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carbofuran (Furadan) Chemical Fact Sheet 6/84

                             CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR:




                         1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL

- Generic Name:  2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate
- Common Name:  carbofuran
- Trade Names:  Furadan, Curaterr, Yaltox, Bay 78537, D 1221 ENT 27164,
  FMC 10242, and NIA 10242
- EPA Shaughnessy Code:  90601
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number:  1563-66-2
- Year of Initial Registration:  1969
- Pesticide Type:  Insecticide, nematicide
- Chemical Family:  carbamate
- U.S. Producer:  FMC Corporation

                       2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS

- Application sites: Fruit and field crops, vegetables, tobacco,
  ornamentals, and forest trees
- Types and methods of applications: Aerial and ground application as a
  granular or spray
- Application rates: 0.5 to 10 lbs. a.i./acre
- Usual carriers: (Confidential Business Information)
- Efficacy Review Results: None conducted

                           3. SCIENCE FINDINGS

Chemical Characteristics

     Technical carbofuran is a white crystalline solid with a melting 
point of 153-154 degrees C and a vapor pressure of 2 x 10(-5) mm Hg at 
33 C. The empirical formula is C12H15N03, and the molecular weight is 
221.3. Solubility in water is 700 ppm. Other solubilities include: 30% 
in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 25% in dimethyl sulfoxide, 15% in acetone, 
14% in acetonitrile, 12% in methylene chloride, 9% in cyclohexanone, and 
4% in benzene.

Toxicological Characteristics

     Current available acute toxicological studies on carbofuran show 
the following: 

- Acute oral toxicity:  rat, LD50 3.8-34.5 mg/kg; mouse, LD50 14.4
  mg/kg; cat, 2.5-3.5 mg/kg; dog, LD50 15-18.9 mg/kg (Toxicity 
  Category I) 
- Acute dermal toxicity:  rabbit, LD50 in isopropanol <46.4; LD50 in
  water >10,250; 75WP formulation LD50 in water, 3400 (Toxicity 
  Category I) 
- Acute inhalation (dust):  rat 1 hour, LD50 0.8-0.108 mg/L; rat 4 hr.,
  LD50 0.075-0.108 mg/L; rat 1 hr., LD50 >0.026 mg/L; rat 4 hr., LC50
  0.017-0.047 mg/L (Toxicity Category I) 
- Primary eye irritation and primary dermal irritation not done, since
  this is a Category I material precluding condition of meaningful
  studies. (Assumed to be Toxicity Category I)

     Major routes of exposure:  Application by ground and aerial spray 
equipment increases the potential for exposure of humans, livestock, and 
wildlife due to spray drift. Human exposure to carbofuran from handling, 
application, and reentry operations would be minimized by the use of 
approved respirators and other protective clothing.

Physiological and Biochemical Behavioral Characteristics

- Mechanism of pesticidal action:  Cholinesterase inhibition following
  contact with treated surfaces or soil and/or ingestion of treated
  plant tissue.
- Metabolism in plants and animals is similar; carbofuran is systemic in
  plants. Like other carbamates, it is metabolized rapidly in animals
  into less toxic and finally non-toxic metabolites.

Environmental Characteristics

- Carbofuran degrades fairly slowly in non-sterile, neutral, or acid
  aerobic soils, with half-lives ranging from 1-8 weeks. It is more
  stable in sterile soil, and unstable under alkaline conditions. Under
  anaerobic conditions, carbofuran is more stable and may take twice as
  long to degrade. The major degradates of concern are the 3-hydroxy
  carbamate and 7-phenol products resulting from hydrolysis. The
  metabolites of carbofuran are less toxic than the parent compound.
- Carbofuran is mobile in soil, particularly sandy soil with high
  percolation rate. It has been found in shallow aquifers under or near
  treated fields in three states at levels up to 50 ppb.

Ecological Characteristics

- Acute avian oral toxicity:  LD50 90-500 mg/kg
- Avian subacute dietary toxicity:  LD50 16-1104 ppm
- Freshwater fish acute toxicity:  LC50 94-2859 ppb
- Acute toxicity for freshwater invertebrates:  9.8-38.6 ppb
- Based on studies available to assess hazards to wildlife and aquatic
  organisms, carbofuran is characterized as very highly toxic to
  coldwater and warmwater fish, highly toxic to freshwater
  invertebrates, and very highly toxic to birds. Label precautions
  reduce the hazard to wildlife and aquatic organisms.
- Monitoring studies are being required to allow a better assessment of
  the actual effects of carbofuran use on non-target organisms under
  field conditions. Primary emphasis will be on effects of use of
  carbofuran on bird populations.

Tolerance Assessment

- The previously established tolerances for residues of carbofuran
  and its cholinesterase-inhibiting metabolites are published in
  40 CFR 180.254, 21 CFR 193.43, and 21 CFR 561.67. A summary of
  these tolerances follows:

                                                   Maximum Residue
U.S. Tolerances                                      Limits (PPM)

  Crop                                      Carbamate            Total

Alfalfa forage                                5.0                10.0
Alfalfa hay                                  20.0                40.0
Bananas                                       --                  0.1
Barley, grain                                 0.1                 0.2
Barley, straw                                 1.0                 5.0
Cattle (fat, meat, and meat byproducts)       0.02                0.05
Coffee beans                                  --                  0.1
Corn, field and popcorn - grain               0.1                 0.2
Corn, fresh - kernels and cob (husk removed)  0.2                 1.0
Corn fodder and forage, field, pop, sweet     5.0                25.0
Cottonseed                                    0.2                 1.0
Cranberries                                   0.3                 0.5
Cucumbers                                     0.2                 0.4
Goats (fat, meat, and meat byproducts)        0.02                0.05
Grapes                                        0.2                 0.4
Grapes, dried pomace                          1.5                 2.0
Hogs (fat, meat, and meat byproducts)         0.02                0.05
Horses (fat, meat, and meat byproducts)       0.02                0.05
Melons                                        0.2                 0.4
Milk                                          0.02                0.1
Oats, grain                                   0.1                 0.2
Oats, straw                                   1.0                 5.0
Peanuts                                       1.5                 4.0
Peanut hulls                                  8.0                10.0
Peanut soapstock                              3.0                24.0
Peppers                                       0.2                 1.0
Potatoes                                      1.0                 2.0
Pumpkins                                      0.6                 0.8
Raisins                                       1.0                 2.0
Raisin waste                                  3.0                 6.0
Rice, grain                                   --                  0.2
Rice, straw                                   0.2                 1.0
Sheep (fat, meat, and meat byproducts)        0.02                0.05
Sorghum (grain)                               --                  0.1
Sorghum (grain), forage and fodder            0.5                 3.0
Soybeans                                      0.2                 1.0
Soybeans, forage and hay                     20.0                35.0
Soybeans, soapstock                           1.0                 6.0
Squash                                        0.6                 0.8
Strawberries                                  0.2                 0.5
Sugar beets                                   --                  0.1
Sugar beet tops                               1.0                 2.0
Sugarcane                                     --                  0.1
Sunflower                                     0.4                 0.8
Sunflower seed hulls and meal                 0.5                 1.0
Sweet potato                                  0.6*                2.0*
Tobacco                                       N/A                 N/A
Wheat, grain                                  0.1                 0.2
Wheat, straw                                  1.0                 5.0

NOTES:  *Proposed.
        N/A = not applicable - nonfood use.

- The data for carbofuran residues in or on the following agricultural
  commodities are adequate to fill the residue data requirements: sugar
  beet tops, soybean, soybean soapstock, soybean forage and hay,
  cucumber, melons, pumpkins, squash, cranberries, raisins,
  strawberries, barley grain, oat grain, wheat grain, barley straw, oat
  straw, wheat straw, cottonseed, peanuts, the fat, meat, and meat
  byproducts of cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep, milk, poultry,
  and eggs. However, although additional data are not required to
  support the tolerances for milk, peanuts, peanut hulls, and fatty
  acids of peanut soapstock, the tolerances for these agricultural
  commodities must be changed as follows:

Commodity             Present Tolerance            Change Tolerance To

                   Carbamate        Total        Carbamate      Total

Milk                0.02 ppm        0.1 ppm       0.05 ppm     0.2 ppm
Peanuts             1.5 ppm         5.0 ppm       0.2 ppm      0.6 ppm
Peanut hulls        8.0 ppm        10.0 ppm       0.3 ppm      1.5 ppm
Peanut soapstone    3.0 ppm        24.0 ppm       1.0 ppm      6.0 ppm

- Additional residue data are required for the following commodities
  (and their processed products, if applicable): potato, sugar beets,
  peppers. grapes (including dried pomace and raisin waste), corn
  (grain, forage, and fodder), rice (grain and straw), sorghum (grain,
  forage, and fodder), alfalfa forage and hay, bananas, coffee,
  sugarcane, and tobacco. No crop groupings can be established at this
  time because of residue chemistry data gaps. Compatibility between
  Codex MRL's and U.S. tolerances will be assessed when data have been
  submitted and evaluated.
- The previously established Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for
  carbofuran is 0.005 mg/kg/day, and the Theoretical Maximum Residue
  Concentration (TMRC), based on the established tolerances for residues
  of carbofuran as cited under 40 CFR 180.254, is 0.3415 mg/day for a
  1.5 kg food diet for a 60 kg person. The TMRC is 113.84% of the ADI.
  Actual concentrations of carbofuran are likely to be substantially
  lower than the ADI, since the 113% calculation assumes 100% of all
  crops on the label were treated.


- Use classification: Restricted (This and other label revisions to
  appear on all products released for shipment after September 1,
  1985, and on all products in channels of trade after September 1,

- Use restrictions: Do not use on Long Island, New York.

- Unique warning statement required on labels: Labels for all
  manufacturing use products (MP's) containing carbofuran must bear
  statements reflecting the hazards to man 2nd the environment (40 CFR
  162.10). Carbofuran is in Toxicity Category I on the basis of acute
  toxic effects. 
  - Based on the data reviewed by the Agency, the environmental hazards
    statement below is required to appear on all MP's containing
    carbofuran: This pesticide is toxic to fish, birds, and other
    wildlife. Do not discharge into lakes, streams, ponds, estuaries,
    oceans, or public water unless this product is specifically
    identified and addressed in an NPDES permit. Do not discharge
    effluent containing this product to sewer systems without previously
    notifying the sewage treatment plant authority. For guidance,
    contact your State Water Board or Regional Office of the
    Environmental Protection Agency.

- Labels for all end-use products (EP's) containing carbofuran must bear
  a statement reflecting the hazard to man and the environment (40 CFR
  162.10): Restricted Use Pesticides - For retail sale to and use only
  by certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision and
  only for those uses covered by the certified applicator's

- The Directions for Use section of the label must include the following
  - Geographical Use Restrictions: Do not use this product on Long
    Island, NY.
  - Rotational Crops: Do not plant any crop other than those with
    registered carbofuran uses in carbofuran-treated soil sooner than 
    18 months after last application.
  - Reentry:  If prolonged intimate contact with corn and/or sorghum
    foliage will result, do not re-enter treated fields within 14 days
    of application without wearing proper protective clothing. For all
    other situations, do not re-enter fields less than 24 hours
    following application.

- Based on data reviewed by the Agency, the following human and
  environmental hazards statements are required to appear on the EP

- The following precautions must be included in the Hazards to Humans
  and Domestic Animals section of the product label:

  - Poisonous if swallowed. May be fatal or harmful as a result of skin
    or eye contact or by breathing dust. Causes cholinesterase
    inhibition. Warning symptoms of poisoning include weakness,
    headache, sweating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tightness in chest,
    blurred vision, pinpoint eye pupils, abnormal flow of saliva,
    abdominal cramps, and unconsciousness. Atropine sulfate is

  - In case of skin contact, wash skin immediately with soap and water.
    Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. In case of
    swallowing, drink 1 or 2 glasses of water and induce vomiting by
    touching back of throat with finger. Do not induce vomiting or give
    anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

  - Wear long-sleeved clothing and protective gloves when handling. Wash
    hands and face before eating or smoking. Bathe at the end of the
    work day. Change clothing daily and wash before reuse.

- The following statements must appear under the heading Environmental 

- Carbofuran is known to leach through soil, and has been found in
  groundwater as a result of agricultural use. Users are advised not to
  apply in areas where soils are permeable, i.e., well-drained, and
  which overlie shallow aquifers, particularly those currently being
  used for drinking water. Consult with the pesticide state lead agency
  for information regarding soil permeability and aquifer locations.

- Granular products except for use on rice:  This product is toxic to
  fish, birds, and other wildlife. Birds feeding on treated areas may be
  killed. Cover or incorporate granules in spill areas. Runoff from
  treated areas may be hazardous to fish in neighboring areas. Do not
  apply directly to water or wetlands. Do not contaminate wells,
  wetlands, or any body of water by cleaning of equipment or disposal of

- Granular products used on rice:  Same as for the granular products,
  except delete Do not apply directly to water and substitute Fish may
  be killed at recommended rates.

- Non-granular products:  This product is toxic to fish, birds, and
  other wildlife. Birds feeding on treated areas may be killed. Drift
  and runoff from treated areas may be hazardous to fish in neighboring
  areas. Do not apply directly to water. This pesticide is highly toxic
  to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on crops. Do not apply
  this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees
  are visiting the treatment area.

- Non-granular products used on potatoes and/or alfalfa:  For waterfowl
  protection, do not apply immediately before or during irrigation, or
  on fields in proximity of waterfowl nesting areas, or on fields where
  waterfowl are known to repeatedly feed.

                    5. SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS

- Product Chemistry:  Data on product formation of ingredients,
  preliminary analysis, and certification of limits are the major
  product chemistry gaps.

- Residue Chemistry:  Additional data are required to support the
  tolerances for a variety of crops. Residue chemistry data requirements
  are outlined in detail in the tolerance assessment in Section 3 of
  this Fact Sheet.

- Wildlife and Aquatic Organisms:  The primary concern is monitoring
  bird populations following commercial application to determine extent
  of adverse effects, particularly on songbirds and raptors.

- Environmental Fate:  In addition to regular environmental chemistry
  requirements, monitoring studies are needed to find the extent and
  level of groundwater contamination and the conditions under which
  groundwater contamination occurs.

- All data must be submitted no later than June, 1987. Interim reports
  on groundwater and avian monitoring must be submitted at the end of
  each session.

                       6. CONTACT PERSON AT EPA

Jay Ellenberger
Product Manager (12)
Insecticide/Rodenticide Branch
Registration Division (TS-767)
Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, DC 20460
Phone (703) 557-3286