuals, MAINTAIN CONTACT with victim for at least
           72 hours so that unexpected adverse effects can be treated
           promptly (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Nonflammable (58).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Compatible with hard water and liquid fertilizers.  Formulations
      are mildly corrosive to equipment (58).
           It is subject to hydrolysis, slight at 25 C but comparatively
      rapid at greater than or equal to 50 C; so aqueous solutions should
      not be kept for any length of time.  Alkali causes dehydrochlorination
      above 120 C.  Its solutions are corrosive to iron (62).
           May be combined with other specified herbicides such as atrazine
      and others (8b).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by
      storage or disposal of this product.  Do not use spray equipment
      contaminated with this product for any purpose unless thoroughly
      cleaned with a suitable cleaner (56).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                                  (800) 424-9300
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1971.
               Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
               workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
               changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977).  Cincinnati,
               OH.  484 pp.
      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.