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prometon (Pramitol) Herbicide Profile 2/85

      CHEMICAL NAME:      2,4-bis (isopropylamino)-6-methoxy-s-triazine (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Ontracic 800, Pramitol 25E (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, and
                          pellets (56); 25% EC, 80% WP (8b).
      TYPE:               Triazine herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Ciba-Geigy Corp.
                          P.O. Box 18300
                          Greensboro, NC 27419
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  A nonselective herbicide which can be applied
      before or following weed emergence.  It controls most annual and many
      perennial broadleaf weeds and grasses, generally for a full season or
      longer.  It is adapted to industrial use (56).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Application of sprays or granules can be made
      either before or after weed emergence.  Since much of its activity is
      through the roots, adequate rainfall is required to move the chemical
      into the root zone (58).
           Applied at either time of weed emergence or 2-3 months afterwards.
      Most effective when applied 2-3 months following weed emergence (8b).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
      Important Weeds Controlled:  Johsongrass, Bermudagrass, foxtail,
      mustards, ragweeed, plantain, quackgrass, horsetail, watergrass,
      chickweed, catchfly, cocklebur, mullein, crabgrass, dock, goosegrass,
      Jimsonweed, lambsquarters, nightshade, puncture vine, purslane, pigweed,
      velvetleaf, wild oats, and many others (8b).
           Faster acting than simazine, but does not have as long a residual
      effect as either simazine or atrazine.  Controls for a full season or
      longer.  Requires rainfall to move it into the soil.  Synergistic with
      both simazine and atrazine.  Proven and used under all climatic
      conditions (8b).
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C10 H19 N5 O (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   225.3 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless powder (pure compound) (62)
      MELTING POINT:      91-92 C (pure compound) (62)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     2.3 x 10-6 mmHg at 20 C (pure compound) (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         620 mg/l water at 20 C (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = >2,000 mg/kg (rabbit, technical); 2,200 mg/kg
                          (rabbit, Pramitol 25E); >10,000 mg/kg (rabbit,
                          Pramitol 80W) (56).
                        LD50 = 2,000-2,500 mg/kg (rabbit, intact skin);
                          1,500-2,000 mg/kg (rabbit, abraded skin) (58).
                        Minimal skin irritation (rabbit, technical); severe
                          skin irritation (rabbit, Pramitol 25E); mild skin
                          irritation (rabbit, Pramitol 80W) (56).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 2980 mg/kg (rat, technical); 2276 mg/kg (rat,
                          Pramitol 25E); 2100 mg/kg (rat, Pramitol 80W) (56).
               INHALATION:  LC50 = >3.26 mg/l for 4 hours (rat, technical);
                              36.0 mg/l for 4 hours (rat, Pramitol 25E); 3.26
                              mg/l for 4 hours (rat, Pramitol 80W) (56).
               EYES:    Non-irritating (rabbit, technical); severe irritation
                        (rabbit, Pramitol 25E); non-irritating (rabbit,
                        Pramitol 80W) (56).
           In 90-day feeding trials NEL for rats was 5.4 mg/kg daily (62).
           Doses of 400 mg/kg of prometon were administered to rats by means
      of a stomach tube on six consecutive days of the week during a period
      of four weeks.  All animals survived the treatment (58).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           LC50 (96-hr) is: for rainbow trout 12 mg/l; for crucian carp
      70 mg/l; for bluegill 40 mg/l.  It is slightly toxic to birds and
      practically non-toxic to honeybees (62).
           Toxicological investigations conducted with bobwhite quail,
      mallard ducks, goldfish, rainbow trout, and bluegill sunfish have shown
      prometon to have very low toxicity to these species (58).
                                               96-hr LC50 (ppm)
              Fish Species                    prometon technical
              ____________                    __________________
              Rainbow trout                           20
              Bluegill sunfish                       >32
                                              8-day dietary LC50 (ppm)
              Bird Species                          Pramitol 25 E
              ____________                    ________________________
              Bobwhite quail chicks                 >5080
              Mallard ducklings                      4572 (58).
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.  Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
            Prometon is more readily adsorbed on muck or clay soils than on
            soils of low clay or organic matter content.  (Talbert, R.E. and
            O.H. Fletchall.  1965.  The adsorption of some s-triazines in
            soils.  Weeds 13:46-52).
      2.  Microbial breakdown:  Microbial action probably accounts for the
            major breakdown of prometon in the soil.  A range of soil
            microorganisms can utilize it as a source of energy and nitrogen.
            The effects of prometon on these and other soil organisms appear
            to be small, if at all.  (Bryant, J.B. 1963.  Bacterial
            decomposition of some aromatic and aliphatic herbicides.  Ph.D.
            Thesis.  Pennyslvania State University, University Park.)
      3.  Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:
            Photodecomposition and/or volatilization of prometon from the soil
            is little understood.  Available data suggest that these factors
            are of little direct importance in prometon dissipation.
      4.  Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  The residual
            activity of prometon in soil depends mainly upon soil type,
            moisture, and application rate.  Under arid conditions, it can
            persist for extended periods (58).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      KNOWN OR SUSPECTED ADVERSE EFFECTS:  Some triazines are mildly
      irritating to skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract.  Systemic
      toxicity is unlikely unless very large amounts have been ingested (25).
           No cases of poisoning in man have been reported from prometon
      ingestion.  Symptoms from large doses in rats include hypoactivity,
      ptosis, muscular weakness, salivation, anorexia, hyperpnea,
      hypothermia, tremors, loss of righting reflex, dysporea, hemorrhagic,
      rhitinis (58).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash contaminated skin with soap and water (25).
           INGESTION:  Ingestions of small amounts (less than 10 mg/kg body
      weight) occurring less than an hour before treatment, are probably best
      treated by:
      A.   Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water.  Dose for
           adults and children over 12 years:  30 ml.  Dose for children
           under 12 years:  15 ml.
      B.   Activated Charcoal - Administer 30-50 gm as a slurry in tap water,
           after vomiting stops.
      C.   Sodium or Magnesium Sulfate, 0.25 g/kg in tap water as a cathartic
           INHALATION:  Remove from contaminated atmosphere.  If symptoms
      appear or person is unconscious, get medical attention (Pramitol 25E)
           EYE CONTACT:  Flush contaminated eyes with copious amounts of
      fresh water for 15 minutes (25).
           Immediately flush the eyes with large amounts of running water for
      a minimum of 15 minutes.  Hold the eyelids apart during the flushing to
      ensure rinsing of the entire surface of the eye and lids with water.
      Do not attempt to neutralize with chemical agents.  Obtain medical
      attention as soon as possible (Pramitol 25E) (24i).
      1.   INGESTIONS of LARGE amounts (more than 10 mg/kg) occurring less
           than an hour before treatment, should probably be treated by
           gastric lavage:
           A.  INTUBATE stomach and ASPIRATE contents.
           B.  LAVAGE stomach with slurry of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 0.9%
               saline.  Leave 30-50 gm activated charcoal in the stomach
               before withdrawing tube.
           C.  SODIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a cathartic.
               CAUTION:  Hydrocarbons (kerosene, petroleum distillates) are
                         included in some formulations of these chemicals.
                         Ingestion of very LARGE AMOUNTS may cause CNS
                         depression.  In this case, IPECAC IS
                         CONTRAINDICATED.  Also, gastric intubation incurs a
                         risk of HYDROCARBON PNEUMONITIS.  For this reason
                         observe the following precautions:
                         (1)  If the victim is unconscious or obtunded and
                              facilities are at hand, insert an ENDOTRACHEAL
                              TUBE (cuffed, if available) prior to gastric
                         (2)  Keep victim's HEAD BELOW LEVEL OF STOMACH
                              during intubation and lavage (Trendelenburg, or
                              left lateral decubitus, with head of table
                              tipped downward).  Keep victim's head turned to
                              the left.
                         (3)  ASPIRATE PHARYNX as regularly as possible to
                              remove gagged or vomited stomach contents.
      2.   INGESTIONS occurring MORE THAN an HOUR before treatment are
           proably best treated only by ACTIVATED CHARCOAL, 30-50 gm, and
           SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, as described above.
      3.   There are no specific antidotes for these chemicals.  Because
           manifestations of toxicity do occasionally occur in peculiarly
           predisposed individuals, MAINTAIN CONTACT with victim for at least
           72 hours so that unexpected adverse effects can be treated
           promptly (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      GENERAL:  Nonflammable (58).  Flammable material.  As in any fire,
      prevent human exposure to fire, smoke, fumes, or products of
      combustion.  Evacuate nonessential personnel from the area.
      Firefighters should wear impervious clothing such as gloves, hoods,
      suits and rubber boots (Pramitol 25E) (24i).
      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Use standard organic chemical firefighting
      techniques in extinguishing fires involving this material - use dry
      chemicals, foam or carbon dioxide.  Use of contaminated buildings, area
      and equipment must be prevented until they are properly decontaminated
      (Pramitol 25E) (24i).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Compatible with most other pesticides when used at normal rates.
      Noncorrosive under normal use conditions (58).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Very stable over several years of shelf life,
      and only slight sensitivity to natural light and extreme temperatures
      which would occur normally.  Avoid inhalation of dust.  Avoid contact
      with skin (58).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Skin contact with the liquid should be prevented
      through the use of rubber gloves and clothing consistent with good
      pesticide handling practice.  Eye contact with the liquid should be
      avoided through the use of chemical safety glasses or goggles (Pramitol
      25E) (24i).
      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  Where adequate ventilation is not available and
      exposure to excessive mists or spray could occur, wear a Conflo II
      (MSA) or other approved pesticide respirator (Pramitol 25E) (24i).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                                  (800) 424-9300
           Make sure all personnel involved in spill cleanup follow good
      industrial hygiene practices.
          Small spills can be handled routinely.  Cover the spill with an
      absorbent material such as vermiculite or sawdust.  Sweep up the
      material and place in an appropriate chemical waste container.  Seal
      container and dispose of in an approved landfill.  Wash the spill area
      with a strong detergent and water.  Flush the spill area with water to
      remove any residue.  Do not reuse container.  Destroy by perforation or
      crushing and burying in a safe place.
           Disposal of material, spill residues, wash water, and containers
      must be by methods consistent with local, state and federal health and
      environmental regulations.
           A spill of 1,000 gal. or more of this material is reportable to
      the National Response Center, (800) 424-8802, under the Comprehensive
      Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (Superfund)
      (Pramitol 25E) (24i).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      24i. Ciba-Geigy Corporation.  1982.  Safety data sheet:  Pramitol 25E.
               Greensboro, NC.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.