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phenmedipham (Betanal, Spin-Aid) Herbicide Profile 2/85

      CHEMICAL NAME:      Methyl-m-hydroxycarbanilate-m-methylcarbanilate
      TRADE NAME(S):      Spin-aid, Betanal (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrate (1.3 pounds/gallon) (56)
      TYPE:               Postemergence herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  NOR-AM Agricultural Products, Inc.
                          350 W. Shuman Blvd.
                          Naperville, IL 60566
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  For control of weeds such as kochia, lambsquarters,
      mustard, green foxtail, etc. in red table beets and spinach (56).
      Postemergence sugarbeet herbicide for control of annual weeds such as
      lambsquarters, shepherdspurse, dogfennel, yellow mustard, chickweed,
      wild radish, ragweed, kochia, wild buckwheat, foxtail, nightshade,
      field pennycress, London rocket, purslane, fiddleneck, ground cherry,
      and goosefoot (58).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Phenmedipham is applied as a postemergence
      spray.  It is applied either broadcast or as a band treatment.  Apply
      when beets are at the 2 true-leaf stage or larger.  Weeds should be
      at the cotyledonary to 2-leaf stage for best results (58).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
      Group I:  Weeds susceptible to Betanal if sprayed before reaching the
      4-leaf stage.
      Common Name                                   Scientific Name
      ___________                                   _______________
      lambsquarters                                 Chenopodium album
      wild buckwheat                                Polygonum convolvulus
      green foxtail                                 Setaria viridis
      pigeon grass (yellow foxtail)                 Setaria glauca
      mustard                                       Brassica spp.
      purslane                                      Portulaca oleracea
      chickweed                                     Stellaria media
      shepherdspurse                                Capsella bursa-pastoris
      London rocket                                 Sisymbrium irio
      Group II:  Weeds which may be controlled if sprayed before reaching the
      2-leaf stage.
      prostrate pigweed                             Amaranthus graecizans
      nightshade                                    Solanum spp.
      ragweed                                       Ambrosia spp.
      kochia*                                       Kochia scoparia
      fiddleneck                                    Amsinckia spp.
      ground cherry                                 Pysalis spp.
      goosefoot                                     Chenopodium murale
      * Spray kochia while in the rosette stage, less than 1 inch in diameter
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:    C16 H16 N2 O4 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:     300.3 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:       Colorless crystals (pure compound) (62); amber
                            colored liquid (Betanal) (36d).
      ODOR:                 Faint solvent odor (Betanal) (36d)
      MELTING POINT:        143-144 C (pure compound); 140-144 C (technical
                            product, >95% pure) (62).
      VAPOR PRESSURE:       1.3 nPa at 25 C (technical product) (62)
      SOLUBILITY:           4.7 mg/l water at room temperature (pure compound)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = >4000 mg/kg (rat) (phenmedipham) (58)
                        LD50 (for Betanal - 15.9% phenmedipham): >20,000
                          mg/kg (rat); >10,000 mg/kg (rabbit) (58).
                        LD50 (for formulation less active ingredient):
                          13,500 mg/kg (rat); 3900 mg/kg (rabbit) (58).
               ORAL:    LD50 = >8000 mg/kg (rats and mice); >4000 mg/kg
                          (dogs and guinea pigs); >3000 mg/kg (chickens)
                        LD50 = 2000 mg/kg (rat, Betanal-15.9 phenmedipham)
               INHALATION:  LC50 (4 hour exposure), aerosol inhalation,
                            undiluted Betanal:  more than 6.2 mg/l (rat)
           In 120-d feeding trials rats receiving up to 500 mg a.i./kg
      daily survived, but there was a reduced food intake dependent on the
      dose (62).
           A 2-year rat oncogenicity study showed no compound related
      histomorphologic alterations at dietary levels of 500 ppm and less.
      A 2-year dog feeding study showed no compound related effects at dietary
      levels of 1000 ppm and less (58).
           The toxicological data considered in support of the proposed
      tolerance included:  A three-generation rat reproduction study with a
      no-observable-effect-level (NOEL) (for reproductive effects) of 500 ppm
      (highest dose tested); a rat teratology study with no teratogenic or
      fetal toxic effects noted at 500 ppm (highest dose tested); a two-year
      dog feeding study with a NOEL of 1,000 ppm (highest dose tested); a rat
      chronic feeding and oncogenic study with no unusual incidence of tumor
      formation and a NOEL (based on body weight change) of 100 ppm; and a
      mouse mutagenic potential study (using micronucleus test) with no
      evidence of mutagenicity (53b).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           In soil, 71-86% of the amount determined 1 d after treatment was
      degraded in 90 d, mainly to methyl 3-hydroxycarbanilate (62).
           Phenmedipham remains in the top layers of soil (0 to 2 inches)
      after application.  Half-life of phenmedipham is approximately 25 days
           Rainbow trout:  some toxic symptoms at 0.01 ml of phenmedipham per
      liter of water; lethal concentration 0.02 ml of phenmedipham per
      liter (58).
           No effect on trout at 1.6 mg a.i. (as 'Betanal')/l and carp
      2.4 mg a.i. (as 'Betanal')/l (62).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      SYMPTOMS OF POISONING:  Massive doses might cause signs of central
      nervous system stimulation such as hyperactivity, tremors or muscle
      spasms (58).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Thoroughly rinse contaminated areas (58).
           INGESTION:     Induce vomiting (58).
           EYE CONTACT:   Thoroughly rinse contaminated areas (58).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      GENERAL:  Flash point:  74 C - TCC (58).  When Betanal is subjected to
      extremely high temperatures such as in a warehouse fire, it may
      decompose and give off poisonous vapors.  Personnel fighting the fire
      should wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (36d).
      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Any type extinguisher may be used; however, water
      should not be used if there is a chance that run-off may contaminate
      water supplies (36d).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Phenmedipham presents no particular corrosion problems (58).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Do not store below 20 C.  Avoid breathing spray
      mist (56).  Phenmedipham has a shelf life of over 1 year.  Do not
      breathe spray mist.  Do not eat, drink, or smoke while spraying (58).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  None required (56).
      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: Wear goggles to prevent splashing into eyes (56).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                                  (800) 424-9300
           Betanal spillage should be absorbed in a suitable material such as
      sawdust or lime.  The area should then be washed with water containing
      ammonia and a detergent.  Wear rubber gloves (synthetic or natural)
      when cleaning up Betanal spillage.  Make sure that spillage or wash
      water does not contaminate sewers or waterways.  Material used for
      soaking up Betanal spillage and washing liquids used for cleaning up
      contaminated areas should be placed in a separate container and treated
      with lime and soda ash for several hours prior to disposal in a
      designated area away from water supplies.  Check local and state
      authorities for regulations with regard to pesticide disposal (36d).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
      36c. Nor-Am Agricultural Products, Inc.  1973.  Information bulletin:
               Betanal.  Chicago, IL.
      36d. Nor-Am Agricultural Products, Inc.  ---- .  Safety manual:  Betanal
               post-emergence sugar beet herbicide.  Chicago, IL.
      53b. U.S. Government Printing Office.  1981.  Federal Register.
               46(236):60217-60218.  Superintendent of Documents.
               Washington, DC.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.