daminozide (Alar, B-Nine) Growth Regulator Profile 6/86
CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR:
FACT SHEET NUMBER: 26
DATE ISSUED: JUNE 30, 1986
1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL
- Common Name: daminozide
- Chemical Name: Butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazine),
Succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide
- Trade Names: Alar, Kylar, SADH, B-nine, B-995, aminozide
- EPA Shaughnessy Code: 035101
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number: 1596-84-5
- Pesticide Type: Plant growth regulator
- Pesticide Family: Amino acid derivative
- U.S. and Foreign Producers: Uniroyal and Aceto Chemical
2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS
- Daminozide is a plant growth regulator registered as a 5 percent water
soluble liquid or 85 percent water soluble dry concentrate
formulation. The amount of daminozide that is applied as a field
spray ranges from 0.9 to 6.9 pounds active ingredient per acre per
year, depending on the crop, time of application, and desired effects.
Daminozide controls the vegetative and reproductive growth of orchard
crops such as apples, cherries, nectarines, peaches, prunes, and
pears. In addition, daminozide use enhances shorter and more erect
peanut vines or modifies the stem length and shape of ornamental
plants. Other minor uses of daminozide include: Brussels sprouts
(California), cantaloupes (California and Arizona), grapes, and
3. SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS
- Daminozide is a white, crystalline solid with slight to no odor.
- Daminozide is soluble in water, methanol, and acetonitrile, but
insoluble in xylene and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Daminozide has a
melting point range from 154 to 156 degrees C. Technical daminozide
contains at least 99 percent active ingredient.
- The LD50 and Toxicity Categories for daminozide are: acute oral (8.4
g/kg, IV), acute dermal (>16 g/kg, III), acute inhalation (>147 mg/kg,
IV), primary eye irritation (mild, none at this time), dermal
irritation (mild, IV). Daminozide does not produce mutagenic or
teratogenic effects. Data are insufficient to judge the effects of
daminozide on reproduction. Daminozide causes oncogenic effects in
Physiological and Biochemical Behavioral Characteristics
- Data indicate that daminozide is rapidly absorbed through the leaves,
roots, and stems. Daminozide is translocated in plants and can
accumulate in roots, fruit, etc. Adequate methods are available to
detect daminozide. A method to detect the UDMH metabolite down to 1
ppb must be validated to confirm the presence of UDMH residues in
plants. Components of the final residues have not been adequately
identified or quantified. The majority of daminozide residues
ingested by milk animals is rapidly excreted in the urine and feces.
- Degrades in water to unsymmetrical 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), a
known oncogen. Daminozide appears to resist photodegradation, but is
degraded by soil microorganisms. Daminozide appears to leach, but
since it does not persist in soil, the potential for groundwater
contamination is small. Daminozide does not bioconcentrate in fish,
nor does it accumulate in rotational crops.
- Daminozide has low acute toxicity to fish and terrestrial wildlife.
No data are available to assess the ecological hazard from the UDMH
hydrolysis product/contaminant. Problems with Endangered Species:
None known at this time.
- A final reassessment of all tolerances cannot be made at this time
until the data gaps specified by the Standard are filled.
Problems With Use
- Extended storage of solutions of daminozide result in excessive
hydrolysis of the active ingredient to UDMH.
Science Summary Record
- Daminozide is a white, water soluble solid. Data indicate that
daminozide has low acute toxicity, low dermal irritation potential,
and is neither teratogenic nor mutagenic. Daminozide and its UDMH
contaminant cause oncogenic effects. A tolerance reassessment cannot
be performed at this time. Daminozide leaches from soil, but is not
persistent. Daminozide is not an acute toxicant to fish and wildlife.
4. REGULATORY POSITION AND RATIONALE
- Use Classification: Daminozide is classified as a General Use
- Use Restrictions: None.
- Unique Warning Statements: Solutions of daminozide must be used
within 24 hours after preparation.
- Benefit Analysis: Approximately 825,000 pounds of daminozide are
produced annually, with apples and peanuts accounting for 600,000
pounds and 225,000 pounds of the annual usage, respectively. Without
daminozide, short-term revenue losses are projected to range up to $30
million annually for apples and from $4.3 to $10.7 million annually
- Risk Analysis: Significant exposure to daminozide and UDMH can occur
via consumption of raw and processed agricultural commodities treated
with daminozide. The Agency's preliminary estimate of oncogenic
dietary risk for daminozide is high. There are insufficient data to
quantify the oncogenic dietary risk of UDMH at this time. The
oncogenic nondietary risk for daminozide and UDMH may not be
- Special Review: Registrants of daminozide products are notified, via
the Guidance Document, that daminozide meets the oncogenicity risk
criterion in 40 CFR 162.11(a) and will undergo a Special Review. The
Agency will not reregister any current products, and it will not
register any new products containing daminozide until Special Review
is completed and the Agency has received commitment to fulfill data
5. SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS
- Data gaps and time in months allowed to perform studies: toxicology
(chronic testing - 48, teratology - 12, reproduction - 24, general
metabolism - 12, and mutagenicity - 6), product chemistry (product
identity, analysis and certification of product ingredients, physical
and chemical characteristics) - 6, environmental fate (degradation -
6, photodegradation - 6, metabolism - 24, mobility - 6, dissipation -
24, accumulation - 24, and reentry - 24, residue chemistry (metabolism
in plants and animals - 12, analytical methods and residue data - 12,
residue data - 12), and ecological effects (avian and mammalian
testing and aquatic organism testing - 48).
6. CONTACT PERSON
Robert Taylor, PM 25
Registration Division (TS-767C)
Environmental Protection Agency
401 M Street, SW
Washington, D.C. 20460
DISCLAIMER: THE INFORMATION PRESENTED IN THIS CHEMICAL INFORMATION FACT
SHEET IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND NOT TO BE USED TO FULFILL
DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND REREGISTRATION.