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profluralin (Tolban) Herbicide Profile 3/85

                                    profluralin
      CHEMICAL NAME:      N-(cyclopropylmethyl)-a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N
                          -propyl-p-toluidine (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Tolban 4E (58)
      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrate 0.5 kg/l (4 lg/gal) (58).
      TYPE:               Dinitrotoluidine herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Ciba-Geigy Corp.
                          P.O. Box 18300
                          Greensboro, NC 27419
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Tolerant crops include cotton, soybeans, safflower,
      sunflower, seedling alfalfa, peanuts, dry beans, snapbeans, lima beans,
      southern peas, okra, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower,
      transplants of peppers and tomatoes, fruit and nut crops, woody
      ornamentals, and certain species of established turf.  Small grains,
      sorghum, corn, beets, and direct seeded tomatoes are sensitive crops
      (58).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Profluralin should be mechanically incorporated
      for maximum biological activity.  Application and incorporation can be
      preplanting, postplanting, or at layby (58).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
      Important Weeds Controlled:  Barnyardgrass, panicums, foxtails,
      goosegrass, Johnsongrass, crabgrass, witchgrass, pigweed, Florida
      pursley, kochia, lambsquarter and others (8b).
           Broadleaf annual weeds from seed including pigweed, purslane,
      carpetweed, kochia, and lambsquarters are effectively controlled by
      profluralin.  Foxtails, panicums, witchgrass, wild oats, wild cane
      (shattercane), stinkgrass, sprangletop, and crabgrass are highly
      sensitive to profluralin.  Weeds which have demonstrated a moderate to
      high degree of tolerance to profluralin include groundcherry,
      jimsonweed, nutsedge, prickly sida, puncturevine, quackgrass,
      smartweed, ragweed, velvetleaf, and Venice mallow (58).
           Shallow incorporation of less than 2 inches may result in poor weed
      control.  Provides season-long control but does not carry over into the
      next season.  Kills weeds as they germinate.  No post-emergence activity.
      More effective on grasses than broadleaves.  Cultivation following
      incorporation does not disturb the activity of the chemical (8b).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C14 H16 N3 O4 F3 (58)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   347.3 (58)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Yellow-orange crystals or deep orange liquid (pure
                          compound) (58).
      ODOR:               No appreciable odor (pure compound) (58)
      MELTING POINT:      32.1 to 32.5 C (pure compound) (58)
      BOILING POINT:      Sublimes (pure compound) (58)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     6.9 x 10-5 mmHg at 20 C (pure compound) (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         0.1 mg/l water at 20 C (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  None established
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = 3,969 mg/kg (rabbit), minimally irritating
                          to the skin.  Studies with rabbits have shown
                          slight skin swelling and redness occurred
                          after exposure for 24 hours (Tolban 4E) (24o).
                        LD50 = >3,170 mg/kg (rat) (62).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 2,700 mg/kg (rat, Tolban 4E) (24o).
                        LD50 = c. 10,000 mg/kg (rat) (62).
               INHALATION:  LC50 = >3.0 mg/l air - 4 hours (rat) (Tolban 4E)
                            (24o).
               EYES:    Moderately irritating on contact.  Studies with
                        rabbits have shown eye irritation and redness and
                        swelling of the eyelids can occur (Tolban 4E) (24o).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           In 90-day feeding trials NEL was:  for rats 200 mg/kg diet (c.13
      mg/kg daily); for dogs 600 mg/kg diet (c. 20 mg/kg daily) (62).
           Lifetime feeding studies with high dose levels of profluralin
      technical have produced an increased incidence of hepatic tumors in
      mice (24o).
           Long-term exposure to low levels of the material is not known to
      cause any ill effects in humans (Tolban 4E) (24o).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.   Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
             Profluralin is strongly adsorbed to organic matter and clay.
             Therefore, it is not leached through the soil or carried
             across the soil surface as runoff unless soil movement or
             erosion takes place.  Even when minor erosion occurs,
             relatively little profluralin will be carried from the treated
             area if it has been mechanically incorporated into the soil.
      2.   Microbial breakdown:  Profluralin is degraded by soil
             microorganisms.  No specific organism or type of organism has
             yet been identified as being responsible for degradation.
      3.   Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Profluralin
             is subject to loss from the soil by vaporization and
             photodegradation.  Rate of dissipation is most rapid when
             profluralin is applied to a wet or damp soil surface.  A hot,
             packed, or smooth soil surface, wind, or strong sunlight may
             also stimulate the rate of profluralin disappearance.
             Incorporation is recommneded to reduce loss by
             photodegradation and vaporization.
      4.   Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:
                                                % Degradation       Half life
                Location        Soil              in 6 mo.            days
                Mississippi     Sandy loam           70             90 to 160
                California      Fine sandy loam      74             90 to 120
                Nebraska        Silt loam            74            100 to 120
                Texas           Silty clay loam      75             80 to 120
                Ohio            Clay loam            82            100 to 120
                                Selected References
                Ellis, J.F. and J.A. Norton.  1976.  Factors affecting the
                   biological activity of dinitroaniline herbicides.
                   Supplement to NEWSS Proc. 30:53-73.
                Helling, C.S.  1976.  Chemical and physical properties of the
                   dinitroaniline herbicides.  Supplement to NEWSS Proc.
                   30:44-51.
                Parka, S.J. and O.F. Soper.  1977.  The physiology and mode
                   of action of the dinitroaniline herbicides.  Weed Sci.
                   25:79-87.
                Probst, G.W., T. Golab, and W.L. Wright.  1975.
                   Dinitroanilines.  In Herbicides, Chemistry, Degradation,
                   and Mode of Action.  Ed. by P.C. Kearney and D.D.
                   Kaufman.  Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (58).
      General toxicity to wildlife and fish:  No hazard to mammals and
           birds.  Toxic to fish if placed directly in water.  Due to the
           strong soil adsorption characteristics and application methods
           (soil incorporation), the possibiity of hazardous conditions to
           fish resulting from recommended usage is nil.
           LD50 - male bobwhite quail, >1,000 mg/kg
           LD50 - female bobwhite quail, >1,000 mg/kg
           LD50 - male mallard ducks, >1,000 mg/kg
           LD50 - female mallard ducks, >1,000 mg/kg
           LC50 - bluegill fish, 0.033 (0.025 to 0.045) mg/liter H2O
                (estimated over a period of 120 hr in a continuous flow
                proportional dilution apparatus) (58).
           LC50 (96-hr) is:  For trout 0.015 mg/l; for bluegill 0.023 mg/l.
                It is practically non-toxic to birds but toxic to honeybees
                (62).
                       V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      KNOWN OR SUSPECTED ADVERSE EFFECTS:  Slightly to moderately
      irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.  Does not uncouple
      oxidative phosphorylation (25).
           Irritation of eyes, skin, nose or throat may result from
      overexposure to Tolban 4E.  Other symptoms may include nausea,
      vomiting, abdominal cramps or diarrhea (Tolban 4E) (24o).
           Irritation of eyes, skin, nose or throat may result from
      overexposure to Tolban 4E.  Other symptoms may include nausea,
      vomiting, abdominal cramps or diarrhea (Tolban 4E) (24o).
           In large doses in rats ataxia, decreased limb tone, decreased
      respiratory rate, salivation, hyperactivity, diarrhea, prostration,
      dypsnea (58).
           SKIN CONTACT:  WASH contaminated SKIN with soap and water (25).
           INGESTION:  Do NOT induce vomiting.  If conscious, give water to
      drink.  Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.  Call a
      physician or the nearest Poison Control Center immediately (Tolban 4E)
      (24o).
           INGESTIONS of SMALL amounts (less than 10 mg/kg body weight)
      occurring less than an hour before treatment, are probably best
      treated by:
           A.   SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water.  Dose for
                adults and children over 12 years:  30 ml.  Dose for children
                under 12 years: : 15 ml.
           B.   ACTIVATED CHARCOAL, administer 30-50 gm as a slurry in tap
                water, after vomiting stops.
           C.   SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a
                cathartic (25).
           INHALATION:  Remove from contaminated atmosphere.  If symptoms
      appear or person is unconscious, get medical attention (24o).
           EYE CONTACT:  FLUSH contaminated EYES with copious amounts of
      fresh water for 15 minutes (25).
      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
      INGESTIONS of LARGE amounts (more than 10 mg/kg) occurring less than an
      hour before treatment, should probably be treated by gastric lavage:
      A.   INTUBATE stomach and ASPIRATE contents.
      B.   LAVAGE stomach with slurry of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IN 0.9% saline.
           Leave 30-50 gm activated charcoal in the stomach before
           withdrawing tube.
      C.   SODIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a cathartic.
           CAUTION:  Hydrocarbons (kerosene, petroleum distillates) are
                     included in some formulations of these chemicals.
                     Ingestion of very LARGE AMOUNTS may cause CNS
                     depression.  In this case, IPECAC IS CONTRAINDICATED.
                     Also, gastric intubation incurs a risk of HYDROCARBON
                     PNEUMONITIS.  For this reason observe the following
                     precautions:
                     (1)  If the victim is unconscious or obtunded and
                          facilities are at hand, insert an ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE
                          (cuffed, if available) prior to gastric intubation.
                     (2)  Keep victim's HEAD BELOW LEVEL OF STOMACH during
                          intubation and lavage (Trendelenburg, or left
                          lateral decubitus, with head of table tipped
                          downward).  Keep victim's head turned to the left.
                     (3)  ASPIRATE PHARYNX as regularly as possible to remove
                          gagged or vomited stomach contents.
      INGESTIONS occurring MORE THAN an HOUR before treatment are probably
      best treated only by ACTIVATED CHARCOAL, 30-50 gm, and SODIUM or
      MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, as described above.
      There are no specific antidotes for these chemicals.  Because
      manifestations of toxicity do occasionally occur in peculiarly
      predisposed individuals, MAINTAIN CONTACT with victim for at least 72
      hours so that unexpected adverse effects can be treated promptly (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      GENERAL:  Flash point 104 plus or minus 3 F (TCC, Tolban 4E).  As in
      any fire, prevent human exposure to fire, smoke, fumes or products of
      combustion.  Evacuate nonessential personnel from the area.
      Firefighters should wear impervious clothing such as gloves, hoods,
      suits and rubber boots.  Use of contaminated buildings, area and
      equipment must be prevented until they are properly decontaminated
      (Tolban 4E) (24o).
      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Use standard chemical firefighting techniques in
      extinguishing fires involving this material - use dry chemcals, foam or
      carbon dioxide (Tolban 4E) (24o).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           No known incompatibilities exist with hard water or other
      pesticides:  Profluralin has exhibited good to excellent mixing
      properties with 30 and 33% liquid nitrogen fertilizer and with the
      following fertilizer blends:  4-12-24; 2-6-12; 5-15-25; 4-12-20; and
      4-8-12.  Profluralin does not mix well with 10-34-0 fertilizers.
      Vigorous agitation is required to prevent profluralin from separating
      from 10-34-0 fertilizer.  Profluralin may be applied with certain dry
      bulk fertilizer mixtures.  Profluralin is noncorosive (58).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Keep this material out of the reach of
      children.  Containers must be stored in a cool, dry, well ventilated
      area.  Store away from foodstuffs.  All food must be kept in a separate
      area away from the storage/use location.  Eating, drinking, and smoking
      should be prevented in areas where there is a potential for exposure to
      this material (Tolban 4E) (24o).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Skin contact with the product should be prevented
      through the use of rubber gloves and clothing consistent with good
      pesticide handling practice.  Eye contact with the product should be
      avoided through the use of chemical safety glasses or goggles (Tolban
      4E) (24o).
      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  This material should be handled in a well
      ventilated area.  Where adequate ventilation is not available and
      exposure to excessive mist could occur, wear a Conflo II (MSA) or other
      approved pesticide respirator (Tolban 4E) (24o).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
           Make sure all personnel invovled in spill cleanup follow good
      industrial hygiene practices.
           Small spills can be handled routinely.  Cover the spill with an
      absorbent material such as vermiculite, lime, or sawdust to prevent
      dust.  Sweep up the material and place in an appropriate chemical waste
      container.  Seal container and dispose of in an approved landfill.
      Wash the spill area with a saturated solution of sodium carbonate and a
      strong detergent.  Flush the spill area with water to remove any
      residue.
           Do not reuse container.  Destroy by perforation or crushing and
      burying in a safe place.
           Disposal of material, spill residues, wash water and containers
      must be by methods consistent with local, state and federal health and
      environmental regulations (24o).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      24o. Ciba-Geigy Corporation, Agricultural Division.  1982.  Safety
               data sheet:  Tolban 4E.  Greensboro, NC.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
      3/18/85