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dieldrin (Dieldrite) Chemical Profile 4/85


      CHEMICAL NAME:      1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexachloro-6,7-Epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,
                          octahydro-1,4,5,8-Dimethanonaphthalene (15b).


      TRADE NAME(S):      Dieldrite, Dieldrex, Octalox, Panoram D-31 (56)

      FORMULATION(S):  Wettable powders, emulsifiable concentrates, dusts,
      granules, seed dressings, solutions.  Manufacture discontinued in the
      U.S. (56).

      TYPE:               Organochlorine insecticide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Shell International Chemical Co., Ltd.
                          Shell Centre
                          London SE1 7PG U.K.

      STATUS:  Restricted use - dieldrin may be distributed, sold, purchased,
      possessed or used only upon issuance of a commercial permit, purchase
      permit, or certification for application below the surface of the ground
      or within structures to control termites.

      PRINCIPAL USES:  A contact and stomach poison.  It is used for control
      of soil insects, public health insects, termites, and many other pests
      (these uses have been cancelled in the U.S.) (56).

                                I.  EFFICACY

      Important Pests Controlled: Ants, cutworms, armyworms, loopers, chiggers,
      chinch bugs, flea hoppers, crickets, Diabrotica, Drosophila, earwigs,
      wire worms, grasshoppers, flies, Japanese beetles, leaf miners, lygus,
      mosquitoes, wasps, roaches, slugs, snails, sowbugs, webworms,
      spittlebugs, termites, thrips, ticks and many others (8a).
           Long residual effectiveness (8a).

                            II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:   C12 H8 Cl6 O (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:    380.9 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:      Buff to light tan flakes (technical product) (62)

      ODOR:                Mild odor (technical product) (62)

      MELTING POINT:       175-176 C; setting point >95 C (technical product)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:      400 uPa at 20 C (technical product) (62)

      SOLUBILITY:          0.186 mg/l water at 20 C (technical product) (62)

                           III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  None established

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average):  0.25 mg/m3;
                                STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit):  0.75 mg/m3
                                (deleted); skin notation (15c).


           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 = 50-120 mg/kg (rat) (62)

               ORAL:    LD50 = 46 mg/kg (rat) (62)


           In long-term exposure NEL for rats and dogs is 0.1 mg/kg diet
      (0.005 mg/kg daily).  The data available indicate that dieldrin and
      aldrin do not produce malignant tumors in rats, dogs, monkeys at all
      tolerated dose levels in long-term feeding studies.  The significance
      of the marginal increase in incidence of hepatic tumors in mice,
      following lifetime exposure to dieldrin, is doubtful (62).

           Treon and Cleveland (1955) found that 25 ppm of dieldrin in the
      diet of rats for 2 years did not shorten their lives.
           Ball and Kay (1954) found that 50 ppm of dieldrin fed to rats in
      their diet for 57 weeks caused significant repression of estrus cycle
      and increase of nonspecific serum esterase activity.
           The lowest dietary level found to produce minimal histological
      change in the liver of rats is 2.5 ppm (equivalent to about 9
      mg/man/day).  Higher levels for 16 weeks have been shown to have the
      same effect.
           Treon and Cleveland (1955) found that 2.5 ppm produced an increase
      in liver size in rats of both sexes.  The same dietary level reduced
      the number of pregnancies, had no influence on the number of young per
      litter, but slightly reduced survival of the litters (15b).
           Aldrin/dieldrin were last reviewed at the FAO/WHO JMPR 1977 when
      0-0.0001 mg/kg was confirmed as the estimate of the ADI for man (62).

                          IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

           Hazardous to birds, fish, beneficial insects and honey bees.
      Biological magnification likely.  Generally nonphytotoxic (1).

           LC50 (24-hr) for fish 0.018-0.089 mg/kg (62).

      Approximate Residual Period:  2 weeks on exposed plant surfaces;
      months to years in soil (1).


           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.


      WEAKNESS, PARESTHESIAE, muscle twitching, tremor, tonic and clonic
      CONVULSIONS (often epileptiform), and unconsciousness are the major
      manifestations.  Soon after ingestion, nausea and vomiting commonly
      occur.  When chemicals are absorbed dermally, apprehension, twitching,
      tremors, confusion, and convulsions may be the first symptoms.
      Respiratory depression is caused by the pesticide and by the petroleum
      solvents in which these pesticides are usually dissolved.  Pallor
      occurs in moderate to severe poisoning.  Cyanosis may result as
      convulsive activity interferes with respiration (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Bathe and shampoo the victim vigorously with soap
      and water if skin and hair have been contaminated (25).

           INGESTION:  If victim is alert and gag reflex is not depressed,
      give Syrup of Ipecac to induce vomiting (adults and children 12 years
      and older:  30 ml; children under 12:  15 ml), followed by 1-2 glasses
      of water (25).


      Adult dosage:  5-10 mg (1-2 ml) slowly, intravenously (no faster than
      one ml per minute) or give total dose intramuscularly (deep).  Repeat
      in 2-4 hours if needed.
      Dosage for children under 6 years or 23 kg in weight:  0.1 mg/kg (0.02
      ml/kg) intravenously, no faster than half the total dose per minute, or
      give total dose intramuscularly (deep).  Repeat in 2-4 hours if needed.
      Persons suffering SEVERE PROTRACTED CONVULSIONS may require additional
      anticonvulsant medication.  Agents that have been used successfully in
      the past are pentobarbital (Numbutal (TM)), phenytoin (Dilantin (TM)),
      thiopental (Pentothal (TM)), and succinylcholine (Anectine (TM)).
      If the victim is NOT FULLY ALERT, empty the stomach immediately by
      INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, and LAVAGE, using isotonic saline or 5% sodium
      bicarbonate.  Because many pesticides are dissolved in petroleum
      distillates, emesis and intubation of the stomach involve a serious risk
      that solvent will be aspirated, leading to chemical pneumonitis.
      DO NOT give epinephrine or other adrenergic amines, because of the
      enhanced myocardial irritability induced by chlorinated hydrocarbons

                       VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           Nonflammable (technical dieldrin) (73).

                             VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Compatible with most materials but usually applied separately (1).
      No corrosive action at room temperature. Stable in presence of ordinary
      organic bases, inorganic bases, and alkaline oxidizing agents.  Stable
      with dilute acids but reacts with concentrated mineral acids, acid
      catalysts, acid oxidizing agents, phenols, and active metal (73).

                         VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  When opening containers, mixing or applying the
      product, wear protective rubber or PVC gloves, rubber boots, and clean
      overalls.  Wear dust mask when handling dust concentrates (56).

                      IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                                  (800) 424-9300

                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1971.
               Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
               workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
               changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977).  Cincinnati,
               OH.  484 pp.

      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.

      73.  Shell Chemical Corporation, Agricultural Chemicals Division.  1954.
               Summary of basic data for technical dieldrin.  Denver, CO.