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fenac (Fenatrol) Herbicide Profile 2/85

                                       fenac
      CHEMICAL NAME:      (2,3,6-Trichlorophenyl)acetic acid (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Fenatrol (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Available as 1.5 and 2.5 pounds/gallon aqueous
                          solution of the sodium salt; also granular
                          formulations (56).
      TYPE:               Chlorophenoxy herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Union Carbide Agricultural Products Co., Inc.
                          P. O. Box 12014
                          T. W. Alexander Dr.
                          Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  For preemergence season-long control of weeds,
      particularly seedling johnsongrass in sugarcane (for use in Louisiana
      and Florida); also of many annual broadleaves and grasses and perennial
      broadleaf weeds in noncrop areas such as railroad rights-of-way, around
      buildings, under highway guard rails, etc.  Effective against submerged
      aquatic weeds when applied to soil before flooding (56).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Spray or granular (58).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
           To be developed.
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C8 H5 Cl3 O2 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   239.5 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless solid (pure compound) (62)
      ODOR:               Odorless (pure compound) (58)
      MELTING POINT:      156 C (pure compound) (62); 157-160 C (pure
                          compound) (58).
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     1.1 Pa at 100 C (pure compound) (62)
      SOLUBILITY:         200 mg/l water at 28 C (pure comound) (62); very
                          slightly soluble in water (pure compound) (58).
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  NA
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = 1440-3160 mg/kg (rabbit) (62)
                        Slight irritation from 3160 mg/kg (rabbit) (58)
               ORAL:    LD50 = 576-1780 mg/kg (rat) (62)
                        LD50 = 1780 mg/kg (rat); 1040 mg/kg (mouse) (58).
               INHALATION:  6-hr exposure to 0.1 mg/liter sodium salt dust
                            decreased respiration for 24 hr (rat) (58).
               EYES:    3 mg was moderately irritating.  Slight erythemia
                        and endemia disappeared after 48 hr (rabbit) (58).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           In 2-year feeding trials rats receiving 2000 mg/kg diet showed no
      ill-effect (62).
           No significant effect from 100 ppm fenac in the diet of rats or
      1000 ppm in the diet of dogs for 2 years (58).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           Adsorbed on soils; resists leaching.  Microbial breakdown very
      slow.  Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization possible.
      Average persistence at recommended rates:  approximately 1 to 2 years
      (58).
           No toxicity to fish or wildlife when used as recommended (58).
                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING
           Chlorophenoxy compounds are moderately IRRITATING to skin and
      mucous membranes.  Inhalation of sprays may cause burning sensations in
      the nasopharynx and chest, and coughing may result.  Prolonged
      inhalation sometimes causes dizziness.
           When INGESTED, high concentrations of chlorophenoxy compounds may
      irritate the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract.  Prompt EMESIS,
      CHEST PAIN (from esophagitis), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and DIARRHEA commonly
      ensue.  Injury to the GI tract does not usually progress to ulceration
      or perforation.  Absorbed chlorophenoxy compounds have caused
      FIBRILLARY MUSCLE TWITCHING, skeletal muscle tenderness, and MYOTONIA
      (stiffness of muscles of the extremities).  Ingestion of very large
      amounts has produced METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, fever, tachycardia,
      hyperventilation, vasodilatation and sweating.  Particular cases have
      been characterized by coma and convulsions (25).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Bathe and shampoo with soap and water to remove
      chemicals from skin and hair.  Individuals with chronic skin disease or
      known sensitivity to chemicals should either avoid using these
      herbicides or take extraordinary measures to avoid contact (25).
           INGESTION:  If vigorous emesis has not occurred and if victim
      is fully alert, induce emesis with Syrup of Ipecac (adults 12 years and
      older, 30 ml; children under 12 years, 15 ml), followed by 1-2 glasses
      of water (25).
           INHALATION:  If symptoms of illness occur during or following
      inhalation of spray, remove victim from contact with the material for
      at least two days.  Allow subsequent contact with chlorophenoxy
      compounds only if effective respiratory protection is practiced (25).
           EYE CONTACT:  Flush contaminating chemicals from eyes with
      copious amounts of clean water for 10-15 minutes (25).
      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
      IF CONSCIOUSNESS LEVEL IS DEPRESSED or other signs of NEUROTOXICITY
      appear, SUSPECT additional or alternative ingested toxicants.  Evacuate
      the stomach by INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE.  Because petroleum
      distillates are commonly included in chlorophenoxy formulations,
      gastric intubation incurs a risk of hydrocarbon pneumonitis from
      aspiration.  For this reason:
      A.   If victim is unconscious or obtunded and facilities are at hand,
           insert an ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE (cuffed, if available) prior to
           gastric intubation.
      B.   Keep victim's HEAD BELOW LEVEL OF THE STOMACH during intubation
           and lavage (Trendelenburg, or left lateral decubitus, with head of
           table tipped downward).  Keep victim's head turned to left.
      C.   ASPIRATE PHARYNX as regularly as possible to remove gagged or
           vomited stomach contents.
      After aspiration of gastric contents and washing of stomach, instill
      30-50 gm of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 3-4 ounces of water through the
      stomach tube to limit absorption of remaining toxicant.  Do NOT instill
      milk, cream, or other materials containing vegetable or animal fats, as
      these are likely to enhance absorption.
      If bowel movement has not occurred in 4 hours and patient is fully
      conscious, give SODIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, as a cathartic.  Magnesium
      sulfate and citrate, in comparable dosages, are equally suitable if
      renal function is adequate.  Retained magnesium may depress CNS
      function.
      In SEVERE POISONINGS by very large amounts of ingested chlorophenoxy
      acids, forced ALKALINE DIURESIS may save the victim's life.  Assess
      serum electrolyte concentrations, and serum and urine pH.  If a
      metabolic acidosis is present, infuse solutions of sodium bicarbonate
      at rates sufficient to keep the urine distinctly alkaline, continuing
      until plasma concentrations of chlorophenoxy compounds are less than
      about 10 ug/ml.  [Prescott, L.F. et al., Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 7:11
      (1979)] (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Nonflammable (58).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Commercial formulation is sequestered against the formation of
      hard water salts in waters of up to 1000 ppm hardness.  Mixes with most
      other pesticides in dilute solution.  Noncorrosive (58).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  No shelf life limitations.  Not harmed by
      freeze-thaw cycles (58).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
      2/12/85