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crotoxyphos (Ciodrin, Ciovap) Chemical Profile 4/85

                                  crotoxyphos

      CHEMICAL NAME:      Dimethyl phosphate of alpha-methylbenzyl 3-hydroxy-
                          cis-crotonate (56)

      DEC INGRED. CODE:

      TRADE NAME(S):      Ciodrin, Cypona E.C., Duo-Kill (56)

      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrates, dilute oil solutions, and
                          dusts (56).

      TYPE:               Organophosphate insecticide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Shell International Chemical Co., Ltd.
                          Shell Centre
                          London SE1 7PG U.K.

      STATUS:             General use

      PRINCIPAL USES:  A contact and stomach poison; controls flies, lice,
      and ticks on lactating dairy and beef cattle; may also be used on
      swine, goats, horses, and sheep (56).


                                I.  EFFICACY

      Important Pests Controlled:  Flies, lice, ticks and mites (8a).


                          II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:   C14 H19 O6 P (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:    324.3 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:      Light straw-colored liquid (technical grade, 80%
                           pure) (62)

      BOILING POINT:       135 C/0.03 mmHg (technical grade) (62)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:      1.9 mPa at 20 C (technical grade) (62)

      SOLUBILITY:          1 g/l water at room temp. (technical grade) (62)


                        III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  None established

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      TOXICOLOGY

           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 = 384 mg/kg (rabbit) (62)

               ORAL:    LD50 = 52.8 mg/kg (rat); 90 mg/kg (mouse) (62).

           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:

           In 90-day feeding trials no effect on growth nor histopathological
      change was observed: for male rats receiving 900 mg/kg diet; for females
      300 mg/kg diet (62).


                    IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

           Only slight hazard to birds, fish and beneficial insects.  Not
      rated by USDA against honey bees.  Biological magnification unknown
      (1).

           The LC50 (48 h) for sheepshead minnow is >1 mg/l (62).

      Approximate Residual Period:  1-3 days on animals; in water subject to
      relatively quick breakdown (1).


                    V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES

           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.

      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

           Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
      hours (usually within four hours) of contact.  HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
      WEAKNESS, INCOORDINATION, MUSCLE TWITCHING, TREMOR, NAUSEA, ABDOMINAL
      CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms.  Blurred or
      dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
      cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur.  Incontinence, unconsciousness
      and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning.  SLOW HEARTBEAT,
      salivation, and tearing are common.  TOXIC PSYCHOSIS, with manic or
      bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism.  Slowing
      of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
      RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal.  Continuing daily absorption of
      organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
      ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
      there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).

           INGESTION:  If victim is alert and respiration is not depressed,
      give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to induce
      vomiting.  Adults (12 years and over): 30 ml; children: 25 ml (25).

      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:

      Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
      injection is not possible.
      In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning:  Adult dosage:  0.4-2.0 mg repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved:  tachycardia (pulse
      of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils.  Maintain
      atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
      severity of poisoning.
      Dosage for children under 12 years:  0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved.  Maintain
      atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
      SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
      atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
      Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
      poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
      twitchings are severe.
      Adult dosage:  1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
      Child's dose (under 12 years):  20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
      poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
      per minute.
      Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
      intervals if needed.  In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
      doubled (25).


                      VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           To be developed.


                              VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Compatible with most other insecticides (1).  It is incompatible
      with most mineral carriers, except synthetic silicas such as 'Hisil
      233' and 'Colloidal Silica K 320' (62).


                          VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Keep cool but avoid freezing E.C (56).


                    IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                   IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                (800) 424-9300
                    PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC


                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.

      4/24/85