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dioxathion (Delnav) Chemical Profile 4/85

                                     dioxathion

      CHEMICAL NAME:      2,3-p-Dioxanedithiol S,S-bis-(O,O-diethyl-
                          phosphorodithioate) (56)

      DEC INGRED. CODE:

      TRADE NAME(S):      Delnav, Deltic (56)

      FORMULATION(S):     Delnav is available as 47% and 81% emulsifiable
                          concentrates (plant application), and as 15% and
                          30% emulsifiable livestock formulations.  Deltic
                          is sold as a 30% EC only (56).

      TYPE:               Organophosphate insecticide-miticide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  BFC Chemicals, Inc.
                          4311 Lancaster Pike
                          P.O. Box 2867
                          Wilmington, DE 19805

      STATUS:             Restricted use

      PRINCIPAL USES:  Delnav for control of insects and mites on grapes,
      walnuts, ornamentals, apples, pears, and quince.  For the control of
      ticks, lice, horn fly, and sheep ked on cattle, goats, sheep, and hogs
      as a spray or dip.
           Deltic is a restricted use pesticide for exterior control of fleas,
      ticks, and clover mites in lawns, yards, industrial sites, recreational
      areas, dog runs, dog houses, and kennels (56).


                                   I.  EFFICACY

      Important Pests Controlled:  Mites, thrips, apple maggot, codling moths,
      grape leafhoppers, ticks, flies, lice, and many others (8a).
           Some ovicidal activity has been shown.  Residual lasts several weeks
      to several months, but has not shown direct systemic activity.  Slow
      acting, since it takes three to seven days for complete control (8a).


                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C12 H26 O6 P2 S4 (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   456.5 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Brown liquid (technical product, 68-75% pure, 24%
                          cis-, 48% trans-isomers, c.30% related compounds)
                          (62).

      SOLUBILITY:         Insoluble in water (technical product) (62)


                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  None established

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 0.2 mg/m3; skin
                                notation (15c).

      TOXICOLOGY

           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 (rat) = 235 mg/kg (male); 63 mg/kg (female) (62).

               ORAL:    LD50 (rat) = 43 mg/kg (male); 23 mg/kg (female) (62).

               EYES:    Dioxathion produces mild transient conjunctivitis but
                        no transient or permanent corneal damage when 0.1 ml is
                        instilled into the eyes of rabbits (15b).

           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:

           Cholinesterase inhibition was observed in female rats receiving 10
      mg/kg diet (62).
           Subacute oral toxicity studies, using inhibition of brain,
      erythrocytes or plasma cholinesterase as the primary indicator of an
      effect, indicated a no effect level in rats of 3 ppm (approx. 0.22
      mg/kg/day).  Subacute oral toxicity studies in dogs produced less
      clear-cut data but indicated a no effect level between 0.075 and 0.25
      mg/kg/day.  Subacute administration to human volunteers of 0.075
      mg/kg/day produced no effect on either plasma or erythrocyte
      cholinesterase.  However, volunteers receiving 0.150 mg/kg/day showed a
      possibly significant slight depression of plasma cholinesterase
      activity, but no erythrocyte activity.  Dioxathion does not produce
      myelin degeneration in chickens (15b).
           Multigeneration reproductive effects studies in rats indicated a
      no effect level in rats of 10 ppm, when litter size, pup survival,
      weanling body weights, growth, mortality, clinical parameters, organ
      weights and reproductive capacity were used as parameters.  The
      estimate for acceptable daily intake for man set by the World Health
      Organization is 0.0015 mg/kg/day (15b).


                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

           Some hazard to birds, fish and beneficial insects.  Relatively
      nonhazardous to honey bees.  Biological magnification unlikely.
      Nonphytotoxic (1).
           Toxic to fish and wildlife (8a).

      Approximate Residual Period:  2 weeks on plant surfaces; up to 6 months
      on unexposed surfaces (1).


                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES

           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.

      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

           Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
      hours (usually within four hours) of contact.  HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
      WEAKNESS, INCOORDINATION, MUSCLE TWITCHING, TREMOR, NAUSEA, ABDOMINAL
      CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms.  Blurred or
      dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
      cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur.  Incontinence, unconsciousness
      and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning.  SLOW HEARTBEAT,
      salivation, and tearing are common.  TOXIC PHYCHOSIS, with manic or
      bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism.  Slowing
      of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
      RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal.  Continuing daily absorption of
      organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
      ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
      there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).

           INGESTION:  If victim is alert and respiration is not
      depressed, give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to
      induce vomiting; adults (including children over 12), 30 ml; children
      (under 12 years), 15 ml (25).

      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:

      Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
      injection is not possible.
      In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning:  Adult dosage:  0.4-2.0 mg repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved:  tachycardia (pulse
      of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils.  Maintain
      atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
      severity of poisoning.
      Dosage for children under 12 years:  0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved.  Maintain
      atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
      SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
      atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
      Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
      poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
      twitchings are severe.
      Adult dosage:  1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
      Child's dose (under 12 years):  20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
      poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
      per minute.
      Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
      intervals if needed.  In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
      doubled (25).


                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           To be developed.


                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Compatible with insecticides and fungicides except alkaline
      materials (8a).


                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Not for use or storage in or around the home
      environment.  Do not contaminate water, food or feed by storage or
      disposal (56).

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Wear clean, protective clothing, heavy rubber
      gloves, and goggles.  Remove contaminated clothing and wash skin
      thoroughly with soap and water.  Do not eat or smoke during exposure.
      Wash hands and face before eating or smoking.  After use, bathe
      thoroughly and change to clean clothing.  Wash all contaminated clothing
      with soap and hot water before reuse.  During application keep
      unprotected persons away from areas being treated or where there may be
      drift (56).


                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC


                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1971.
               Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
               workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
               changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977).  Cincinnati,
               OH.  484 pp.

      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.

      4/17/85