pebulate (Tillam) Herbicide Profile 3/85
CHEMICAL NAME: S-propyl butylethylthiocarbamate (58)
TRADE NAME(S): Tillam (58)
FORMULATION(S): Emulsifiable concentrate (6 lbs/gal), granules (10%
TYPE: (Mono) thiocarbamate herbicide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Stauffer Chemical Co.
Agricultural Chemical div.
Westport, CT 06881
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: Controls both grassy and broadleaf weeds. Used for
selective weed control in sugar beets, tobacco, and tomatoes (56).
APPLICATION METHOD(S): For optimum weed control under normal soil and
climatic conditions, pebulate must be mechanically incorporated into
the soil to a depth of 5 to 7.6 cm (2 to 3 inches) immediately after
application. If pebulate is applied to extremely dry soil during very
dry climatic conditions, incorporation may be accomplished by overhead
irrigation following application (58).
Pebulate is a selective herbicide which will provide effective
preemergence control of nutgrass (Cyperus spp.) and annual grasses such
as crabgrass (Digitaria spp.), foxtails (Setaria spp.), barnyardgrass
(Echinochloa crusgalli), and wild oat (Avena fatua). Broadleaf weeds
such as henbit (Lamium amplexicaule), hairy nightshade (Solanum
villosum), lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), purslane (Portulaca
oleracea), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.), and nettleleaf goosefoot
(Chenopodium murale) will be controlled if application is made when
conditions are favorable for germination (58).
Closely related to Eptam. No contact activity. Not as effective
on nutgrass as Eptam. Activity should last for 6-8 weeks (8b).
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C10 H21 NOS (58)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 203. 4 (58)
PHYSICAL STATE: Yellow liquid (pure compound) (58)
ODOR: Amine-like odor (pure compound) (58)
BOILING POINT: 142 C at 21 mmHg (pure compound) (58)
VAPOR PRESSURE: 35 x 10-3 mmHg at 25 C (pure compound) (58)
SOLUBILITY: 60 mg/l water at 20 C (pure compound) (62)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: None established
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 in rabbits, greater than 4640 mg/kg. Single
exposures of 4640 mg/kg did not produce observable
toxicity. Mild irritant to the rabbit skin. Not a
sensitizer in guinea pigs (Tillam technical) (29y).
The acute dermal LD50 is greater than 2000 mg/kg in
rabbits. A single dermal application of 2000 mg/kg
produced a mild decrease in physical activity in
rabbits. Local effects included moderate to
severe erythema and mild edema. Severe irritant to
rabbit skin following a 24-hour exposure (Tillam 6-E)
ORAL: LD50 in rats, 921-1900 mg/kg. Single oral exposures of
900 to 4640 mg/kg produced depression, lacrimation,
salivation, diarrhea, bloody exudate around the eye
and mortality (Tillam technical) (29y).
LD50 = 1652 mg/kg (mouse, Tillam technical (29y).
The acute oral LD50 is 1390 mg/kg in female rats. The
acute oral LD50 is 1400 mg/kg in male rats. A single
oral dose of 631 mg/kg produced decreased physical
activity and no mortality in female rats (Tillam 6-E)
EYES: Mild irritant to the rabbit eye (Tillam technical,
Tillam 6-E) (29y,x).
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
Daily ingestion of 9-40 mg/kg/day Tillam Technical by dogs for 17
weeks resulted in ocular discharge and elevated thrombocyte count at 40
Daily ingestion of 1-320 mg/kg Tillam Technical by rats for up to
15 weeks resulted in reversible anticoagulation at 20 mg/kg and
higher. The effects included prolonged coagulation times, activated
thromboplastin and prothrombin times and reduced Factor VII and X
activities. At doses of 80 mg/kg and higher, deaths due to hemorrhage
were observed as early as three days after treatment. Resistance to
the anticoagulation effect developed with time. Female rats are less
sensitive than male rts. Irritability was noted at 32 mg/kg.
The no-effect level in these studies was 5 mg/kg/day.
Daily ingestion of 8-24 mg/kg/day Tillam Technical by mice during
days 6-18 of gestation was non-teratogenic (29y).
Mutagenicity: negative in the Ames Test (29y).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Behavior In Or On Soils
1. Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
Pebulate is adsorbed onto dry soil but can be removed by
leaching. Pebulate leaches slower than EPTC and faster than
2. Microbial breakdown: Microbial breakdown is the main method by
which pebulate disappears from soils.
3. Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization: Pebulate is
readily lost from the soil by volatilization when the soil
surface is wet at the time of application and the herbicide
is not incorporated immediately.
4. Resultant average persistence at recommended rates: At
recommended rates of application, pebulate does not persist
in the soil and it should not leave residues that could
injure subsequently planted sensitive crops. The half life
in moist loam soil at 21 to 27 C (70 to 80 F) is approximately 2
General toxicity to wildlife and fish:
a. Pebulate was evaluated for its effect on organisms constituting the
base of the marine food chain. It produced a 23.8% decrease in
the productivity of a natural phytoplankton community during a
4-hr exposure at 1 ppm. Comparative values for other
representative herbicides are as follows:
EPTC 0% inhibition
2,4-D acid 0% inhibition
Diruon 87.4% inhibition
b. TLm values for 24 and 48 hr for two salt-water species, the juvenile
white mullet (Mugil curema) and the longnose killfish (Fundulus
similis) are as follows:
Species 24 hr 48 hr
Mullet 6.25 6.25
Killifish 7.78 7.78
c. The EC50 (loss of equilibrium or death) of pebulate in brown
shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) is in excess of 1 ppm (highest level
tested) after 48-hr exposure.
d. The EC50 (shell growth inhibition) of pebulate in oysters is
>1 ppm (highest level tested) after a 96-hr exposure.
e. The 96-hr LC50 of pebulate 6E in the mosquito fish is 10 ppm.
f. The oral LC50 of technical pebulate in bobwhite quail
following a 7-day feed treatment is 8400 ppm. The LC50 of
pebulate 6E in bobwhite quail on a comparable regimen is 9500 ppm
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan, which have been
footnoted. This information has been provided in this form for your
convenience and general guidance only. In specific cases, further
consultation and reference may be required and is recommended. This
information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING: Some of these agents
((mono)thiocarbmates) are irritating to skin and respiratory mucous
membranes, causing ITCHING, SCRATCHY THROAT, SNEEZING, and COUGH, if
excessive amounts of spray or dust are inhaled. Apart from this
effect, toxic potential is low. Neurotoxic and post-ethanol "antabuse"
reactions are not known to occur as a result of contact with these
particular compounds (25).
A single oral dose of 631 mg/kg produced decreased physical
activity and no mortality in female rats. Other signs of toxicity in
female rats at higher doses included hyperactivity, salivation, ruffled
fur, lacrimation, blood-like staining of the fur, shallow breathing and
pale eyes and ears. At necropsy, there was evidence of hemorrhage in
the small intestine, discolored liver, and purple-colored testes (29x).
SKIN CONTACT: WASH contaminated chemical from SKIN and HAIR with
soap and water. Persons sensitive to thiram (rubber-sensitive) should
be permanently REMOVED FROM CONTACT with compounds of this nature (25).
INGESTION: Do NOT induce vomiting. This product contains
hydrocarbon solvent. Immediately give large quantities of water. If
vomiting does occur, give fluids again. Never give anything by mouth
to an unconscious person. Call a physician or the nearest Poison
Control Center immediately (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
A. Give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water, to induce
vomiting (adults: 30 ml; children under 12 years: 15 ml).
Following emesis, administer 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL to
bind toxicant remaining in the gut.
B. Follow charcoal with SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, to
remove toxicant from the gut by catharsis (25).
INHALATION: Remove from contaminated atmosphere. If breathing
has ceased, clear the victim's airway and start mouth-to-mouth
artificial respiration, which may be supplemented by the use of a
bag-mask respirator or a manually triggered, oxygen supply capable of
delivering one liter/second or more. If the victim is breathing,
oxygen may be delivered from a demand-type or continuous-flow
inhalator, preferably with a physician's advice (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
EYE CONTACT: FLUSH contaminant from EYES with fresh water for
10-15 minutes (25).
Immediately flush the eyes with large quantities of running water
for a minimum of 15 minutes. Hold the eyelids apart during the
flushing to ensure rinsing of the entire surface of the eye and lids
with water. Do not attempt to neutralize with chemical agents. Obtain
medical attention as soon as possible. Oils or ointments should not be
used. Continue the flushing for an additional 15 minutes if the
physician is not immediately available (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
Flash point: 185 F/85 C (Tagliabue Closed Cup) (Tillam 6-E).
This material is considered combustible. Under fire conditions it
will support combustion and may decompose to give off toxic materials.
Vapors may be irritating to the respiratory tract and may cause
breathing difficulty and pulmonary edema. Symptoms may be delayed
several hours or longer depending upon exposure.
As in any fire, prevent human exposure to fire, smoke, fumes, or
products of combustion. Evacuate nonessential personnel from the fire
When there is a potential for exposure to fire, smoke, fumes, or
products of combustion, firefighters should wear full-face,
self-contained, breathing apparatus and impervious clothing (such as
gloves, hoods, suits and rubber boots).
Use standard firefighting techniques in extinguishing fires
involving this material -- use water,dry chemicals, foam or carbon
dioxide. If drums are NOT leaking, keep cooled with a water spray.
High pressure water hose may spread product from broken containers,
increasing contamination hazards. Use of contaminated buildings, areas
and equipment must be prevented until they are properly decontaminated
(Tillam 6-E) (29x).
No incompatibilities known or expected. Noncorrosive (58).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Containers should be stored in a cool, dry,
well-ventilated area. Store away from flammable materials and sources
of heat and flame.
Do not store near seeds, fertilizers or foodstuffs. Exercise due
caution to prevent damage to or leakage from the container.
All food should be kept in a separate area away from the
storage/use location. Eating, drinking and smoking should be
prohibited in areas where there is a potential for significant exposure
to this material. Before eating, hands and face should be thoroughly
washed (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Skin contact with liquid or its aerosol must be
prevented through the use of impervious clothing, gloves and footwear,
selected with regard for use condition exposure potential.
Eye contact with liquid or its aerosol should be avoided through
the use of chemical safety glasses, goggles or a face shield, selected
with regard for use condition exposure potential (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: If use conditions generate airborne aerosol,
liquid or vapor, the material should be handled in an open (e.g.
outdoor) or well-ventilated area. Where adequate ventilation is not
available, NIOSH-approved respirators should be employed to reduce
exposure. Respirator selection must address the potential for exposure
under the use conditions (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
Make sure all personnel involved in the spill cleanup follow good
industrial hygiene practices.
A small spill can be handled routinely. Use adequate ventilation
and wear an air-supplied respirator to prevent inhalation. Wear
suitable protective clothing to prevent skin and eye contact. Use the
1. Spread a suitable absorbent such as clay, sawdust or kitty
litter on the spilled liquid.
2. Place sweepings in an appropriate chemical waste container.
3. Generously cover the contaminated areas with a common
household detergent (e.g. TIDE). Using a stiff brush and
small amounts of water, work the detergent into the spill
material forming a slurry. Do not splatter on one's self or
bystanders, and completely avoid skin or eye contact with
this material. Brush the slurry into cracks and crevices and
allow to stand for 2-3 minutes.
4. Again, spread absorbents on the slurried liquid, and shovel
the absorbed material into the container.
5. Repeat if necessary.
6. Flush the area with water while observing proper
7. Seal container and dispose of in approved pesticide landfill.
Large spills should be handled according to a predetermined plan.
For assistance in developing a plan, contact Stauffer's Agricultural
Chemical Division, Westport, CT 06880 (Tillam 6-E) (29x).
X. LITERATURE CITED
8b. Thomson, W.T. 1981. Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
herbicides. Revised ed. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
29x. Stauffer Chemical Company, Agricultural Chemical Division. 1980.
Product safety information: Tillam 6-E. Westport, CT.
29y. Stauffer Chemical Company, Agricultural Chemical Division. 1978.
Product safety information: Tillam technical. Westport, CT.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
58. Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
1983. Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
America, 5th ed. Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
IL. 515 pp.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.