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diallate (Avadex) Herbicide Profile 3/85

                                      diallate
      CHEMICAL NAME:      S-(2,3-dichloroallyl)diisopropylthiocarbamate (58)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Avadex (58)
      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrate 4 lb/gal; granular 10%
                          (58).
      TYPE:               (Mono)thiocarbamate herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Monsanto Agricultural Products Co.
                          800 N. Lindbergh Blvd.
                          St. Louis, MO 63167
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Used as a before or after planting treatment
      depending on the crop for control of wild oats.  For use on alfalfa,
      alsike clover, barley, corn, flax, soybeans, lentils, peas, potatoes,
      red clover, sugar beets and sweet clover.  Works well under many soil
      and climatic conditions.  Can also be applied as fall application
      before soil freeze-up for spring wild oat control in barley, flax, and
      sugar beets (56).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Preplant and postplant incorporated.  Depending
      on crop, can also be fall applied and incorporated within 2 weeks of
      soil freeze-up for spring planted barley, flax, and sugar beets (58).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
      Important Weeds Controlled:  Wild oats, foxtail, wild millets,
                                   blackgrass, and a few other grasses (8b).
           Emerged weeds will not be controlled.  Shallow cultivation will not
      reduce the effectiveness.  Pigweed, mustard, and lambsquarters will not
      be controlled.  Not effective on germinated wild oats.  Aerial
      applications on hilly ground may not be effective.  Under extreme drought
      conditions, control may not be as effective.  Under dry conditions, wild
      oats may emerge to the 2-4 leaf stage before dying (8b).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C10 H17 Cl2 NO S (58)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   270.2 (58)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Amber-colored liquid (pure compound) (62)
      MELTING POINT:      25-30 C (pure compound) (62)
      DECOMPOSITION TEMPERATURE:  Greater than 200 C (pure compound) (58)
      BOILING POINT:      97 C/0.15 mmHg (pure compound) (62)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     1.5 x 10-4 mmHg at 25 C (pure compound) (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         14 ppm water at 25C (pure compound) (58).
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  None established
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = 2000 - 2500 mg/kg (rabbit) (62).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 395 mg/kg (rat), 510 mg/kg (dog) (62).
               EYES:    Classed as a moderate irritant to eyes (58).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           Subacute toxicity:  Rats - greater than 125 mg/day
                               Dogs - greater than 600 mg/day (58).
           At dosage of 25, 100, 400, and 1200 ppm fed to rats in the diet for
      90 days, weight loss occurred at 400 ppm or more.  Irritability,
      hyperactivity, and mild cardial changes were evident at the 1200 ppm
      level, but no deaths occurred.  No changes occurred with beagle dogs
      fed at 12.5, 125 and 600 mg/day levels for 90 days, except at the
      600-mg level, when food intake was erratic and weight-gain was
      decreased, salivation was apparent, and ovaries and testes were
      affected (58).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.   Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
             Competes with moisture for adsorption sites on colloidal soil
             particles.
      2.   Microbial breakdown:  Major importance.
      3.   Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Negligible.
             Volatilization may occur at high soil temperatures if product
             is not properly incorporated.
      4.   Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  Half life of
             30 days under intermountain irrigated soil conditions (58).
      General toxicity to wildlife and fish:
           Fish - TL50 (4 day) rainbow trout and bluegill are 7.9 ppm and 5.9
                  ppm, respectively.
           TL50 - Harlequin fish - 8.2 ppm (48 hours)
           LC50 - 10 to 15 day old Mallard ducklings - greater than 5000 ppm
           LC50 - 10 to 15 day old Bobwhite Quail chicks - greater than 5000
                  ppm (58).
                       V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      SYMPTOMS:  Some of these agents ((mono)thiocarbamates) are
      irritating to skin and respiratory mucous membranes, causing ITCHING,
      SCRATCHY THROAT, SNEEZING, and COUGH, if excessive amounts of spray or
      dust are inhaled.  Apart from this effect, toxic potential is low.
      Neurotoxic and post-ethanol "Antabuse" reactions are not known to occur
      as a result of contact with those particular compounds (25).
           SKIN CONTACT:  WASH contaminating chemical from SKIN and HAIR with
      soap and water.  Persons sensitive to thiram (rubber-sensitive) should
      be permanently REMOVED FROM CONTACT with compounds of this nature (25).
           INGESTION:
      A.   Give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water, to induce
           vomiting (adults:  30 ml; children under 12 years:  15 ml).
           Following emesis, administer 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL to bind
           toxicant remaining in the gut.
      B.   Follow charcoal with SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, to
           remove toxicant from the gut by catharsis (25).
           EYE CONTACT:  FLUSH contaminant from EYES with fresh water for
      10-15 minutes (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Nonflammable.  Open cup, 96 C; closed 77 C (58).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Noncorrosive (58).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Indefinitely stable.  Not sensitive to light or
      heat.  Wear rubber gloves and goggles when handling (58).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Wear long trousers and long sleeve shirt or
      jacket of closely knit material, rubber gloves, and leather or rubber
      boots high enough to cover ankle (56).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
      3/11/85