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triallate (Avadex BW, Far-Go) Herbicide Profile 3/85

                                     triallate
      CHEMICAL NAME:      S-(2,3,3-trichloroallyl)diisopropylthiocarbamate
                          (58).
      TRADE NAME(S):      Avadex BW, Far-Go (58).
      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrate (4 lbs/gal); granular (10%)
                          (56).
      TYPE:               (Mono)thiocarbamate
      STATUS:             General use
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Monsanto Agricultural Products Co.
                          800 N. Lindbergh Blvd.
                          St. Louis, MO 63167
      PRINCIPAL USES:  For preemergence application control of wild oats
      in barley, durum wheat, spring wheat, winter wheat, green peas, field
      dried peas, and lentils (56).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Preplant and postplant soil incorporated
      depending on crop.  In fall within 3 weeks of soil freeze-up for spring
      planted wheat and barley (58).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
           Controls weeds only before they germinate.  Do not incorporate
      deeper than two inches as dilution may occur.  Under dry conditions,
      wild oats may reach the 2-4 leaf stage before being controlled.
      Shallow cultivation does not reduce the effectiveness (8b).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C10 H16 Cl3 NOS (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   304.7 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Amber oil (pure compound) (62)
      MELTING POINT:      29-30 C (pure compound) (62)
      DECOMPOSITION TEMPERATURE:  Greater than 200 C (pure compound) (58)
      BOILING POINT:      117 C/0.3 mmHg (pure compound) (62)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     16 mPa at 25 C (pure compound) (62)
      SOLUBILITY:         4 mg/l water at 25 C (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  None established
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = 8200 mg/kg, moderately irritating to skin
                          (rabbit, technical triallate);
                        LD50 = 2000-20000 mg/kg, severely irritating to skin
                          (rabbit, Avadex BW - EC formulation);
                        LD50 = >20,000 mg/kg, slightly irritating to skin
                          (rabbit, Avadex BW - 10G) (58).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 1675-2165 mg/kg (rat) (62).
                        LD50 = 1100 mg/kg (technical triallate), 2700 mg/kg
                          (Avadex BW EC formulation), >12,000 mg/kg
                          (Avadex BW - 10G) (58).
               EYES:  Slightly irritating to the rabbit eye (technical, EC,
                      G) (58).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           Four week toxicity study with beagle dogs at 5, 15 and 50
      mg/kg/day; no adverse effects at 50 mg/kg/day.
           90 day feeding study with albino mice at 30, 100 and 300
      mg/kg/day; increased organ weights and liver microsomal enzyme activity
      and liver cell hypertrophy observed at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day.  No
      evidence of subacute toxicity at 30 mg/kg/day.
           Two year chronic toxicity feeding studies with rats and dogs have
      been conducted.  Dietary levels of 0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm were fed to
      rats and dosage levels of 1.5, 5.0 and 15 mg/kg body weight/day were
      fed to dogs.  Results indicate that triallate is not carcinogenic and
      does not induce other treatment related histopathologic effects up to
      200 ppm in rats.  No evidence of chronic toxicity attributable to
      treatment was observed at any dosage levels in dogs (58).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.   Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
             Adsorbed by soil colloids.
      2.   Microbial breakdown:  Responsible for major decomposition in soil.
      3.   Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Insignificant
             from photodecomposition.  Volatilized from soil surface at
             high temperatures unless properly incorporated.
      4.   Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  6 to 8 weeks
             under Northern Great Plains use situations (58).
      General toxicity to wildlife and fish:
           a.   Wildlife - technical
                Acute oral LD50 in Bobwhite Quail - greater than 2251 mg/kg
                Eight day dietary LD50 in Mallard - greater than 5000 ppm
                Eight day dietary LD50 in Bobwhite - greater than 5000 ppm
           b.   Aquatic organisms           Technical      4 EC      10G
                96 hour LD50 in Bluegill
                  Sunfish                   1.3 mg/l     4.9 mg/l   46.0 mg/l
                96 hour LD50 in Rainbow
                  Trout                     1.2 mg/l     9.6 mg/l   52.5 mg/l
                48 hour LD50 in Daphnia
                  magna                     0.43 mg/l (58)
                       V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING:  Some of these agents
      ((mono)thiocarbamates) are irritating to skin and respiratory mucous
      membranes, causing ITCHING, SCRATCHY THROAT, SNEEZING, and COUGH, if
      excessive amounts of spray or dust are inhaled.  Apart from this
      effect, toxic potential is low.  Neurotoxic and post-ethanol "antabuse"
      reactions are not known to occur as a result of contact with these
      particular compounds (25).
           SKIN CONTACT:  WASH contaminating chemical from SKIN and HAIR with
      soap and water.  Persons sensitive to thiram (rubber-sensitive) should
      be permanently REMOVED FROM CONTACT with compounds of this nature (25).
           INGESTION:  A.  Give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of
      water, to induce vomiting (adults:  30 ml; children under 12 years:  15
      ml).  Following emesis, administer 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL to bind
      toxicant remaining in the gut.
                       B.  Follow charcoal with SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE,
      0.25 gm/kg, to remove toxicant from the gut by catharsis (25).
           EYE CONTACT:  FLUSH contaminant from EYES with fresh water for
      10-15 minutes (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Nonflammable.  Open cup - 95 C, closed cup - 90 C (58).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           Usually compatible with sprayable fluid fertilizers.  Noncorrosive
      (58).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Indefinitely stable.  Insensitive to light or
      heat (58).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  To avoid contact with skin and eyes, wear rubber
      gloves and goggles when handling or spraying (56).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
      3/13/85