dioxathion (Delnav) Chemical Profile 4/85
CHEMICAL NAME: 2,3-p-Dioxanedithiol S,S-bis-(O,O-diethyl-
DEC INGRED. CODE:
TRADE NAME(S): Delnav, Deltic (56)
FORMULATION(S): Delnav is available as 47% and 81% emulsifiable
concentrates (plant application), and as 15% and
30% emulsifiable livestock formulations. Deltic
is sold as a 30% EC only (56).
TYPE: Organophosphate insecticide-miticide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): BFC Chemicals, Inc.
4311 Lancaster Pike
P.O. Box 2867
Wilmington, DE 19805
STATUS: Restricted use
PRINCIPAL USES: Delnav for control of insects and mites on grapes,
walnuts, ornamentals, apples, pears, and quince. For the control of
ticks, lice, horn fly, and sheep ked on cattle, goats, sheep, and hogs
as a spray or dip.
Deltic is a restricted use pesticide for exterior control of fleas,
ticks, and clover mites in lawns, yards, industrial sites, recreational
areas, dog runs, dog houses, and kennels (56).
Important Pests Controlled: Mites, thrips, apple maggot, codling moths,
grape leafhoppers, ticks, flies, lice, and many others (8a).
Some ovicidal activity has been shown. Residual lasts several weeks
to several months, but has not shown direct systemic activity. Slow
acting, since it takes three to seven days for complete control (8a).
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C12 H26 O6 P2 S4 (62)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 456.5 (62)
PHYSICAL STATE: Brown liquid (technical product, 68-75% pure, 24%
cis-, 48% trans-isomers, c.30% related compounds)
SOLUBILITY: Insoluble in water (technical product) (62)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: None established
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 0.2 mg/m3; skin
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 (rat) = 235 mg/kg (male); 63 mg/kg (female) (62).
ORAL: LD50 (rat) = 43 mg/kg (male); 23 mg/kg (female) (62).
EYES: Dioxathion produces mild transient conjunctivitis but
no transient or permanent corneal damage when 0.1 ml is
instilled into the eyes of rabbits (15b).
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
Cholinesterase inhibition was observed in female rats receiving 10
mg/kg diet (62).
Subacute oral toxicity studies, using inhibition of brain,
erythrocytes or plasma cholinesterase as the primary indicator of an
effect, indicated a no effect level in rats of 3 ppm (approx. 0.22
mg/kg/day). Subacute oral toxicity studies in dogs produced less
clear-cut data but indicated a no effect level between 0.075 and 0.25
mg/kg/day. Subacute administration to human volunteers of 0.075
mg/kg/day produced no effect on either plasma or erythrocyte
cholinesterase. However, volunteers receiving 0.150 mg/kg/day showed a
possibly significant slight depression of plasma cholinesterase
activity, but no erythrocyte activity. Dioxathion does not produce
myelin degeneration in chickens (15b).
Multigeneration reproductive effects studies in rats indicated a
no effect level in rats of 10 ppm, when litter size, pup survival,
weanling body weights, growth, mortality, clinical parameters, organ
weights and reproductive capacity were used as parameters. The
estimate for acceptable daily intake for man set by the World Health
Organization is 0.0015 mg/kg/day (15b).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Some hazard to birds, fish and beneficial insects. Relatively
nonhazardous to honey bees. Biological magnification unlikely.
Toxic to fish and wildlife (8a).
Approximate Residual Period: 2 weeks on plant surfaces; up to 6 months
on unexposed surfaces (1).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES
Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
hours (usually within four hours) of contact. HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
WEAKNESS, INCOORDINATION, MUSCLE TWITCHING, TREMOR, NAUSEA, ABDOMINAL
CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms. Blurred or
dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur. Incontinence, unconsciousness
and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning. SLOW HEARTBEAT,
salivation, and tearing are common. TOXIC PHYCHOSIS, with manic or
bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism. Slowing
of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal. Continuing daily absorption of
organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).
SKIN CONTACT: Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).
INGESTION: If victim is alert and respiration is not
depressed, give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to
induce vomiting; adults (including children over 12), 30 ml; children
(under 12 years), 15 ml (25).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
injection is not possible.
In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning: Adult dosage: 0.4-2.0 mg repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved: tachycardia (pulse
of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils. Maintain
atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
severity of poisoning.
Dosage for children under 12 years: 0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved. Maintain
atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
twitchings are severe.
Adult dosage: 1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
Child's dose (under 12 years): 20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
intervals if needed. In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
To be developed.
Compatible with insecticides and fungicides except alkaline
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Not for use or storage in or around the home
environment. Do not contaminate water, food or feed by storage or
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Wear clean, protective clothing, heavy rubber
gloves, and goggles. Remove contaminated clothing and wash skin
thoroughly with soap and water. Do not eat or smoke during exposure.
Wash hands and face before eating or smoking. After use, bathe
thoroughly and change to clean clothing. Wash all contaminated clothing
with soap and hot water before reuse. During application keep
unprotected persons away from areas being treated or where there may be
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
1. Harding, W.C. 1979. Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
and miticides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
8a. Thomson, W. T. 1976. Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides. Revised ed. Thomson
Publ., Indianapolis, IN. 232 pp.
15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1971.
Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977). Cincinnati,
OH. 484 pp.
15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1984.
TLVs: threshold limit values for chemical substances and
physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
indices with intended changes for 1984-85. Cincinnati, OH.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.