dieldrin (Dieldrite) Chemical Profile 4/85
CHEMICAL NAME: 1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexachloro-6,7-Epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,
DEC INGRED. CODE:
TRADE NAME(S): Dieldrite, Dieldrex, Octalox, Panoram D-31 (56)
FORMULATION(S): Wettable powders, emulsifiable concentrates, dusts,
granules, seed dressings, solutions. Manufacture discontinued in the
TYPE: Organochlorine insecticide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Shell International Chemical Co., Ltd.
London SE1 7PG U.K.
STATUS: Restricted use - dieldrin may be distributed, sold, purchased,
possessed or used only upon issuance of a commercial permit, purchase
permit, or certification for application below the surface of the ground
or within structures to control termites.
PRINCIPAL USES: A contact and stomach poison. It is used for control
of soil insects, public health insects, termites, and many other pests
(these uses have been cancelled in the U.S.) (56).
Important Pests Controlled: Ants, cutworms, armyworms, loopers, chiggers,
chinch bugs, flea hoppers, crickets, Diabrotica, Drosophila, earwigs,
wire worms, grasshoppers, flies, Japanese beetles, leaf miners, lygus,
mosquitoes, wasps, roaches, slugs, snails, sowbugs, webworms,
spittlebugs, termites, thrips, ticks and many others (8a).
Long residual effectiveness (8a).
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C12 H8 Cl6 O (62)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 380.9 (62)
PHYSICAL STATE: Buff to light tan flakes (technical product) (62)
ODOR: Mild odor (technical product) (62)
MELTING POINT: 175-176 C; setting point >95 C (technical product)
VAPOR PRESSURE: 400 uPa at 20 C (technical product) (62)
SOLUBILITY: 0.186 mg/l water at 20 C (technical product) (62)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: None established
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: TWA (Time Weighted Average): 0.25 mg/m3;
STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit): 0.75 mg/m3
(deleted); skin notation (15c).
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 = 50-120 mg/kg (rat) (62)
ORAL: LD50 = 46 mg/kg (rat) (62)
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
In long-term exposure NEL for rats and dogs is 0.1 mg/kg diet
(0.005 mg/kg daily). The data available indicate that dieldrin and
aldrin do not produce malignant tumors in rats, dogs, monkeys at all
tolerated dose levels in long-term feeding studies. The significance
of the marginal increase in incidence of hepatic tumors in mice,
following lifetime exposure to dieldrin, is doubtful (62).
Treon and Cleveland (1955) found that 25 ppm of dieldrin in the
diet of rats for 2 years did not shorten their lives.
Ball and Kay (1954) found that 50 ppm of dieldrin fed to rats in
their diet for 57 weeks caused significant repression of estrus cycle
and increase of nonspecific serum esterase activity.
The lowest dietary level found to produce minimal histological
change in the liver of rats is 2.5 ppm (equivalent to about 9
mg/man/day). Higher levels for 16 weeks have been shown to have the
Treon and Cleveland (1955) found that 2.5 ppm produced an increase
in liver size in rats of both sexes. The same dietary level reduced
the number of pregnancies, had no influence on the number of young per
litter, but slightly reduced survival of the litters (15b).
Aldrin/dieldrin were last reviewed at the FAO/WHO JMPR 1977 when
0-0.0001 mg/kg was confirmed as the estimate of the ADI for man (62).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Hazardous to birds, fish, beneficial insects and honey bees.
Biological magnification likely. Generally nonphytotoxic (1).
LC50 (24-hr) for fish 0.018-0.089 mg/kg (62).
Approximate Residual Period: 2 weeks on exposed plant surfaces;
months to years in soil (1).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES
APPREHENSION, EXCITABILITY, DIZZINESS, HEADACHE, DISORIENTATION,
WEAKNESS, PARESTHESIAE, muscle twitching, tremor, tonic and clonic
CONVULSIONS (often epileptiform), and unconsciousness are the major
manifestations. Soon after ingestion, nausea and vomiting commonly
occur. When chemicals are absorbed dermally, apprehension, twitching,
tremors, confusion, and convulsions may be the first symptoms.
Respiratory depression is caused by the pesticide and by the petroleum
solvents in which these pesticides are usually dissolved. Pallor
occurs in moderate to severe poisoning. Cyanosis may result as
convulsive activity interferes with respiration (25).
SKIN CONTACT: Bathe and shampoo the victim vigorously with soap
and water if skin and hair have been contaminated (25).
INGESTION: If victim is alert and gag reflex is not depressed,
give Syrup of Ipecac to induce vomiting (adults and children 12 years
and older: 30 ml; children under 12: 15 ml), followed by 1-2 glasses
of water (25).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
CONTROL CONVULSIONS. DIAZEPAM (VALIUM (TM)) is a valuable
Adult dosage: 5-10 mg (1-2 ml) slowly, intravenously (no faster than
one ml per minute) or give total dose intramuscularly (deep). Repeat
in 2-4 hours if needed.
Dosage for children under 6 years or 23 kg in weight: 0.1 mg/kg (0.02
ml/kg) intravenously, no faster than half the total dose per minute, or
give total dose intramuscularly (deep). Repeat in 2-4 hours if needed.
Persons suffering SEVERE PROTRACTED CONVULSIONS may require additional
anticonvulsant medication. Agents that have been used successfully in
the past are pentobarbital (Numbutal (TM)), phenytoin (Dilantin (TM)),
thiopental (Pentothal (TM)), and succinylcholine (Anectine (TM)).
If the victim is NOT FULLY ALERT, empty the stomach immediately by
INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE, using isotonic saline or 5% sodium
bicarbonate. Because many pesticides are dissolved in petroleum
distillates, emesis and intubation of the stomach involve a serious risk
that solvent will be aspirated, leading to chemical pneumonitis.
DO NOT give epinephrine or other adrenergic amines, because of the
enhanced myocardial irritability induced by chlorinated hydrocarbons
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
Nonflammable (technical dieldrin) (73).
Compatible with most materials but usually applied separately (1).
No corrosive action at room temperature. Stable in presence of ordinary
organic bases, inorganic bases, and alkaline oxidizing agents. Stable
with dilute acids but reacts with concentrated mineral acids, acid
catalysts, acid oxidizing agents, phenols, and active metal (73).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: When opening containers, mixing or applying the
product, wear protective rubber or PVC gloves, rubber boots, and clean
overalls. Wear dust mask when handling dust concentrates (56).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
1. Harding, W.C. 1979. Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
and miticides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
8a. Thomson, W. T. 1976. Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides. Revised ed. Thomson
Publ., Indianapolis, IN. 232 pp.
15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1971.
Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977). Cincinnati,
OH. 484 pp.
15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1984.
TLVs: threshold limit values for chemical substances and
physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
indices with intended changes for 1984-85. Cincinnati, OH.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.
73. Shell Chemical Corporation, Agricultural Chemicals Division. 1954.
Summary of basic data for technical dieldrin. Denver, CO.