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Endothall - Herbicide Profile 2/85

                                     endothall
      CHEMICAL NAME:      7-Oxabicyclo (2,2,1)heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid
                          (used as sodium, potassium, or amine salts) (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Endothal Technical (acid) (58)
      FORMULATION(S):     Water-miscible, granular, and pelletized in various
                          strengths (56).
                          These include: disodium, diammonium and mono(ethyl-
                          dimethylammonium) salts (62).
      TYPE:               Herbicide - growth regulator
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Pennwalt Corp.
                          Ag Chem Div.
                          3 Parkway
                          Philadelphia, PA 19102
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Herbicide, pre- and postemergence; defoliant;
      desiccant; aquatic algicide and herbicide; growth regulator.  Many
      derivatives or formulations of endothall are being used on sugar beets
      and turf; as aquatic herbicides and algicides; as alfalfa and clover
      dessicants; and as cotton harvest aids, and as potato vine killers
      (56).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
           To be developed.
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C8 H10 O5 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   186.2 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless solid (hydrate) (62)
      ODOR:               Odorless (pure compound) (58)
      MELTING POINT:      144 C (hydrate) (62)
      DECOMPOSITION TEMPERATURE:  Stable to about 90 C, at which
      temperature it undergoes a slow conversion to anhydride (58).
      SOLUBILITY:         100 g/kg water at 20 C (hydrate) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  NA
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  Endothal-sodium (19.2% formulation) causes light to
                          moderate skin irritation (62).
                        May be absorbed through the skin, causing light to
                          moderate irritation.  More severe effects at
                          concentrations over 1%, with an immediate burning
                          sensation on abraded skin (58).
               ORAL:    LD50 (rat) = 51 mg endothal/kg; 182-197 mg
                          endothal-sodium (for 19.2% formulation)/kg (62).
                        LD50 (rat) = 38-51 mg/kg for acid (technical);
                          182-197 mg/kg for Na salt (19.2% solution);
                          206 mg/kg for amine salt (66.7% formulation) (58).
               EYES:    Greatest occupational hazard is eye irritation
                        caused by burning of tissues on exposure (58).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           In 2-year feeding trials rats receiving 1000 mg/kg diet suffered
      no ill-effect (62).
           Two-year dog and rat oral feeding studies were performed with
      disodium endothall and it was demonstrated that for rats (which are the
      most sensitive) a "no harmful effect" dosage level is in excess of 300
      ppm.  Since the residues of disodium endothall likely to remain on
      agricultural commodities under conditions of use would not exceed 10
      ppm, the safety factor is at least 150 (calculated on possible daily
      intake by humans) and, therefore, would not constitute a hazard to
      public health (58).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           Disappears from soil and water by microbiological breakdown at
      rates dependent upon soil temperature, moisture, type, and
      microbiological activity (58).
                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING
           It is irritating to eyes, mucous membranes and skin, but it is not
      sensitizing.  Mechanisms of systemic toxicity are not clear, but the
      central nervous system, heart, blood vessels, and gastrointestinal
      lining appear to be primary targets.  Poisoned animals exhibit ataxia,
      convulsions, shock, and respiratory depression.  Erosions and ulcers of
      the gastrointestinal tract follow ingestion.
           There are no standard analytical methods for confirming poisoning
      (25).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash contaminated skin (25).
           INGESTION:  Instead of gastric evacuation following ingestion,
      administer cold milk or aluminum hydroxide gel (25).
           EYE CONTACT:  Flush eyes with copious amounts of water (25).
      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
           Wash contaminated skin and flush eyes with copious amounts of
      water.  Instead of gastric evacuation following ingestion, administer
      cold milk or aluminum hydroxide gel.  This may be followed by saline
      catharsis.  There is no specific antidote.  Shock may require blood
      transfusions.  Use of adrenergic amines is probably hazardous in view
      of myocardial irritability (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Nonflammable (58).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           To be developed.
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Stable to light.  Liquid formulations should be
      stored at 0 C or above to prevent crystallization (58).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
      2/13/85