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trifluralin (Treflan) Herbicide Profile 2/85

      CHEMICAL NAME:      a,a,a-Trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-
                          toluidine (56)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Treflan, Elancolan, Trefanocide (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Available in liquid (4 EC, 4 lb/gal), M.T.F. (4
      lb/gal) non-freezable formulation, PRO-5 and 5% granular forms and 5 GL
      formulation on limestone (56).
      TYPE:               Dinitrotoluidine herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Elanco Products Co.
                          Div. of Eli Lilly and Co.
                          740 South Alabama St.
                          Indianapolis, IN 46285
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:   Selective preemergence herbicide (56).  Crops
      registered for trifluralin use:  milo (PoPI); field corn (PoPI);
      mustard for seed; Spanish peanuts; sugarcane (post); winter wheat;
      barley; cotton; soybeans; castor beans; dry beans; rapeseed; safflower;
      mung beans; snap beans; lima beans; guar; southern peas; English peas;
      dry peas; okra; sugarbeets (after blocking or thinning); cantaloupes
      (postplant); carrots; turnip greens (grown for processing only);
      collard, kale, and mustard greens; direct-seeded broccoli, Brussels
      sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower; celery; tomatoes (transplant or
      direct-seeded at blocking or thinning), transplants of peppers,
      broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower; established
      alfalfa; vineyards; hops; orange, grapefruit, lemon, tangerine and
      tangelo trees; almond; pecan, walnut; apricot, nectarine; peach;
      established spearmint and peppermint.  Consult the product label for
      special instructions for weed control and crop uses (58).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Trifluralin is a preemergence herbicide which
      must be soil incorporated within 24 hours after application using
      equipment that breaks up large clods and mixes the soil thoroughly;
      e.g., PTO-driven cultivators, hoes or tillers; double disc, rolling
      cultivator, field cultivator, mulch treader, or bed conditioner.
      Application and incorporation can be preplant (PPI), postplant (PoPI),
      or layby (PoPI).  Trifluralin may be applied by ground or aerial
      equipment.  Surface applications of granular formulation followed by
      water incorporation to ornamental trees, flowers, and shrubs are also
      recommended (58).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
           The following grass and broadleaf weeds are controlled by
      trifluralin:  annual bluegrass (Poa annua), barnyardgrass (Echinochloa
      crus-galli), signalgrass (Brachiaria sp.), bromegrass (Bromus
      tectorum), cheat (Bromus secalinus), crabgrasses (Digitaria sp.), fall
      panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum), foxtails (Setaria sp.), goosegrass
      (Eleusine indica), guineagrass (Panicum maximum),
      johnsongrass--seedling and rhizome (Sorghum halepense), junglerice
      (Echinochloa colonum), raoulgrass or itchgrass (Rottboellia exaltata),
      sandbur (Cenchrus incertus), sprangletop (Leptochloa filiformis),
      stinkgrass (Eragrostis cilianensis), Texas panicum (Panicum texanum),
      wild cane or shattercane (Sorghum bicolor), carpetweed (Mollugo
      verticillata), chickweed (Stellaria media), field bindweed (Convolvulus
      arvensis), Florida pusley (Richardia scabra), goosefoot (Chenopodium
      hybridum), henbit (Lamium amplex icaule), knotweed (Polygonum
      aviculare), kochia (Kochia scoparia), lambsquarters (Chenopodium
      album), pigweeds (Amaranthus sp.) puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris),
      purslane (Portulaca oleracea), Russian thistle (Salsola kali), and
      stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) (58).
           Must be incorporated in top 2-3 inches of the soil with 24 hours
      after application.  Will not kill established weeds (56).
           Tolerant weeds include velvetleaf, nightshade, Jimsonweed,
      buffalobur, horsenettle, nutgrass, cocklebur, and established annual
      and perennial weeds.  Kills weeds sedds as they germinate.  Rainfall is
      not required to activate the chemical.  Soil incorporation gives
      greatest effectiveness.  Full season weed control can be expected.
      Effective on peat or muck soils up to 20% in organic matter (8b).
                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C13 H16 F3 N3 O4 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   335.5 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Orange crystalline solid (pure compound) (58);
                          orange crystalline solid (technical trifluralin -
                          98% pure) (62).  The technical grade is greater than
                          or equal to 95% pure (62).
      ODOR:               No appreciable odor (pure compound) (58)
      MELTING POINT:      48.5-49 C (pure compound); >42 C (technical
                          grade) (62).
      BOILING POINT:      96 to 97 C at 0.18 mmHg (pure compound) (58)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     1.1 x 10-4 mmHg at 25 C (pure compound) (58)
      SOLUBILITY:         <1 mg/l water at 27 C (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  Skin applications of 2000 mg/kg caused neither
                        toxicity nor irritation to rabbits (62).  No skin
                        irritation or other toxicity was observed when 2.5
                        g of Trifluralin Technical 95% per kg of body
                        weight were applied to the shaved backs of rabbits
                        for 24 hours (58).
               ORAL:    LD50 = >10,000 mg/kg (rat), 500 mg/kg (mouse),
                          >2000 mg/kg (dog, rabbit, chicken) (62).
               INHALATION:  Rats were exposed to 41 mg of Treflan EC per
                            liter of air for one hour and observed for 14
                            days.  This treatment caused no adverse effects
               EYES:    Slight irritation, which cleared within 7 days,
                           occurred when 36 mg of Trifluralin Technical 95%
                           were placed in the eyes of rabbits (58).
                        Moderate irritation, which cleared within 7 days,
                           occurred when 0.1 ml of Treflan EC was placed in
                           the eyes of rabbits (58).
           In 2-year feeding trials rats receiving 2000 mg/kg diet and dogs
      1000 mg/kg diet suffered no ill-effect (62).  Large daily doses of
      trifluralin were tolerated by laboratory animals with no evidence of
      acute or cumulative toxicity (58).
                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
           The LC50 (96 hr) to bluegill fingerlings is 0.089 mg/l (62).
      Behavior In or On Soils
      1. Adsorption and leaching characteristics in several soil types:
           Trifluralin is strongly adsorbed on soil and shows negligible
           leaching.  Organic matter and clay content of the soil influence
           the application rate necessary for herbicidal activity.
      2. Microbial breakdown:  Microorganisms are believed to contribute to
           the degradation and disappearance of trifluralin from soil.  Using
           mass inoculation or soil enrichment procedures, microorganisms
           have been identified that will degrade trifluralin.
      3. Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Trifluralin
           is slightly volatile.  Material remaining on the soil surface can
           be subject to photodecomposition.
      4. Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  Recommended
           application rates give season long weed control.  Fall-seeded
           grain crops planted in soil that received trifluralin applications
           the preceding spring have not been injured under warm, moist
           conditions (58).
           No hazard to mammals and birds; toxic to fish if placed directly
      in water.  Physical properties of compound (strong adsorption on soil)
      and application methods (soil incorporation) preclude possibility of
      hazard to fish in recommended usage (58).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      KNOWN OR SUSPECTED ADVERSE EFFECTS:  Slightly to moderately irritating
      to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.  These agents do not uncouple
      oxidative phosphorylation (25).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash contaminated skin with soap and water (25).
           INGESTION:     Ingestions of small amounts (less than 10 mg/kg
                          body weight) occurring less than an hour before
                          treatment, are probably best treated by:
                          A.  Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of
                              water.  Dose for adults and children over 12
                              years:  30 ml.  Dose for children under 12
                              years:  15 ml.
                          B.  Activated charcoal.  Administer 30-50 gm as a
                              slurry in tap water, after vomiting stops.
                          C.  Sodium or magnesium sulfate, 0.25 gm/kg in tap
                              water, as a cathartic (25).
           EYE CONTACT:   Flush contaminated eyes with copious amounts of
                          fresh water for 15 minutes (25).
      1.   INGESTIONS of LARGE amounts (more than 10 mg/kg) occurring less
           than an hour before treatment, should probably be treated by
           gastric lavage:
           A.  INTUBATE stomach and ASPIRATE contents.
           B.  LAVAGE stomach with slurry of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 0.9%
               saline.  Leave 30-50 gm activated charcoal in the stomach
               before withdrawing tube.
           C.  SODIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a cathartic.
               CAUTION:   Hydrocarbons (kerosene, petroleum distillates) are
                          included in some formulations of these chemicals.
                          Ingestions of very LARGE AMOUNTS may cause CNS
                          depression.  In this case, IPECAC IS
                          CONTRAINDICATED.  Also, gastric intubation incurs a
                          risk of HYDROCARBON PNEUMONITIS.  For this reason
                          observe the following precautions:
                          (1) If the victim is unconscious or obtunded and
                              facilities are at hand, insert an ENDOTRACHEAL
                              TUBE (cuffed, if available) prior to gastric
                          (2) Keep victim's HEAD BELOW LEVEL OF STOMACH
                              during intubation and lavage (Trendelenburg, or
                              left lateral decubitus, with head of table
                              tipped downward).  Keep victim's head turned to
                              the left.
                          (3) ASPIRATE PHARYNX as regularly as possible to
                              remove gagged or vomited stomach contents.
      2.   INGESTIONS occurring MORE THAN an HOUR before treatment are
           probably best treated only by ACTIVATED CHARCOAL, 30-50 gm and
           SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, as described above.
      3.   There are no specific antidotes for these chemicals.  Because
           manifestations of toxicity do occasionally occur in peculiarly
           predisposed individuals, MAINTAIN CONTACT with victim for at least
           72 hours so that unexpected adverse effects can be treated
           promptly (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           Technical material is not flammable.  For the emulsifiable
      concentrates use ordinary precautions for volatile solvents.  Treflan
      EC is classified as a combustible liquid.  Closed containers may
      explode due to pressure build-up when subjected to excessive heat or
      intense fire (58).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           No incompatibilities have been experienced with hard water.  If
      proper agitation is used in spray tanks and the proper mixing
      instructions are followed, most pesticide tank mixes are compatible.
      Treflan EC is compatible with urea-ammonium nitrate solutions when an
      emulsion is first made with Treflan and water before adding to the spray
      tank.  Information available with complete fluid fertilizers suggests
      that vigorous agitation will keep a good emulsion; spray tank adjuvants
      such as Sponto 168D, Triton QS-44, and T-Mulz 734-2 are helpful.  The
      emulsifiable concentrates can be impregnated on granular fertilizer and
      applied with the fertilizer.  Trifluralin is not corrosive (58).
                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Keep out of reach of children.  Avoid freezing.
      Store above 40 F.  Do not store near heat or flame.  Do not get in
      eyes.  Avoid contact with skin or clothing (56).  Shelf life of the
      emulsifiable concentrates is more than 2 years.  They should not be
      stored near the flash point.  Do not contaminate foodstuffs or feeds.
      Direct contamination of any body or water with trifluralin may kill
      fish.  Do not contaminate any body of water by direct application,
      cleaning of equipment or disposal of wastes (58).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Personnel must wear full protective equipment at
      all times.  This includes:  Neoprene-coated gloves, rubber workshoes or
      overshoes, latex rubber apron, goggles to protect eyes, respirator or
      mask approved for toxic mist and organic vapors, overalls or rubber
      suit (56).
                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                                  (800) 424-9300
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.