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pebulate (Tillam) Herbicide Profile 3/85

      CHEMICAL NAME:      S-propyl butylethylthiocarbamate (58)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Tillam (58)
      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrate (6 lbs/gal), granules (10%
      TYPE:               (Mono) thiocarbamate herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Stauffer Chemical Co.
                          Agricultural Chemical div.
                          Westport, CT 06881
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Controls both grassy and broadleaf weeds.  Used for
      selective weed control in sugar beets, tobacco, and tomatoes (56).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  For optimum weed control under normal soil and
      climatic conditions, pebulate must be mechanically incorporated into
      the soil to a depth of 5 to 7.6 cm (2 to 3 inches) immediately after
      application.  If pebulate is applied to extremely dry soil during very
      dry climatic conditions, incorporation may be accomplished by overhead
      irrigation following application (58).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
           Pebulate is a selective herbicide which will provide effective
      preemergence control of nutgrass (Cyperus spp.) and annual grasses such
      as crabgrass (Digitaria spp.), foxtails (Setaria spp.), barnyardgrass
      (Echinochloa crusgalli), and wild oat (Avena fatua).  Broadleaf weeds
      such as henbit (Lamium amplexicaule), hairy nightshade (Solanum
      villosum), lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), purslane (Portulaca
      oleracea), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.), and nettleleaf goosefoot
      (Chenopodium murale) will be controlled if application is made when
      conditions are favorable for germination (58).
           Closely related to Eptam.  No contact activity.  Not as effective
      on nutgrass as Eptam.  Activity should last for 6-8 weeks (8b).
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C10 H21 NOS (58)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   203. 4 (58)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Yellow liquid (pure compound) (58)
      ODOR:               Amine-like odor (pure compound) (58)
      BOILING POINT:      142 C at 21 mmHg (pure compound) (58)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     35 x 10-3 mmHg at 25 C (pure compound) (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         60 mg/l water at 20 C (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  None established
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 in rabbits, greater than 4640 mg/kg.  Single
                          exposures of 4640 mg/kg did not produce observable
                          toxicity.  Mild irritant to the rabbit skin.  Not a
                          sensitizer in guinea pigs (Tillam technical) (29y).
                        The acute dermal LD50 is greater than 2000 mg/kg in
                          rabbits.  A single dermal application of 2000 mg/kg
                          produced a mild decrease in physical activity in
                          rabbits.  Local effects included moderate to
                          severe erythema and mild edema.  Severe irritant to
                          rabbit skin following a 24-hour exposure (Tillam 6-E)
               ORAL:    LD50 in rats, 921-1900 mg/kg.  Single oral exposures of
                          900 to 4640 mg/kg produced depression, lacrimation,
                          salivation, diarrhea, bloody exudate around the eye
                          and mortality (Tillam technical) (29y).
                        LD50 = 1652 mg/kg (mouse, Tillam technical (29y).
                        The acute oral LD50 is 1390 mg/kg in female rats.  The
                          acute oral LD50 is 1400 mg/kg in male rats.  A single
                          oral dose of 631 mg/kg produced decreased physical
                          activity and no mortality in female rats (Tillam 6-E)
               EYES:    Mild irritant to the rabbit eye (Tillam technical,
                        Tillam 6-E) (29y,x).
           Daily ingestion of 9-40 mg/kg/day Tillam Technical by dogs for 17
      weeks resulted in ocular discharge and elevated thrombocyte count at 40
           Daily ingestion of 1-320 mg/kg Tillam Technical by rats for up to
      15 weeks resulted in reversible anticoagulation at 20 mg/kg and
      higher.  The effects included prolonged coagulation times, activated
      thromboplastin and prothrombin times and reduced Factor VII and X
      activities.  At doses of 80 mg/kg and higher, deaths due to hemorrhage
      were observed as early as three days after treatment.  Resistance to
      the anticoagulation effect developed with time.  Female rats are less
      sensitive than male rts.  Irritability was noted at 32 mg/kg.
           The no-effect level in these studies was 5 mg/kg/day.
           Daily ingestion of 8-24 mg/kg/day Tillam Technical by mice during
      days 6-18 of gestation was non-teratogenic (29y).
           Mutagenicity:  negative in the Ames Test (29y).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.   Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
             Pebulate is adsorbed onto dry soil but can be removed by
             leaching.  Pebulate leaches slower than EPTC and faster than
      2.   Microbial breakdown:  Microbial breakdown is the main method by
             which pebulate disappears from soils.
      3.   Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Pebulate is
             readily lost from the soil by volatilization when the soil
             surface is wet at the time of application and the herbicide
             is not incorporated immediately.
      4.   Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  At
             recommended rates of application, pebulate does not persist
             in the soil and it should not leave residues that could
             injure subsequently planted sensitive crops.  The half life
             in moist loam soil at 21 to 27 C (70 to 80 F) is approximately 2
             weeks (58).
      General toxicity to wildlife and fish:
      a.   Pebulate was evaluated for its effect on organisms constituting the
             base of the marine food chain.  It produced a 23.8% decrease in
             the productivity of a natural phytoplankton community during a
             4-hr exposure at 1 ppm.  Comparative values for other
             representative herbicides are as follows:
                  EPTC                  0% inhibition
                  2,4-D acid            0% inhibition
                  Diruon             87.4% inhibition
      b.   TLm values for 24 and 48 hr for two salt-water species, the juvenile
             white mullet (Mugil curema) and the longnose killfish (Fundulus
             similis) are as follows:
                                                 TLm (ppm)
                  Species                 24 hr             48 hr
                  Mullet                  6.25              6.25
                  Killifish               7.78              7.78
      c.   The EC50 (loss of equilibrium or death) of pebulate in brown
             shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) is in excess of 1 ppm (highest level
             tested) after 48-hr exposure.
      d.   The EC50 (shell growth inhibition) of pebulate in oysters is
             >1 ppm (highest level tested) after a 96-hr exposure.
      e.   The 96-hr LC50 of pebulate 6E in the mosquito fish is 10 ppm.
      f.   The oral LC50 of technical pebulate in bobwhite quail
             following a 7-day feed treatment is 8400 ppm.  The LC50 of
             pebulate 6E in bobwhite quail on a comparable regimen is 9500 ppm
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING:  Some of these agents
      ((mono)thiocarbmates) are irritating to skin and respiratory mucous
      membranes, causing ITCHING, SCRATCHY THROAT, SNEEZING, and COUGH, if
      excessive amounts of spray or dust are inhaled.  Apart from this
      effect, toxic potential is low.  Neurotoxic and post-ethanol "antabuse"
      reactions are not known to occur as a result of contact with these
      particular compounds (25).
           A single oral dose of 631 mg/kg produced decreased physical
      activity and no mortality in female rats.  Other signs of toxicity in
      female rats at higher doses included hyperactivity, salivation, ruffled
      fur, lacrimation, blood-like staining of the fur, shallow breathing and
      pale eyes and ears.  At necropsy, there was evidence of hemorrhage in
      the small intestine, discolored liver, and purple-colored testes (29x).
           SKIN CONTACT:  WASH contaminated chemical from SKIN and HAIR with
      soap and water.  Persons sensitive to thiram (rubber-sensitive) should
      be permanently REMOVED FROM CONTACT with compounds of this nature (25).
           INGESTION:  Do NOT induce vomiting.  This product contains
      hydrocarbon solvent.  Immediately give large quantities of water.  If
      vomiting does occur, give fluids again.  Never give anything by mouth
      to an unconscious person.  Call a physician or the nearest Poison
      Control Center immediately (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
      A.   Give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water, to induce
                vomiting (adults:  30 ml; children under 12 years:  15 ml).
                Following emesis, administer 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL to
                bind toxicant remaining in the gut.
      B.   Follow charcoal with SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, to
                remove toxicant from the gut by catharsis (25).
           INHALATION:  Remove from contaminated atmosphere.  If breathing
      has ceased, clear the victim's airway and start mouth-to-mouth
      artificial respiration, which may be supplemented by the use of a
      bag-mask respirator or a manually triggered, oxygen supply capable of
      delivering one liter/second or more.  If the victim is breathing,
      oxygen may be delivered from a demand-type or continuous-flow
      inhalator, preferably with a physician's advice (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
           EYE CONTACT:  FLUSH contaminant from EYES with fresh water for
      10-15 minutes (25).
           Immediately flush the eyes with large quantities of running water
      for a minimum of 15 minutes.  Hold the eyelids apart during the
      flushing to ensure rinsing of the entire surface of the eye and lids
      with water.  Do not attempt to neutralize with chemical agents.  Obtain
      medical attention as soon as possible.  Oils or ointments should not be
      used.  Continue the flushing for an additional 15 minutes if the
      physician is not immediately available (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      Flash point:  185 F/85 C (Tagliabue Closed Cup) (Tillam 6-E).
           This material is considered combustible.  Under fire conditions it
      will support combustion and may decompose to give off toxic materials.
           Vapors may be irritating to the respiratory tract and may cause
      breathing difficulty and pulmonary edema.  Symptoms may be delayed
      several hours or longer depending upon exposure.
           As in any fire, prevent human exposure to fire, smoke, fumes, or
      products of combustion.  Evacuate nonessential personnel from the fire
           When there is a potential for exposure to fire, smoke, fumes, or
      products of combustion, firefighters should wear full-face,
      self-contained, breathing apparatus and impervious clothing (such as
      gloves, hoods, suits and rubber boots).
           Use standard firefighting techniques in extinguishing fires
      involving this material -- use water,dry chemicals, foam or carbon
      dioxide.  If drums are NOT leaking, keep cooled with a water spray.
      High pressure water hose may spread product from broken containers,
      increasing contamination hazards.  Use of contaminated buildings, areas
      and equipment must be prevented until they are properly decontaminated
      (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           No incompatibilities known or expected.  Noncorrosive (58).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Containers should be stored in a cool, dry,
      well-ventilated area.  Store away from flammable materials and sources
      of heat and flame.
           Do not store near seeds, fertilizers or foodstuffs.  Exercise due
      caution to prevent damage to or leakage from the container.
           All food should be kept in a separate area away from the
      storage/use location.  Eating, drinking and smoking should be
      prohibited in areas where there is a potential for significant exposure
      to this material.  Before eating, hands and face should be thoroughly
      washed (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Skin contact with liquid or its aerosol must be
      prevented through the use of impervious clothing, gloves and footwear,
      selected with regard for use condition exposure potential.
           Eye contact with liquid or its aerosol should be avoided through
      the use of chemical safety glasses, goggles or a face shield, selected
      with regard for use condition exposure potential (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  If use conditions generate airborne aerosol,
      liquid or vapor, the material should be handled in an open (e.g.
      outdoor) or well-ventilated area.  Where adequate ventilation is not
      available, NIOSH-approved respirators should be employed to reduce
      exposure.  Respirator selection must address the potential for exposure
      under the use conditions (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
           Make sure all personnel involved in the spill cleanup follow good
      industrial hygiene practices.
           A small spill can be handled routinely.  Use adequate ventilation
      and wear an air-supplied respirator to prevent inhalation.  Wear
      suitable protective clothing to prevent skin and eye contact.  Use the
      following procedures:
           1.   Spread a suitable absorbent such as clay, sawdust or kitty
                litter on the spilled liquid.
           2.   Place sweepings in an appropriate chemical waste container.
           3.   Generously cover the contaminated areas with a common
                household detergent (e.g. TIDE).  Using a stiff brush and
                small amounts of water, work the detergent into the spill
                material forming a slurry.  Do not splatter on one's self or
                bystanders, and completely avoid skin or eye contact with
                this material.  Brush the slurry into cracks and crevices and
                allow to stand for 2-3 minutes.
           4.   Again, spread absorbents on the slurried liquid, and shovel
                the absorbed material into the container.
           5.   Repeat if necessary.
           6.   Flush the area with water while observing proper
                environmental considerations.
           7.   Seal container and dispose of in approved pesticide landfill.
           Large spills should be handled according to a predetermined plan.
      For assistance in developing a plan, contact Stauffer's Agricultural
      Chemical Division, Westport, CT 06880 (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      29x. Stauffer Chemical Company, Agricultural Chemical Division.  1980.
               Product safety information:  Tillam 6-E.  Westport, CT.
      29y. Stauffer Chemical Company, Agricultural Chemical Division.  1978.
               Product safety information:  Tillam technical.  Westport, CT.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.