triallate (Avadex BW, Far-Go) Herbicide Profile 3/85
CHEMICAL NAME: S-(2,3,3-trichloroallyl)diisopropylthiocarbamate
TRADE NAME(S): Avadex BW, Far-Go (58).
FORMULATION(S): Emulsifiable concentrate (4 lbs/gal); granular (10%)
STATUS: General use
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Monsanto Agricultural Products Co.
800 N. Lindbergh Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63167
PRINCIPAL USES: For preemergence application control of wild oats
in barley, durum wheat, spring wheat, winter wheat, green peas, field
dried peas, and lentils (56).
APPLICATION METHOD(S): Preplant and postplant soil incorporated
depending on crop. In fall within 3 weeks of soil freeze-up for spring
planted wheat and barley (58).
Controls weeds only before they germinate. Do not incorporate
deeper than two inches as dilution may occur. Under dry conditions,
wild oats may reach the 2-4 leaf stage before being controlled.
Shallow cultivation does not reduce the effectiveness (8b).
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C10 H16 Cl3 NOS (62)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 304.7 (62)
PHYSICAL STATE: Amber oil (pure compound) (62)
MELTING POINT: 29-30 C (pure compound) (62)
DECOMPOSITION TEMPERATURE: Greater than 200 C (pure compound) (58)
BOILING POINT: 117 C/0.3 mmHg (pure compound) (62)
VAPOR PRESSURE: 16 mPa at 25 C (pure compound) (62)
SOLUBILITY: 4 mg/l water at 25 C (pure compound) (62)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: None established
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 = 8200 mg/kg, moderately irritating to skin
(rabbit, technical triallate);
LD50 = 2000-20000 mg/kg, severely irritating to skin
(rabbit, Avadex BW - EC formulation);
LD50 = >20,000 mg/kg, slightly irritating to skin
(rabbit, Avadex BW - 10G) (58).
ORAL: LD50 = 1675-2165 mg/kg (rat) (62).
LD50 = 1100 mg/kg (technical triallate), 2700 mg/kg
(Avadex BW EC formulation), >12,000 mg/kg
(Avadex BW - 10G) (58).
EYES: Slightly irritating to the rabbit eye (technical, EC,
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
Four week toxicity study with beagle dogs at 5, 15 and 50
mg/kg/day; no adverse effects at 50 mg/kg/day.
90 day feeding study with albino mice at 30, 100 and 300
mg/kg/day; increased organ weights and liver microsomal enzyme activity
and liver cell hypertrophy observed at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day. No
evidence of subacute toxicity at 30 mg/kg/day.
Two year chronic toxicity feeding studies with rats and dogs have
been conducted. Dietary levels of 0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm were fed to
rats and dosage levels of 1.5, 5.0 and 15 mg/kg body weight/day were
fed to dogs. Results indicate that triallate is not carcinogenic and
does not induce other treatment related histopathologic effects up to
200 ppm in rats. No evidence of chronic toxicity attributable to
treatment was observed at any dosage levels in dogs (58).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Behavior In Or On Soils
1. Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
Adsorbed by soil colloids.
2. Microbial breakdown: Responsible for major decomposition in soil.
3. Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization: Insignificant
from photodecomposition. Volatilized from soil surface at
high temperatures unless properly incorporated.
4. Resultant average persistence at recommended rates: 6 to 8 weeks
under Northern Great Plains use situations (58).
General toxicity to wildlife and fish:
a. Wildlife - technical
Acute oral LD50 in Bobwhite Quail - greater than 2251 mg/kg
Eight day dietary LD50 in Mallard - greater than 5000 ppm
Eight day dietary LD50 in Bobwhite - greater than 5000 ppm
b. Aquatic organisms Technical 4 EC 10G
96 hour LD50 in Bluegill
Sunfish 1.3 mg/l 4.9 mg/l 46.0 mg/l
96 hour LD50 in Rainbow
Trout 1.2 mg/l 9.6 mg/l 52.5 mg/l
48 hour LD50 in Daphnia
magna 0.43 mg/l (58)
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan, which have been
footnoted. This information has been provided in this form for your
convenience and general guidance only. In specific cases, further
consultation and reference may be required and is recommended. This
information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING: Some of these agents
((mono)thiocarbamates) are irritating to skin and respiratory mucous
membranes, causing ITCHING, SCRATCHY THROAT, SNEEZING, and COUGH, if
excessive amounts of spray or dust are inhaled. Apart from this
effect, toxic potential is low. Neurotoxic and post-ethanol "antabuse"
reactions are not known to occur as a result of contact with these
particular compounds (25).
SKIN CONTACT: WASH contaminating chemical from SKIN and HAIR with
soap and water. Persons sensitive to thiram (rubber-sensitive) should
be permanently REMOVED FROM CONTACT with compounds of this nature (25).
INGESTION: A. Give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of
water, to induce vomiting (adults: 30 ml; children under 12 years: 15
ml). Following emesis, administer 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL to bind
toxicant remaining in the gut.
B. Follow charcoal with SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE,
0.25 gm/kg, to remove toxicant from the gut by catharsis (25).
EYE CONTACT: FLUSH contaminant from EYES with fresh water for
10-15 minutes (25).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
Nonflammable. Open cup - 95 C, closed cup - 90 C (58).
Usually compatible with sprayable fluid fertilizers. Noncorrosive
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Indefinitely stable. Insensitive to light or
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: To avoid contact with skin and eyes, wear rubber
gloves and goggles when handling or spraying (56).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
8b. Thomson, W.T. 1981. Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
herbicides. Revised ed. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
58. Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
1983. Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
America, 5th ed. Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
IL. 515 pp.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.