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napropamide (Devrinol) Herbicide Profile 2/85

      CHEMICAL NAME:      2-(a-Naphthoxy)-N,N-diethylpropionamide (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Devrinol (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrate (2-E), wettable powder
                          (50%), and 10% granules (56).
      TYPE:               Herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Stauffer Chemical Co.
                          Agricultural Chemical Div.
                          Westport, CT 06881
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Control of several grass and broadleaf weeds in
      orchards and vineyards.  Also effective for weed control in direct
      seeded tomatoes, strawberries, tobacco, peppers, ornamentals, and other
      crops (56).
           Napropamide is registered for use on established or newly planted
      almonds, apricots, cherries, grapes, nectarines, oranges, peaches,
      plums, prunes, and tomatoes.  It has been used for several years on
      oilseed rape in Europe.  Other tolerant crops include asparagus
      (established), peppers, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, Chinese
      cabbage, cauliflower, collards, English pea, Irish potatoes, eggplant,
      peanuts, radish, safflower, sunflower, tobacco, turnip, and watermelon.
      Sensitive crops include wheat, barley, and milo (58).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Napropamide may be applied to the soil surface
      preemergence to the weeds in orchards where a lot of rainfall occurs
      soon after application.  For the best results, it should be incorporated
      in the soil to a depth of 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 inches) (58).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
      Important Weeds Controlled:  Bromes, wild barley, cupgrass, annual
      bluegrass, crabgrass, barnyardgrass, prickley lettuce, filaree,
      groundsel, chickweed, fiddleneck, knotweed, lambsquarters, malva,
      pigweed, purslane, sowthistle and others (8b).
           Weeds not controlled include bindweed, annual morning glory,
      mustards, nightshade, sunflower, and turkey mullein (8b).
           A long-lasting compound which will give season-long weed control
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C17 H21 NO2 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   271.4 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     White crystals (pure compound); brown solid
                          (technical product) (58).
                          The technical grade is 92-96% pure (62).
      MELTING POINT:      74.8 - 75.5 C (pure compound) (58); 68-70 C
                          (technical product) (29m).
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     0.004 um at 25 C (pure compound) (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         73 ppm water at 20C (pure compound) (58)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = >4640 mg/kg (rabbit); it is not a primary skin
                        irritant (62).
               ORAL:    LD50 (male rat) = >500 mg/kg (technical product); >4640
                        mg/kg (50 WP); >5000 mg/kg (10G) (56).
               INHALATION:  LC50 = >9.5 mg/l/hr (50W) (58)
               EYES:    It is not a primary eye irritant (62).
           Daily ingestion by mice of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg/day for
      six weeks in a feeding study resulted in no compound related changes in
      general behavior, survival, appearance, body weight or food
           Daily ingestion by beagle dogs of 16, 40 and 100 mg/kg/day for 13
      weeks in a feeding study resulted in no compound related changes in
      survival, body weight, histopathology, physical observations,
      hemograms, plasma, glucose, BUN, AP, SGOT, prothrombin time or
      urinalysis.  Increased liver weight was observed at 100 mg/kg/day.
      SGPT was elevated at 100 and 40 mg/kg/day.
           Daily ingestion of 13, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks by rats
      in a feeding study resulted in no compound related changes in survival,
      body weight gain, food consumption, physical examination, plasma
      glucose, SGPT and prothrombin time.
           Daily ingestion by rats of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day for 52 weeks
      in a feeding study resulted in no compound related changes in clinical
      signs, survival, clinical chemistry, hematology, urinalysis, tissue
      mass incidence or gross pathology.  Body weight gain and food
      consumption were slightly lower for females in the 100 mg/kg/day group
      (Devrinol Technical) (29m).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           Goldfish LC50 (96 hr) = >10.0 ppm (58).
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.  Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
            Napropamide was quite resistant to leaching in most mineral soils.
            It leached downward about 2.5 cm (1 inch) in clay and silty clay
            soils, about 5 cm (2 inches) in loam, and 20 cm (8 inches) in
            loamy sand when 20 cm (8 inches) of water was applied to columns
            of each soil type.
      2.  Microbial breakdown:  Napropamide was slowly broken down by
            microorganisms in the soil.  In pure culture, a soil fungus
            metabolized it quite rapidly (50% in 2 weeks).
      3.  Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Very little
            if any loss occurred by volatilization from the soil surface.
            However, under conditions of high sunlight intensity in the
            summer, slightly over 50% loss by photodecomposition occurred
            after 4 days on the soil surface.  Under winter conditions the
            loss was approximately 30% in 8 days.
      4.  Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  When
            incorporated in moist loamy sand and loam soils at 21 to 32 C (70
            to 90 F), the half life was 8 to 12 weeks (58).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
           SKIN CONTACT:  Immediately remove contaminated clothing under a
      safety shower.  Flush all affected areas with large amounts of water
      for at least 15 minutes.  Do not attempt to neutralize with chemical
      agents.  Obtain medical advice immediately (Devrinol Technical) (29m).
           INGESTION:  Immediately dilute the swallowed material by rapidly
      giving large quantities of water or milk, if available, and induce
      vomiting by gagging the victim with a finger or blunt object placed on
      the back of the victim's tongue.  Continue fluid administration until
      vomitus is clear.  Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious
      person.  Call a physician or the nearest Poison Control Center
      immediately (Devrinol Technical) (29m).
           INHALATION:  Remove from contaminated atmosphere.  If breathing
      has ceased, clear the victim's airway and start mouth-to-mouth
      artificial respiration, which may be supplemented by the use of a
      bag-mask respirator, or a manually-triggered oxygen supply capable of
      delivering 1 liter/second or more.  If the victim is breathing, oxygen
      may be administered from a demand-type or continuous-flow inhalator,
      preferably with a physician's advice.  Contact a physician immediately
      (Devrinol Technical) (29m).
           EYE CONTACT:  Immediately flush the eyes with large quantities of
      running water for a minimum of 15 minutes.  Hold the eyelids apart
      during the irrigation to ensure flushing of the entire surface of the
      eye and lids with water.  Do not attempt to neutralize with chemical
      agents.  Obtain medical attention as soon as possible.  Oils or
      ointments should not be used.  Continue the irrigation for an
      additional 15 minutes if the physician is not immediately available
      (Devrinol Technical) (29m).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      GENERAL:  Flash point 191 C (375 F) (58).
      Devrinol Technical is not considered flammable but may support
      combustion and may decompose under fire conditions to give off toxic
      materials.  Prevent human exposure to fire, smoke, fumes, or products
      of combustion.  Evacuate nonessential personnel from the fire area.
      Maintain a safe distance from the fire and drum storage areas because
      excessive heat may cause drums to rupture violently.  Wear full face
      self-contained breathing apparatus and impervious clothing (such as
      gloves, hoods, suits, and boots made of rubber) (Devrinol Technical)
      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Use water, dry chemical, foam, carbon dioxide, or
      halogenated extinguishing agents.  High pressure water hose may spread
      the product from broken containers increasing contamination hazards.
      Use of contaminated buildings, areas, and equipment must be prevented
      until they are properly decontaminated (Devrinol Technical) (29m).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Possible incompatibiities:  None known.  Noncorrosive (58).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Stable for several years in packages (58).
      Containers should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
      Store away from flammable materials and sources of heat and flame.  Do
      not store near seeds, fertilizer or foodstuffs.  Exercise due caution
      to prevent damage to or leakage from the container (Devrinol 50 WP)
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Wear rubber gloves, protective clothing, and
      safety glasses (58).
      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  Where adequate ventilation is not available and
      there is a possibility of exposure to vapor or aerosol, inhalation
      exposure can be controlled through the use of NIOSH-MESA approved
      respirator with a particulate prefilter (Devrinol Technical) (29m).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                                  (800) 424-9300
           Make sure all personnel involved in the spill cleanup are aware of
      the hazards associated with this material.
           A small spill can be handled routinely considering the physical
      and hazardous properties of the product as well as the location of the
      spill.  Use adequate ventilation to prevent inhalation contact.  Wear
      protective clothing to prevent skin and eye contact.  Use the
      following procedures for Devrinol Technical:
      1.   Sweep up the powder being careful not to create a dust.
      2.   Place sweepings in an open drum.
      3.   Generously cover the contaminated area with a common household
           detergent (e.g. TIDE).  Using a stiff brush, work the detergent
           into the spill material using sufficient water to form a slurry.
           Brush the slurry into cracks and crevices; and allow to stand for
           2 to 3 minutes.  Be careful to completely avoid skin or eye
           contact.  Do not splatter on one's self or bystanders.
      4.   Spread a suitable absorbent such as clay on the slurried liquid
           and shovel the absorbed material into an open drum.
      5.   Repeat if necessary.
      6.   Flush the area with water, while observing proper environmental
      7.   Seal drum and dispose of contaminated material in an approved
           pesticide dump.
           Larger spills must be handled according to a predetermined plan.
      For assistance in developing a plan, contact Stauffer's Agricultural
      Chemical Division, Westport, CT 06880 (Devrinol Technical) (29m).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      29m. Stauffer Chemical Company, Agricultural Chemical Division.  1978.
               Product safety information:  Devrinol technical.  Westport,
      29n. Stauffer Chemical Company, Agricultural Chemical Division.  1979.
               Product safety information:  Devrinol 50-WP.  Westport, CT.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.