crotoxyphos (Ciodrin, Ciovap) Chemical Profile 4/85
CHEMICAL NAME: Dimethyl phosphate of alpha-methylbenzyl 3-hydroxy-
DEC INGRED. CODE:
TRADE NAME(S): Ciodrin, Cypona E.C., Duo-Kill (56)
FORMULATION(S): Emulsifiable concentrates, dilute oil solutions, and
TYPE: Organophosphate insecticide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Shell International Chemical Co., Ltd.
London SE1 7PG U.K.
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: A contact and stomach poison; controls flies, lice,
and ticks on lactating dairy and beef cattle; may also be used on
swine, goats, horses, and sheep (56).
Important Pests Controlled: Flies, lice, ticks and mites (8a).
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C14 H19 O6 P (62)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 324.3 (62)
PHYSICAL STATE: Light straw-colored liquid (technical grade, 80%
BOILING POINT: 135 C/0.03 mmHg (technical grade) (62)
VAPOR PRESSURE: 1.9 mPa at 20 C (technical grade) (62)
SOLUBILITY: 1 g/l water at room temp. (technical grade) (62)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: None established
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 = 384 mg/kg (rabbit) (62)
ORAL: LD50 = 52.8 mg/kg (rat); 90 mg/kg (mouse) (62).
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
In 90-day feeding trials no effect on growth nor histopathological
change was observed: for male rats receiving 900 mg/kg diet; for females
300 mg/kg diet (62).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Only slight hazard to birds, fish and beneficial insects. Not
rated by USDA against honey bees. Biological magnification unknown
The LC50 (48 h) for sheepshead minnow is >1 mg/l (62).
Approximate Residual Period: 1-3 days on animals; in water subject to
relatively quick breakdown (1).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES
Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
hours (usually within four hours) of contact. HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
WEAKNESS, INCOORDINATION, MUSCLE TWITCHING, TREMOR, NAUSEA, ABDOMINAL
CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms. Blurred or
dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur. Incontinence, unconsciousness
and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning. SLOW HEARTBEAT,
salivation, and tearing are common. TOXIC PSYCHOSIS, with manic or
bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism. Slowing
of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal. Continuing daily absorption of
organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).
SKIN CONTACT: Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).
INGESTION: If victim is alert and respiration is not depressed,
give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to induce
vomiting. Adults (12 years and over): 30 ml; children: 25 ml (25).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
injection is not possible.
In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning: Adult dosage: 0.4-2.0 mg repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved: tachycardia (pulse
of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils. Maintain
atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
severity of poisoning.
Dosage for children under 12 years: 0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved. Maintain
atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
twitchings are severe.
Adult dosage: 1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
Child's dose (under 12 years): 20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
intervals if needed. In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
To be developed.
Compatible with most other insecticides (1). It is incompatible
with most mineral carriers, except synthetic silicas such as 'Hisil
233' and 'Colloidal Silica K 320' (62).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Keep cool but avoid freezing E.C (56).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
1. Harding, W.C. 1979. Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
and miticides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
8a. Thomson, W. T. 1976. Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides. Revised ed. Thomson
Publ., Indianapolis, IN. 232 pp.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.