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propham (Chem Hoe) Herbicide Profile 2/85

                                      propham
      CHEMICAL NAME:      Isopropyl carbanilate
      TRADE NAME(S):      Chem Hoe (58)
      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrate (2 lb/gal), granules
                          (15%), flowable suspension (3-4 lb/gal) (56).
      TYPE:               Herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  PPG Industries, Inc.
                          Chemcal Div. - U.S.
                          1 Gateway Center
                          Pittsburg, PA 15272
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:     For control of weeds in alfalfa, ladino clover,
                          white clover, red or crimson clover, flax, lettuce,
                          safflower, spinach, lentils, peas, fallow land
                          (56).
      APPLICATION METHODS:  Preemergence, preplant incorporated,
                            postemergence, general (58).
                                   I.  EFFICACY
      Preemergence:  A number of annual grasses are controlled by propham,
      including shallow-seeded volunteer grains, annual ryegrass, downy
      brome, annual bluegrass, rattail fescue, canarygrass, rabbitfoot grass,
      foxtail barley, and wild oats.  Crabgrass, barnyardgrass, and yellow
      and giant foxtails are quite tolerant.  Broadleaf weeds controlled
      include dodder, smartweeds, curly dock, red correl, small nettle, and
      purslane.  Most common broadleaf weeds are tolerant.
      Preplant incorporated:  Propham can be used to control such weeds as
      volunteer barley, wild oats, stinging nettle, annual bluegrass,
      chickweed, and nightshade.
      Postemergence:  Propham can be assured to control selectively such
      susceptible weeds as volunteer barley, wild oats, annual ryegrass,
      downy brome, annual bluegrass and foxtail barley (58).  No perennial
      weed control is to be expected.  No control may be expected of
      established weeds.  No control of foxtails, crabgrass or watergrass can
      be expected (8b).
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C10 H13 NO2 (58)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   179.2 (58)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Light tan solid (pure compound) (58)
      MELTING POINT:      87-88 C (pure compound) (58)
      BOILING POINT:      Sublimes upon heating (pure compund) (58)
      DECOMOPSITION TEMPERATURE:  150 C and above (pure compound) (58)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     Sublimes slowly at room temperature (pure compound)
                          (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         32-250 mg/l water at 20-25 C (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  NA
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = 10,200 mg/kg (rabbit, 4 lb/gal flowable) (58).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 9,000 mg/kg (rat, technical product); 3,000
                          mg/kg (mouse, technical product); 10,200 mg/kg
                          (rat, 4 lb/gal flowable); 7,600 mg/kg (rat, 15%
                          granular) (58).
               INHALATION:  Aerosol inhalation LC50 for albino rats, 24 mg/l
                            air at 4-hr exposure (58).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
      The no-effect level for propham in the diet of albino rats and beagle
      dogs over a period of 90 days was 200 ppm and 2,000 ppm, respectively.
      Neither rats nor mice fed, respectively, 20,000 ppm or 1,000 ppm in
      their diets for an 18 month period or receiving intramuscular
      injections of 40 mg propham per 100 g of body weight over the 18-month
      period developed either benign or malignant tumors in any organs.
      Similar results were obtained from at least four additional studies
      where levels ranging from 1,000 to 20,000 ppm were fed mice, rats, or
      hamsters for periods ranging fom 18 to 33 months (58).
      In 30-day feeding trials rats receiving 10,000 mg/kg diet suffered no
      ill-effect and there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity (62).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           Propham may be considered to be a relatively safe pesticide to
      mammals, fish, and other wildlife.  The LD50 of propham to mallard ducks
      is greater than 2,000 mg/kg.  No visible effects were noted on fish
      living in a 10 ppm water solution of propham (58).
           Fish exposed to 5 mg/l suffered no ill-effect (62).
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.  Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:  While
            propham is readily adsorbed to activated carbon and organic
            matter, the adsorption bond is rather weak, allowing water to
            leach propham through a soil column.
                                     References
      Freed, V.H. 1951.  Weeds 1:48-60.
      Leopold, A.C. et al.   1960.  Weeds 8:48-54.
      Logan, A.V. et al.  1953.  Weeds 2:24-26.
      Parochetti, J.V. and G.F. Warren.  1966.  Weeds 14:281-285.
      Robocker, W.C. and C.L. Canode.  1965.  Weeds 13:8-10.
      2.  Microbial breakdown:  Soil microorganisms readily degrade propham,
            as demonstrated by production of aniline, by an enzymatic
            hydrolysis reaction with subsequent liberation of carbon dioxide.
            Aniline has also been shown to be readily degraded by soil
            microorganisms.  Identified isolates found effective in degrading
            propham are Pseudomonas striata Chester, a Flavobacterium sp., an
            Agrobacterium p., and Achromobacter sp.
                                     References
      Clark C.G. and S.J.L. Wright.  1970.  Soil Biol. Biochem.  2:217-266.
      Kaufman, D.D. and P.C. Kearney.  1965.  Appl. Microbiol. 13:443-446.
      Kaufman, D.D. and J. Blake.  1973.  Soil Biol. Biochem.  5:297-308.
      Walker, N. and D. Harris.  1969.  J. Appl. Bact. 32:457-462.
      3.  Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Propham does
            not readily undergo photodecomposition.  At 13 C, vapor losses of
            propham from dry soil are negligible.  Increasing field moisture
            capacity and temperature greatly increases vapor losses to the
            point where at 35 C volatility may be the major means of
            dissipation.
                                     References
      Anderson, W.P. et al.  1952.  Science 116:502-503.
      Mitchell, L.C.  1961.  J. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chem. 44:643.
      Parochetti, J.V. and G.F. Warren.  1966. Weeds 14:281-285.
      4.  Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  Bioassay tests
            indicate the half life of propham to be about 15 days at 17 C and
            5 days at 29 C.  However, the rate of dissipation can vary
            greatly with the microbial activity and moisture level of a given
            soil (58).
                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      SYMPTOMS OF INTOXICATION:  Lightheadedness and sluggishness,
      indicative of anesthesia (58).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash with plenty of soap and water (58).
           INGESTION:  Induce vomiting.  No specific antidote is known (58).
           EYE CONTACT:  Flush with water (58).
           NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:  No specific antidote is known (58).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Not considered flammable (58).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           The flowable suspension formulation of propham is compatible with
      hard water and with other pesticides formulated as emulsifiable
      concentrates.  This formulation is also compatible with many liquid
      fertilizers and pesticide suspensions, but a small laboratory
      compatibility test with the specific fertilizer or pesticide is
      suggested prior to attempting field applications.  Noncorrosive (58).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Unlimited shelf life.  Not light sensitive.  At
      higher temperatures, propham sublimes from granular formulations and
      may redeposit as crystals.  Low temperatures may cause crystallization
      and separation in the flowable suspension formulation.  Avoid breathing
      of vapor or spray mist.  Use with adequate ventilation.  Avoid contact
      with skin and eyes.  Keep out of reach of children.  Do not contaminate
      water by cleaning of equipment or disposal of wastes (58).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
      2/28/85