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fosamine ammonium (Krenite) Herbicide Profile 2/85

                                 fosamine ammonium
      CHEMICAL NAME:      Ammonium ethyl carbamoylphosphonate (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Krenite (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Krenite brush control agent is a liquid containing
                          41.5% active ingredient (4 lb/gal).  Krenite S
                          brush control agent has same active ingredient
                          content but includes a surfactant (56).
      TYPE:               Herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  E.I. du Pont de Nemours Co., Inc.
                          Biochemicals Dept.
                          1007 Market St.
                          Wilmington, DE 19898
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Used as a foliar spray at rates of 1 1/2 to 3
      gallons product (6 to 12 lb ai)/acre applied in late summer or early
      fall for control and/or growth suppression of many woody species.
      Susceptible treated plants normally fail to refoliate during the
      growing season following treatment and subsequently die.  Krenite may
      be used on noncropland areas such as railroad, pipeline, utility and
      highway rights-of-way, drainage ditchbanks, storage areas, industrial
      plant sites and other similar areas including land adjacent to and
      surrounding domestic water supply reservoirs, supply stations, lakes
      and ponds.  It is also used for field bindweed control in noncropland
      areas (56).
           Registered for control and growth suppression of blackberry, white
      oak, water oak, red oak, loblolly pine, Virginia pine, sweet gum, sumac
      and black locust; salmonberry, thimbleberry, vine maple, American
      elder, Eastern white pine, multiflora rose, slippery elm,
      tree-of-heaven, wild grape, wild plum and quaking aspen; partial
      control and growth suppression of other brush plants such as red alder,
      hawthorn, wild cherry, maple, white ash, black gum, hickory, willow,
      sassafras, yellow poplar, elm, big leaf maple, choke cherry, persimmon,
      red maple, sourwood and tulip tree (yellow poplar).  It is also
      registerd for control of field bindweed.  It is being evaluated for
      bracken (Pteridium sp.) and for selective use in forestry (58).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S): As a foliar spray either by air or ground
      equipment (58).
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C3 H8 N O4 P (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   153.1 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     White crystalline solid (pure compound) (31v)
      ODOR:               Negligible odor (pure compound (31v)
      MELTING POINT:      175 C (pure compound) (31v)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     4 x 10-6 mmHg at 25 C (pure compound) (31v)
      SOLUBILITY:         1.79 kg/kg water at 25 C (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = >1,680 mg/kg (rabbit, "Krenite"); >5,000
                          mg/kg (rabbit, "Krenite" S) (31v).
                        "Krenite" - Not a primary skin irritant when
                          applied as 25% aqueous solutions to shaved, intact,
                          or abraded skin of guinea pigs; no evidence of
                          sensitization.  Application of 50% aqueous
                          solutions caused reversible mild to moderate
                          irritation in rabbits (31v).
                        "Krenite" S - Not a primary skin irritant when
                          applied as 0.5 ml undiluted formulation to shaved,
                          intact, or abraded skin of rabbits (31v).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 24,400 mg/kg (non-fasted male rats,
                        "Krenite"); >7380 mg (guinea pigs, "Krenite");
                        >15,000 mg/kg (female beagles, "Krenite"); >5,000
                        mg/kg (fasted male and female rats, "Krenite" S) (31v).
               INHALATION:  LC50 = 56.6 mg/l a.i. (male rat, "Krenite"); >42
                              mg/l a.i. (female rat, "Krenite") (31v).
                            LC50 = 3.20 mg/l a.i. (male rat, "Krenite" S);
                              2.75 mg/l a.i. (female rat, "Krenite" S) (31v).
               EYES:    "Krenite" = Administration of 0.1 ml product to
                          the rabbit eye resulted in no evidence of eye
                        "Krenite" S - Caused mild to no corneal opacity
                          and temporary severe to moderate conjuctival
                          irritation in the unwashed rabbit eyes.  Eyes
                          returned to normal within 3 days except one
                          unwashed and one washed eye, which had lingering
                          mild conjunctival redness, but were normal within
                          7 days (31v).
      90-day rat feeding study:  Slight effects on kidneys of male rats at
      5000-10,000 ppm, 1000 ppm no-effect level.
      6-month dog feeding study:  No nutritional, clinical hematological,
      biochemical, urinary, or gross pathological evidence of toxicity in the
      test dogs fed 10,000 ppm.  Relative stomach weights were significantly
      high at 10,000 ppm but were associated with no other clinical or gross
      pathological changes.
      1-generation rat reproduction study:  No reproductive effects seen at
      5000 ppm, the highest level fed.
      Teratogenicity studies:  Not teratogenic or embryotoxic in rats at
      10,000 ppm, the highest level fed.
      Mutagenicity studies:  Not mutagenic in Ames, CHO point mutation and
      DNA repair (UDS) assays.  Mutagenic in in vitro Cytogenetic assay, but
      negative in in vivo Cytogenetic assay (31v).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           Safe to fish and wildlife (8b).
      Bluegill sunfish LC50 (96-hr) is greater than 670 ppm (formulation)
      Fathead Minnow   LC50 (96-hr) is greater than 1000 ppm (formulation)
      Rainbow Trout    LC50 (96-hr) is greater than 1000 ppm (formulation)
      Bobwhite Quail   LD50 is greater than 10,000 mg/kg (formulation)
      Mallard Duck     LD50 is greater than 10,000 mg/kg (formulation)
      In a 28-day (14C) fosamine ammonium bioaccumulation study in catfish,
      accumulation factor (ratio of residues in fish to residues in water)
      was less than 12 (J. Toxic. Environ. Health. 5:957-963, 1979) (31v).
      Fast disappearance rate in soil; half-life of about 7-10 days (J. Ag. &
      Food Chem. 27 (3) 564-571, 1979).  No effects on soil microbes (Soil
      Science 128, 23, 1979) (31v).
      LC50 (96-hr) is: for bluegill 278 mg a.i. (as e.c.)/l; for rainbow trout
      >415 mg a.i. (as e.c.)/l (62).
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.   Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:  In
             field soil studies (Florida, Delaware and Illinois) with
             14C-labeled ammonium ethyl carbamoylphosphonate, because of
             rapid degradation, there was very little or no downward movement
             of ammonium ethyl carbamoylphosphonate or its degradation
      2.   Microbial breakdown:  Rapidly decomposed by soil microorganisms.
             Labortory biometer flask tests to evaluate microbial degradation
             in the dark were run with 14C-carbamoyl labeled ammonium ethyl
             carbamoylphosphonate at 4 and 20 ppm in two soil types.  These
             tests showed that evolved 14CO2 accounted for 45 to 75% of
             original 14C after 90-day incubations.  Reincorporation of 14C
             was noted, particularly in field soils.
      3.   Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Separate
             experiments which measure photodecomposition in water indicate
             that both artificial and natural sunlight exposures have little
             effect.  Photosensitizers do not appear to accelerate the
             photodegrdation process.
      4.   Persistence in soils:  Greenhouse soil disappearance test with
             14C-labeled ammonium ethyl carbamoylphosphonate indicated about
             a 10-day half life for the intact compound.  Also, under field
             conditions in Florida, Delaware and Illinois the half life for
             the compound was about 1 week.  In these field studies, the half
             life for total 14C-activity was 2 to 6 months.  Much of the
             residual 14C was reincorporated into the soil organic matter,
             e.g., a-humus, B-humus and soluble humin fractions.
      Han, Jerry C.Y. and R.L. Krause.  1979.  Microbial Activity in Soils
           Treated with Fosamine Ammonium.  Soil Science.  128:23-27.
      Han, Jerry C.Y.  1979.  Stability of (14C) Fosamine Ammonium in Water
           and Soils.  Agric. Food Chem. 27(3):564 (58).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      SYMPTOMS:  No symptoms of human intoxication have been reported.
      In small mammals mild diarrhea has been observed after repeated oral
      dosings (58).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash with plenty of soap and water (31v).
           EYE CONTACT:  Flush with plenty of water (31v).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      GENERAL:  Non-flammable (Krenite) (31w).
      FIRE FIGHTING/EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Conventional methods (water spray,
      CO2, foam, dry chemical).  Use self-contained breathing apparatus
      (Krenite) (31w).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Not normally used in combination with other pesticides.  Somewhat
      corrosive to brass or copper sprayer parts (58).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Aqueous formulations and spray tank solutions
      are stable.  Subject to decomposition in dilute solution (5 ppm) under
      acid conditions (58).
           Keep out of reach of children.  Do not contaminate water, food, or
      feed by storage.  Keep from contact with fertilizer, insecticides,
      fungicides, and seed.  May irritate eyes, nose, throat, and skin.
      Avoid breathing spray or mist.  Avoid contact with skin, eyes, and
      clothing.  Do not use on food crops.  Do not allow drift or spray mist
      to contact desirable trees, shrubs, or other plants, as injury may
      result.  Do not apply directly to water.  Do not contaminate water by
      cleaning of equipment or disposal of wastes (31v).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                                  (800) 424-9300
           Clean up promptly; do not flush with water.  Absorb liquid spills
      with earth or sand and pick up by most effective means (Krenite) (31w).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      31v. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., Biochemicals Department.
               1983.  Technical data sheet for fosamine ammonium.
               Wilmington, DE.
      31w. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., Biochemicals Department.
               1980.  Material safety data sheet for Krenite brush control
               agent.  Wilmington, DE.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.