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vernolate (Vernam) Herbicide Profile 3/85

      CHEMICAL NAME:      S-propyl dipropylthiocarbamate (58)
      TRADE NAME(S):      Vernam (58)
      FORMULATION(S):     Vernam 7E, emulsifiable liquid (7 lb/gal); Vernam
                          10 G, granule (10%) (56).
      TYPE:               (Mono) thiocarbamate herbicide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Stauffer Chemical Co.
                          Agricultural Chemical Div.
                          Westport, CT 06881
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Vernolate is registered for use on soybeans, peanuts,
      tobacco, and sweet potatoes (58).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  For optimum weed control under normal soil and
      climatic conditions, vernolate must be mechanically incorporated into the
      soil to a depth of 5.0 to 7.6 cm (2 to 3 inches) immediately after
      application.  The most suitable types of equipment for incorporation are
      disc and hooded, power-driven rotary tillers.  If vernolate is applied
      to extremely dry soils during very dry climatic conditions, incorporation
      may be accomplished by overhead irrigation following application (58).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
           Controls crabgrass (Digitaria spp.), barnyardgrass (watergrass)
      (Echinochloa spp.), foxtails (Setaria spp.), johnsongrass from
      seedlings (Sorghum halepensel), nutsedge (Cyperus spp.), goosegrass
      (Eleusine indical), and wild cane (Sorghum bicolor).  Broadleaf weeds
      such as pigweed (Amaranthus spp.), lambsquarters (Chenopodium album),
      sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia), carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata), and
      Florida purslane (Mexican clover) (Richardia scabra) will be
      controlled if application is made when conditions are favorable for
      germination (58).
           Closely related to Eptam but recommended crops show a greater degree
      of tolerance while still maintaining adequate weed control.  No soil
      residue problem since it dissipates rapidly (8b).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C10 H21 NOS (58)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   203.4 (58)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Clear liquid (99.9% pure) (62)
      ODOR:               Faint aromatic odor (99.9% pure) (62)
      BOILING POINT:      150 C/30 mmHg (99.9% pure) (62)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     1.39 Pa at 25 C (99.9% pure) (63)
      SOLUBILITY:         90 mg/l water at 20 C (99.9% pure) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  None established
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = >5000 mg/kg.  Single dermal exposures of
                          5000 mg/kg did not produce observable toxicity.
                          Severe irritant to the skin of rabbits (Vernam 7-E)
                        Repeated intracutaneous injections of vernolate in
                          guinea pigs failed to reveal any indications that the
                          compound is a sensitizing agent.  Definite
                          sensitization was established in a positive control
                          group, treated with p-phenylenediamine.  LD50 = 4640
                          mg/kg (technical vernolate); 10,000 mg/kg (Vernolate
                          6E) (58).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 1200 to 1470 mg/kg (rat, Vernam 7E) (29u).
                        LD50 = 1780 mg/kg (male albino rat, technical
                          vernolate); 1800 mg/kg (male albino rat, Vernolate
                          6E) (58).
               EYES:    Moderate irritant to the eye of rabbits (Vernam 7-E)
      a.   A 90-day subacute feeding study was conducted in rats.
           A no-effect level was established at 32 mg/kg per day.
      b.   A 90-day subacute feeding study was conducted in dogs.
           A no-effect level was established in excess of 38 mg/kg per day
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS
      Behavior In Or On Soils
      1.  Adsorption and leaching characteristics in basic soil types:
            Vernolate is adsorbed onto dry soil but it can be removed by
            leaching.  Vernolate is more resistant to leaching than EPTC.
      2.  Microbial breakdown:  Microbial breakdown is the main mechanism by
            which vernolate is lost from soils.
      3.  Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization:  Vernolate is
            readily lost from the soil by volatilization when the soil
            surface is wet at the time of application and the herbicide is
            not incorporated immediately.
      4.  Resultant average persistence at recommended rates:  At recommended
            rates of application, vernolate does not persist in soil and it
            should not leave residues that could injure subsequently planted
            sensitive crops.  The half life in moist loam soil at 21 to 27 C
            (70 to 80F) is approximately 1.5 weeks (58).
      General toxicity to wildlife and fish:
           a.  The EC50 (shell growth inhibition) of vernolate in oysters is
                 >1 ppm (maximum level tested) after a 96-hr exposure.
           b.  The EC50 (loss of equilibrium or death) in brown shrimp
                 (Penaeus aztecus) is >1 ppm (maximum level tested) after
                 24-hr and 48-hr exposures.
           c.  The acute LC50 of vernolate in a juvenile estuarine species
                 (Leiostomus xanthurus) is >1 ppm (maximum level tested)
                 after 24-hr and 48-hr exposures.
           d.  The 96-hr LC50 in fingerling rainbow trout is 10.8 mg/L for
                 vernolate 6E and 9.6 mg/L for technical vernolate.
           e.  The LC50 (96-hr exposure) of both technical vernolate and
                 vernolate 6E for the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus
                 aculeatus) is between 1 and 10 ppm.
           f.  The 96-hr LC50 of vernolate 6E in the mosquito fish is 14.5
           g.  The oral LC50 of technical vernolate in the bobwhite quail is
                 12,000 ppm for a 7-day feed treatment.  The oral LC50 of
                 vernolate 6E in bobwhite quail is 14,500 ppm for a
                 comparable regimen (58).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      SYMPTOMS:  Some of these agents ((mono)thiocarbamates) are
      irritating to skin and respiratory mucous membranes, causing ITCHING,
      SCRATCHY THROAT, SNEEZING, and COUGH, if excessive amounts of spray or
      dust are inhaled.  Apart from this effect, toxic potential is low.
      Neurotoxic and post-ethanol "Antabuse" reactions are not known to occur
      as a result of contact with these particular compounds (25).
           SKIN CONTACT:  WASH contaminating chemical from SKIN and HAIR with
      soap and water.  Persons sensitive to thiram (rubber-sensitive) should
      be permanently REMOVED FROM CONTACT with compounds of this nature (25).
           INGESTION:  For Vernam 7-E:  Do NOT induce vomiting.  This product
      contains hydrocarbon solvent.  Immediately give large quantities of
      water or milk, if available.  If vomiting does occur, give fluids
      again.  Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.  Call a
      physician or the nearest Poison Control Center imemdiately (29u).
          -- See NOTES TO PHYSICIAN below --
           INHALATION:  Remove from contaminated atmosphere.  If breathing
      has ceased, clear the victim's airway and start mouth-to-mouth
      artificial respiration, which may be supplemented by the use of a
      bag-mask respirator, or a manually-triggered, oxygen supply capable of
      delivering 1 liter/second or more.  If the victim is breathing, oxygen
      may be administered from a demand type or continuous-flow inhalator,
      preferably with a physician's advice.  Contact a physician immediately
      (Vernam 7E) (29u).
           EYE CONTACT:  FLUSH contaminate from EYES with fresh water for
      10-15 minutes (25).
      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:  If (mono)THIOCARBAMATE has been ingested:
      A.  Give SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water, to induce
          vomiting (adults:  30 ml; children under 12 years:  15 ml).
          Following emesis, administer 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL to bind
          toxicant remaining in the gut.
      B.  Follow charcoal with SODIUM OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, to
          remove toxicant from the gut by catharsis (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           This liquid has a closed cup flash point of 85.6 C/186 F.  It
      will support combustion and may decompose under fire conditions to give
      off toxic materials.
           Vapors may be irritating to the respiratory tract and may cause
      breathing difficulty and temporary edema.  Symptoms may be delayed
      several hours or longer depending upon exposure.
           As in any fire, prevent human exposure to fire, smoke, fumes, or
      products of combustion.  Evacuate nonessential personnel from the fire
           Use standard firefighting techniques in extinguishing fires
      involving this product.  If drums are not leaking, keep cooled with a
      water spray.  High pressure water hose may spread the product from
      broken containers increasing contamination hazards.  Use of
      contaminated buildings, areas, and equipment must be prevented until
      they are properly decontaminated (Vernam 8E) (29u).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           No incompatibilities known or expected.  Noncorrosive (58).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Containers should be stored in a cool, dry, well
      ventilated area.  Store away from flammable materials and sources of
      heat and flame.  Do not store near seeds, fertilizer or foodstuffs.
      Exercise due caution to prevent damage to or leakage from the
      container.  All food shuld be kept in a separate area, away from the
      working location.  Eating, drinking and smoking should be prohibited in
      areas where there is potential for significant exposure to the
      product.  Before eating, hands and face should be thoroughly washed
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Dermal contact and exposure should be minimized
      through the use of gloves and suitable long-sleeved clothing.  Eye
      contact should be prevented through the use of chemical safety glasses,
      goggles, or a face shield (29u).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
           A small spill can be handled routinely.  Use adequate ventilation
      or wear an air supplied respirator to prevent inhalation contact.  Wear
      protective clothing to prevent skin and eye contact.  Use the following
      1.   Spread a suitable absorbent such as clay on the liquid.
      2.   Place the sweepings in an open drum.
      3.   Generously cover the contaminated areas with a common household
              detergent (e.g. Tide).  Using a stiff brush and small amounts
              of water, work the detergent into the spill material forming a
              slurry.  Brush the slurry into cracks and crevices; and allow
              to stand for 2 to 3 minutes.  Be careful to completely avoid
              skin or eye contact; do not splatter on one's self or
      4.   Spread absorbents on the slurried liquid, and shovel the absorbed
              material into an open drum.
      5.   Repeat if necessary.
      6.   Flush the area with water, while observing proper environmental
      7.   Seal drum and dispose of contaminated material in an approved
              pesticide dump.
           Large spills must be handled according to a predetermined plan.
      For assistance in developing a plan, contact Stauffer's Agricultural
      Chemical Division, Westport, CT 06880 (29u).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8b. Thomson, W.T.  1981.  Agricultural chemicals - book 2:
               herbicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
               274 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      29u. Stauffer Chemical Company, Agricultural Chemical Division.  1979.
               Product safety information:  Vernam 7-E.  Westport, CT.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      58.  Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee.
               1983.  Herbicide handbook of the weed science society of
               America, 5th ed.  Weed Science Society of America, Champaign,
               IL.  515 pp.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.